Unit 2 Target 2: Cell Organelles Quiz

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Unit 2 Target 2: Cell Organelles Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An organelle found in a liver cell would best be identified as a lysosome if its primary function was which of the following?

    • A.

      Processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export

    • B.

      Harvesting of light energy to produce carbohydrates

    • C.

      Detoxification of poisonous molecules within the cell

    • D.

      Digestion of macromolecules and old organelles

    Correct Answer
    D. Digestion of macromolecules and old organelles
    Explanation
    A lysosome is an organelle that contains enzymes responsible for breaking down macromolecules and old organelles through a process called digestion. This process helps to recycle cellular waste and maintain cellular homeostasis. Therefore, if the primary function of an organelle found in a liver cell is the digestion of macromolecules and old organelles, it would be best identified as a lysosome.

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  • 2. 

    Naomi adds cyclohexamide to cells grown in a test tube. Within minutes, she identifies short incomplete segments of proteins in the cells. On which organelle does cyclohexamide act?

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribosome
    Explanation
    Cyclohexamide is an antibiotic that specifically inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It works by binding to the ribosome, the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. By binding to the ribosome, cyclohexamide prevents the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids, leading to the production of short and incomplete protein segments. Therefore, the correct answer is Ribosome.

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  • 3. 

    After Tyler adds a chemical to normally functioning cells, proteins begin to accumulate in the cells’ endoplasmic reticula. This chemical most likely prevents movement of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to which organelle

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    A. Golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for processing, sorting, and packaging proteins that are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. If proteins start to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum after the addition of a chemical, it suggests that this chemical is preventing the movement of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.

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  • 4. 

    The plasma/cell membrane

    • A.

      Encloses the contents of a cell.

    • B.

      Allows material to enter and leave the cell.

    • C.

      Is selectively permeable.

    • D.

      All of the answers are correct.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the answers are correct.
    Explanation
    The plasma/cell membrane is a selectively permeable barrier that encloses the contents of a cell. It allows certain materials to enter and leave the cell while preventing the passage of others. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct as they accurately describe the functions and characteristics of the plasma/cell membrane.

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  • 5. 

    A particularly active cell might contain large numbers of   

    • A.

      Chromosomes.

    • B.

      Vacuoles.

    • C.

      Mitochondria.

    • D.

      Walls.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria.
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell because they are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. They are particularly active in cells that have high energy demands, such as muscle cells. Therefore, a particularly active cell is likely to contain large numbers of mitochondria to meet its energy needs.

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  • 6. 

    One important organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other is the    

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum.

    • B.

      Mitochondrion.

    • C.

      Nucleus.

    • D.

      Cytoplasm.

    Correct Answer
    A. Endoplasmic reticulum.
    Explanation
    The endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other. It is a network of membranes that extends throughout the cytoplasm and is involved in protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and detoxification. The endoplasmic reticulum plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of substances within the cell and ensuring that necessary molecules are transported to where they are needed. It also helps in the proper folding and modification of proteins before they are transported to their final destinations.

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  • 7. 

    The packaging and distribution center of the cell is the

    • A.

      Nucleus.

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus.

    • C.

      Central vacuole.

    • D.

      Nuclear envelope.

    Correct Answer
    B. Golgi apparatus.
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for packaging and distributing molecules within the cell. It receives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum, modifies them, and then packages them into vesicles for transport to their final destinations. The Golgi apparatus plays a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis and ensuring that molecules are delivered to the correct locations within the cell. In contrast, the nucleus is responsible for storing and protecting the cell's genetic material, the central vacuole is involved in storage and maintaining turgor pressure in plant cells, and the nuclear envelope is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.

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  • 8. 

    The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the 

    • A.

      Nucleolus.

    • B.

      Nuclear wall.

    • C.

      Nucleoplasm.

    • D.

      Nuclear envelope.

    Correct Answer
    D. Nuclear envelope.
    Explanation
    The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope. This structure separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell and acts as a barrier, regulating the movement of molecules in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear envelope is made up of two lipid bilayers, an inner and an outer membrane, with a space in between known as the perinuclear space. It also contains nuclear pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules such as RNA and proteins. The nucleolus, on the other hand, is a distinct structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome assembly occur.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following structures is found in the cytoplasm?   

    • A.

      Nucleolus

    • B.

      Ribosome

    • C.

      Chromatin

    • D.

      Cell wall

    Correct Answer
    B. Ribosome
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are the structures found in the cytoplasm. They are responsible for protein synthesis in the cell. Ribosomes can be found either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. They play a crucial role in translating the genetic information from mRNA into proteins. The nucleolus is found within the nucleus and is involved in the production of ribosomes. Chromatin refers to the condensed form of DNA found within the nucleus. The cell wall is a rigid structure found in plant cells, not in the cytoplasm.

