Behavioral Therapy Test 3

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| By Rprie
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Behavioral Therapy Test 3 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    When the behaviour occurs, the aversive stimulus is no longer removed. This is a definition of extinction of:

    Explanation
    Extinction refers to the process in which a behavior that has been previously reinforced is no longer reinforced, resulting in a decrease or cessation of that behavior. In the given answer, the behavior being discussed is negatively reinforced, which means that it is strengthened or maintained by the removal or avoidance of an aversive stimulus. However, when extinction occurs, the aversive stimulus is no longer removed or avoided, leading to a decrease in the negatively reinforced behavior.

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  • 2. 

    Robert dances in the end zone whenever he scores a touchdown, because the fans give him a standing ovation for doing so. When the fans no longer give him standing ovation for his dancing, Robert stop dancing in the end zone. This is an example of:

    Explanation
    This scenario represents the extinction of a positively reinforced behavior. Robert's dancing in the end zone is the behavior that is being reinforced by the fans' standing ovation. However, when the fans no longer give him a standing ovation for his dancing, the reinforcement is removed. As a result, the behavior of dancing in the end zone diminishes and eventually stops altogether. This is an example of extinction, where the behavior decreases and ceases to occur due to the lack of reinforcement.

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  • 3. 

    Timmy takes out the garbage and his mother praises him when he does it. When his mother stops paraising him, Timmy stops taking out the garbage. Timmy's behaviour of taking out the garbage has been:

    Explanation
    Timmy's behavior of taking out the garbage has been extinguished. This means that the behavior has stopped occurring because the positive reinforcement (his mother's praise) has been removed. In other words, Timmy's motivation to take out the garbage was dependent on his mother's praise, and when that praise stopped, he no longer felt motivated to continue the behavior.

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  • 4. 

    During an extinction burst, the unreinforced behaviour can increase in:

    • A.

      May reoccur temporarily

    • B.

      Intensification

    • C.

      Brief duration

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    During an extinction burst, the unreinforced behavior can increase in all of these ways. "May reoccur temporarily" refers to the behavior resurfacing after it has been extinguished. "Intensification" means that the behavior becomes more intense or extreme during the extinction burst. "Brief duration" indicates that the burst of increased behavior is short-lived. Therefore, all of these options accurately describe the possible outcomes during an extinction burst.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following factors does NOT influence the extinction process?

    • A.

      All behaviours are maintained by reinforcement

    • B.

      When the reinforcers maintaining a behavior are no longer administered the person stops performing the behavior

    • C.

      The frequency of the behavior

    • D.

      The reinforcer that is maintaining the deceleration target behaviour must be identified

    Correct Answer
    C. The frequency of the behavior
    Explanation
    The frequency of the behavior is not a factor that influences the extinction process. Extinction refers to the process of reducing or eliminating a behavior by withholding the reinforcement that previously maintained it. It is not dependent on the frequency of the behavior itself, but rather on the removal of the reinforcer that was reinforcing the behavior.

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  • 6. 

    A common misconception people have about extinction, is that it:

    • A.

      Decreases behaviors slowly over extended periods

    • B.

      Means ignoring the behavior

    • C.

      Target behaviors can reoccur temporarily

    • D.

      Is generally combined with other therapies

    Correct Answer
    B. Means ignoring the behavior
    Explanation
    The correct answer means ignoring the behavior. Extinction refers to the process of eliminating a behavior by removing the reinforcement that previously maintained it. In this context, it does not involve decreasing behaviors slowly over extended periods, the reoccurrence of target behaviors temporarily, or being combined with other therapies. Instead, extinction involves deliberately ignoring the behavior, withholding any form of reinforcement, which eventually leads to the behavior diminishing or ceasing altogether.

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  • 7. 

    Individual differences in the effectiveness of punishment refers to the fact that:

    • A.

      All clients need time out

    • B.

      Types of punishers include response cost are not individualised

    • C.

      All clients are told of the punishers

    • D.

      Punishers vary from person to person

    Correct Answer
    D. Punishers vary from person to person
    Explanation
    Individual differences in the effectiveness of punishment refers to the idea that different individuals respond differently to different types of punishment. What may be a strong deterrent for one person may not have the same effect on another. This suggests that the effectiveness of punishment is not universal and can vary from person to person. Therefore, it is important to consider individual differences when implementing punishment strategies.

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  • 8. 

    Punishment can be defined by whether the consequences appears unfavorable or unpleasant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that punishment can only be defined based on whether the consequences are unfavorable or unpleasant. However, this is an incomplete and inaccurate definition of punishment. Punishment is a disciplinary action imposed as a result of wrongdoing, with the intention of discouraging future misconduct. It is not solely determined by the unpleasantness of the consequences, but also by the intention behind the action and the principles of justice and fairness. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 9. 

    The principles of reinforcement and punishment are alike in that:

    • A.

      Decelerate target behaviours

    • B.

      Use a number of strategies including differential reinforcement, punishment, aversion therapy

    • C.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    C. A and B
    Explanation
    The principles of reinforcement and punishment are alike in that they both aim to decelerate target behaviors. Both strategies can be used to modify behavior and involve various techniques such as differential reinforcement, punishment, and aversion therapy. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 10. 

    A conditioned punisher is established by

    • A.

      Pairing a neutral stimulus with a punisher

    • B.

      Using negative punishers with a positive stimulus

    • C.

      Using positive punishers with a negative stimulus

    Correct Answer
    A. Pairing a neutral stimulus with a punisher
    Explanation
    A conditioned punisher is established by pairing a neutral stimulus with a punisher. This means that a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented alongside a punisher, such as an aversive or unpleasant event. Through this pairing, the neutral stimulus becomes associated with the punisher and acquires the ability to function as a punisher itself. This process is known as classical conditioning, where the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned punisher that can elicit a response similar to the punisher without its presence.

