Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 1 (Spring 2014)

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Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 1 (Spring 2014) - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If a pea plant were homozygous recessive for height, how would its alleles be represented?

    • A.

      Tt

    • B.

      TT

    • C.

      Tt

    • D.

      TT

    Correct Answer
    C. Tt
    Explanation
    If a pea plant is homozygous recessive for height, it means that both of its alleles for height are recessive. In this case, the alleles would be represented as "tt". The lowercase "t" indicates the recessive allele for height.

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  • 2. 

    When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, the organism is called

    • A.

      Purebred

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous
    Explanation
    When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, the organism is called heterozygous. Heterozygous means that the organism carries two different versions of a gene, one from each parent. This is in contrast to purebred, which refers to an organism that carries two identical alleles, and dominant and recessive, which describe the relationship between different alleles in determining a trait.

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  • 3. 

    Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's

    • A.

      Recessive traits.

    • B.

      Dominant alleles.

    • C.

      Genotype.

    • D.

      Phenotype.

    Correct Answer
    D. Phenotype.
    Explanation
    Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's phenotype. Phenotype refers to the observable physical characteristics of an individual, which are determined by a combination of genetic factors (genotype) and environmental influences. Hair color and eye color are traits that can be easily observed and are influenced by the interaction of multiple genes. Therefore, they are considered examples of an individual's phenotype.

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  • 4. 

    Mendel's second law of genetics, the law of independent assortment, is one explanation of the

    • A.

      Random fertilization of gametes.

    • B.

      Genetic variation within species.

    • C.

      Greater strength of dominant alleles.

    • D.

      Final stages of gametogenesis.

    Correct Answer
    B. Genetic variation within species.
    Explanation
    Mendel's second law of genetics, the law of independent assortment, states that during gamete formation, the segregation of one pair of alleles is independent of the segregation of another pair. This means that different traits are inherited independently from each other. This process leads to the creation of new combinations of alleles in offspring, resulting in genetic variation within a species.

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  • 5. 

    Any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome are known as ___.

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Genes

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      Recessive traits

    Correct Answer
    A. Alleles
    Explanation
    Alleles are alternative forms of a gene that occur at a specific place on a chromosome. They are responsible for the variations in traits that individuals can have. Each individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent. These alleles can be dominant or recessive, and they determine the expression of specific traits in an individual. Therefore, alleles are the correct answer because they represent the different variations of a gene that can exist at a specific location on a chromosome.

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  • 6. 

    A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait is called a ___.

    • A.

      Pedigree

    • B.

      Punnett square

    • C.

      Genetic linkage

    • D.

      DNA sequence

    Correct Answer
    A. Pedigree
    Explanation
    A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait is called a pedigree. Pedigrees are commonly used in genetics to analyze the inheritance patterns of traits and to determine if they are caused by genetic factors. By studying pedigrees, scientists can better understand how traits are passed down from one generation to the next and can make predictions about the likelihood of individuals inheriting certain traits.

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  • 7. 

    ___ studied traits of pea plants and discovered the two fundamental laws of genetics.

    • A.

      Mendel

    • B.

      Watson and Crick

    • C.

      Mack

    • D.

      Einstein

    Correct Answer
    A. Mendel
    Explanation
    Mendel is the correct answer because he is known for his work on pea plants and is considered the father of modern genetics. Through his experiments, Mendel discovered the two fundamental laws of genetics - the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. His findings laid the foundation for our understanding of inheritance and formed the basis of modern genetics.

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  • 8. 

    ___ is a pattern of inheritance in which the gene for a trait is located on the X-chromosome, thereby creating disorders that are much more common in males than females.

    • A.

      Incomplete dominance

    • B.

      Co-dominance

    • C.

      Multiple allele

    • D.

      Sex-linked

    Correct Answer
    D. Sex-linked
    Explanation
    Sex-linked inheritance refers to the pattern of inheritance where the gene for a trait is located on the X-chromosome. This means that the trait is more commonly observed in males because they have only one X-chromosome, while females have two X-chromosomes. If a male inherits a recessive allele for a sex-linked disorder, he will express the disorder because he does not have another X-chromosome to mask the effects of the recessive allele. In contrast, females need to inherit two copies of the recessive allele to express the disorder. Therefore, sex-linked disorders are much more common in males than females.

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  • 9. 

    In humans, a ___ cell has ___ chromosomes.

    • A.

      Haploid ... 46

    • B.

      Haploid ... 23

    • C.

      Diploid ... 50

    • D.

      Diploid ... 23

    Correct Answer
    B. Haploid ... 23
    Explanation
    In humans, a haploid cell has 23 chromosomes. Haploid cells are cells that contain half the number of chromosomes compared to diploid cells. In humans, diploid cells have 46 chromosomes, while haploid cells have 23 chromosomes. This is because during sexual reproduction, haploid cells, such as sperm and egg cells, combine to form a diploid cell with the full complement of 46 chromosomes.

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  • 10. 

    A form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells and produces gametes is known as ___.

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Meiosis

    • C.