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  • 10. 

    Which structure makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus?    

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribosome
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are the structures that make proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus. They are responsible for protein synthesis in cells. The nucleus contains the genetic material, DNA, which contains the instructions for building proteins. These instructions are transcribed into RNA molecules, which are then transported out of the nucleus to the ribosomes. Ribosomes read the RNA molecules and use the information to assemble amino acids into proteins. Therefore, ribosomes play a crucial role in protein synthesis within the cell.

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  • 11. 

    The function of the centriole is to 

    • A.

      Make proteins.

    • B.

      Separate chromosomes during cell division.

    • C.

      Make lipids.

    • D.

      Separate DNA during DNA replication.

    Correct Answer
    B. Separate chromosomes during cell division.
    Explanation
    The centriole is a small organelle found in animal cells that plays a crucial role in cell division. During cell division, the centrioles duplicate and move to opposite ends of the cell. They then organize the formation of spindle fibers, which help separate the chromosomes and ensure that each new cell receives the correct number of chromosomes. Therefore, the correct answer is that the function of the centriole is to separate chromosomes during cell division.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is a function of the nucleus?a.    stores DNA    b.    controls most of the cell’s processes    c.    contains the information needed to make proteins    d.    all of the above

    • A.

      Stores DNA

    • B.

      Controls most of the cell's processess

    • C.

      Contains the information needed to make proteins

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because the nucleus performs multiple functions within the cell. It stores DNA, which contains the genetic information of the organism. It controls most of the cell's processes by regulating gene expression and directing cellular activities. Additionally, the nucleus contains the information needed to make proteins through the transcription and translation processes. Therefore, all of these statements accurately describe the functions of the nucleus.

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  • 13. 

    Plant cells have a large membrane-bound space in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. This place is known as a 

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Central vacuole

    Correct Answer
    D. Central vacuole
    Explanation
    The correct answer is central vacuole. Plant cells have a large membrane-bound space called the central vacuole, which stores water, waste products, and nutrients. The central vacuole helps maintain turgor pressure, which gives the plant cell its rigidity. It also plays a role in regulating the concentration of ions and molecules within the cell. Additionally, the central vacuole can serve as a storage site for pigments, toxins, and other substances.

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  • 14. 

    The organelles associated with photosynthesis are the 

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Chloroplasts

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are the organelles associated with photosynthesis. They are found in plant cells and some algae cells. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a pigment that captures light energy and converts it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. This energy is then used to produce glucose, which is the main source of energy for the plant. The other options mentioned, such as mitochondria, golgi apparatus, and vacuoles, are not directly involved in photosynthesis.

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  • 15. 

    Which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell?a.    ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell    b.    ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell    c.    smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell    d.    mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane, released from the cell

    • A.

      Ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell

    • B.

      Ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell

    • C.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell

    • D.

      Mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane, released from the cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell." This sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and proteins are initially synthesized on ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum then modifies and packages the proteins into vesicles, which are transported to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus further modifies and packages the proteins before they are released from the cell.

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  • 16. 

    The main function of the cell wall is to 

    • A.

      Support and protect the cell

    • B.

      Direct the activities of the cell

    • C.

      Store DNA

    • D.

      Help the cell move

    Correct Answer
    A. Support and protect the cell
    Explanation
    The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. Its main function is to provide support and protection to the cell, as it helps maintain the cell's shape and prevents it from bursting under pressure. The cell wall also acts as a barrier against external threats such as pathogens and physical damage. Therefore, the correct answer is support and protect the cell.

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  • 17. 

    Which organelles help provide cells with energy?a.    mitochondria and chloroplasts    c.    smooth endoplasmic reticulum    b.    rough endoplasmic reticulum    d.    Golgi apparatus and ribosomes

    • A.

      Mitochondria and chloroplasts

    • B.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus and ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles that help provide cells with energy. Mitochondria are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, where they convert sunlight into energy-rich molecules like glucose. Therefore, mitochondria and chloroplasts play crucial roles in energy production within cells.

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  • 18. 

    Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use? 

    • A.

      Chloroplast

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Mitochondrion

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The mitochondrion is the correct answer because it is the organelle responsible for converting the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. This process, known as cellular respiration, occurs in the mitochondria's inner membrane and produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the cell's main source of energy. The other organelles listed, such as the chloroplast, golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum, have different functions and do not play a role in energy conversion.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 04, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Jdowdyrobinson
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