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  • 11. 

    The difference between positive and negative punishment is whether the consequence of the behavior involves the                                or                            of a stimulus.

    Correct Answer
    delivery, removal
    Explanation
    Positive punishment involves the delivery of a stimulus as a consequence of a behavior, which decreases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. Negative punishment, on the other hand, involves the removal of a stimulus as a consequence of a behavior, also leading to a decrease in the likelihood of that behavior being repeated. In this case, the correct answer is "delivery, removal" because it accurately describes the difference between positive and negative punishment based on whether a stimulus is presented or taken away.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following factors influences the effectiveness of punishment?

    • A.

      The punisher should occur immediately after the target behavior is performed

    • B.

      The punisher should be administered every time the target behavior occurs

    • C.

      The client should be aware of the contingency between the target behavior and the punisher

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All of these factors influence the effectiveness of punishment. The punisher should occur immediately after the target behavior is performed to establish a clear connection between the behavior and the consequence. The punisher should be administered every time the target behavior occurs to ensure consistency and discourage the behavior. Additionally, the client should be aware of the contingency between the target behavior and the punisher to understand the consequences of their actions. Considering all these factors together increases the likelihood of punishment being effective in modifying behavior.

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  • 13. 

    Punishment is a process that decreases or weakens a behavior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Punishment is a process that involves the application of negative consequences or removal of positive stimuli in order to decrease or weaken a behavior. It is used to discourage certain behaviors by associating them with unpleasant outcomes, thus reducing the likelihood of their occurrence in the future. Therefore, the statement that punishment decreases or weakens a behavior is true.

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  • 14. 

    Nicole is caught lying to her parents and loses her driving privileges. As a result, Nicole no longer lies to her parents. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Negative punishment

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Positive punishment

    • D.

      Negative reinforcer

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative reinforcement
    Explanation
    This scenario demonstrates negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is when a behavior is strengthened by the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. In this case, Nicole's loss of driving privileges serves as an unpleasant consequence for lying to her parents. As a result, she no longer lies to her parents in order to avoid the negative consequence of losing her driving privileges. The removal of the unpleasant stimulus (losing driving privileges) reinforces the behavior of not lying.

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  • 15. 

    A behavior is less likely to occur in the presence of the S-delta.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When a behavior is less likely to occur in the presence of the S-delta, it means that the behavior is suppressed or inhibited when the S-delta is present. The S-delta is a stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement or punishment, and it serves to discriminate between situations where the behavior will not be reinforced or punished. Therefore, when the S-delta is present, the behavior is less likely to occur because it has been associated with non-reinforcement or non-punishment in the past.

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  • 16. 

    ............................................ is the process in which the behavior is reinforced in the presence of the SD and not reinforced in the presence of the S-delta.

    Correct Answer
    Stimulus discrimination training
    Explanation
    Stimulus discrimination training is the process in which the behavior is reinforced in the presence of the SD (discriminative stimulus) and not reinforced in the presence of the S-delta (stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement). This training helps individuals learn to respond differently to different stimuli, reinforcing specific behaviors only in the presence of certain cues while ignoring or inhibiting those behaviors in the presence of other cues.

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  • 17. 

    Stimulus discrimination training can occur as a result of:

    • A.

      Association with the unavailability of reinforcement

    • B.

      Discriminative stimulus

    • C.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    C. All of these
    Explanation
    Stimulus discrimination training can occur as a result of association with the unavailability of reinforcement and discriminative stimulus. This means that when a certain stimulus is consistently associated with the absence of reinforcement, an organism learns to discriminate between that stimulus and other similar stimuli. Additionally, discriminative stimulus refers to a stimulus that signals the availability of reinforcement, and through discrimination training, an organism learns to respond differently to different stimuli based on their association with reinforcement. Therefore, all of these factors can contribute to stimulus discrimination training.

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  • 18. 

    Stimulus control is developed by stimulus discrimination training.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Stimulus control refers to the process of a behavior being influenced by the presence or absence of specific stimuli. Stimulus discrimination training is a technique used to teach an individual to respond to certain stimuli while not responding to others. By consistently reinforcing the desired response only in the presence of specific stimuli, stimulus discrimination training helps to establish stimulus control. Therefore, it can be inferred that stimulus control is indeed developed by stimulus discrimination training, making the answer true.

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  • 19. 

    Bill drives faster than the speed limit only when his friends are in the car with him because they tell him he is cool. Bill's behavior of driving over the speed limit only when his friends are with him is said to be under                control.

    • A.

      Stimulus

    • B.

      Reinforcement

    • C.

      Positve peer

    • D.

      Conditioning

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulus
    Explanation
    Bill's behavior of driving over the speed limit only when his friends are with him is said to be under stimulus control. This means that his friends' presence acts as a stimulus that influences his behavior of driving faster. The presence of his friends serves as a cue or trigger for him to engage in this behavior.

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  • 20. 

    ................................ occurs when a behavior occurs int he presence of stimuli that are similar to the SD

    Correct Answer
    generalisation
    Explanation
    Generalization occurs when a behavior that has been learned in the presence of a specific stimulus (SD) also occurs in the presence of similar stimuli. This means that the individual is able to transfer the learned behavior to similar situations or stimuli, showing a generalization of their response. For example, if a child learns to call their pet dog "doggy", they may also generalize this label to other dogs they encounter. Generalization is an important aspect of learning as it allows individuals to apply their knowledge and skills to a wider range of situations.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 14, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 03, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Rprie
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