      Cellular regeneration

    • D.

      Binary fission

    Correct Answer
    B. Meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a form of nuclear division that occurs in diploid cells and results in the production of haploid cells, specifically gametes. During meiosis, the chromosomes in the diploid cell are replicated and then divided twice, resulting in four haploid cells. This process is essential for sexual reproduction as it ensures that the offspring receive the correct number of chromosomes from each parent. Mitosis, on the other hand, is a form of nuclear division that results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells. Cellular regeneration refers to the process of replacing damaged or lost cells, and binary fission is a form of reproduction in prokaryotic cells.

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  • 11. 

    A cell that has two copies of each chromosome is said to be ___.

    • A.

      Diploid

    • B.

      Haploid

    • C.

      Triploid

    • D.

      A gamete

    Correct Answer
    A. Diploid
    Explanation
    A cell that has two copies of each chromosome is said to be diploid. This means that the cell contains a complete set of chromosomes, with one copy inherited from each parent. In contrast, a haploid cell only has one copy of each chromosome, while a triploid cell has three copies. A gamete refers to a specialized haploid cell involved in sexual reproduction.

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  • 12. 

    A female gamete ___.

    • A.

      Is produced in the testes.

    • B.

      Is called an ovum or an egg cell.

    • C.

      Is called a spermatocyte.

    • D.

      Is called a polar body.

    Correct Answer
    B. Is called an ovum or an egg cell.
    Explanation
    The female gamete, also known as an ovum or an egg cell, is produced in the ovaries, not the testes. The testes produce male gametes called spermatocytes. A polar body is a small non-functional cell produced during oogenesis.

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  • 13. 

    Each set of three nucleotides on mRNA coding for an amino acid is referred to as a(n) ___.

    • A.

      Codon

    • B.

      Anticodon

    • C.

      Ribosome

    • D.

      Base pair

    Correct Answer
    A. Codon
    Explanation
    A set of three nucleotides on mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid is called a codon. Codons are the basic units of the genetic code and determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid or a stop signal. The correct answer is codon.

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  • 14. 

    Messenger RNA is formed in the process of ___.

    • A.

      Transcription

    • B.

      Translation

    • C.

      Replication

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Transcription
    Explanation
    Messenger RNA is formed in the process of transcription. Transcription is the process in which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA molecule. This RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where it is used as a template for protein synthesis during translation. Replication is the process of copying DNA, mutation refers to changes in the DNA sequence, and translation is the process of protein synthesis using mRNA.

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  • 15. 

    The process by which a DNA molecule is copied is ___.

    • A.

      Transcription

    • B.

      Translation

    • C.

      Replication

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    C. Replication
    Explanation
    The correct answer is replication. Replication is the process in which a DNA molecule is copied to produce an identical copy. During replication, the two strands of the DNA molecule separate, and each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in two identical DNA molecules, each containing one original strand and one newly synthesized strand. Replication is a crucial step in cell division and ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic information.

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  • 16. 

    Watson and Crick, with the help of Rosalind Franklin, were the first to suggest that DNA is ___.

    • A.

      A short molecule

    • B.

      A protein molecule

    • C.

      The shape of a double helix

    • D.

      The genetic material

    Correct Answer
    C. The shape of a double helix
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick, along with the assistance of Rosalind Franklin, proposed that DNA has the shape of a double helix. This means that DNA is structured as two strands that twist around each other in a spiral staircase-like formation. This groundbreaking discovery revolutionized our understanding of genetics and laid the foundation for further research in molecular biology.

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  • 17. 

    Which DNA sequence produced an mRNA strand with the sequence AGUACA?

    • A.

      UCAUGU

    • B.

      TCATGT

    • C.

      GUACAG

    • D.

      CAGTAC

    Correct Answer
    B. TCATGT
    Explanation
    The mRNA sequence is the complementary sequence to the DNA sequence. In this case, the DNA sequence that would produce an mRNA strand with the sequence AGUACA is TCATGT.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a pair of complementary bases?

    • A.

      Cytosine and cytosine

    • B.

      Thymine and adenine

    • C.

      Adenine and guanine

    • D.

      Thymine and ctyosine

    Correct Answer
    B. Thymine and adenine
    Explanation
    Thymine and adenine are a pair of complementary bases because they form a base pair in DNA. In DNA, thymine always pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding, forming a stable base pair. This pairing is essential for the structure and function of DNA, as it allows for the accurate replication and transcription of genetic information.

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  • 19. 

    There are literally hundreds of thousands of different organic molecules. Which statement best explains how this is possible?

    • A.

      Elements can make an unlimited number of chemical bonds.

    • B.

      Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds.

    • C.

      Carbon can make twenty bonds to other carbon atoms.

    • D.

      Organic molecules are acidic.

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds.
    Explanation
    Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds. This allows carbon atoms to form stable covalent bonds with other carbon atoms and with other elements, creating a wide variety of organic molecules. Carbon's ability to form multiple bonds and create complex molecular structures is the basis for the vast diversity of organic compounds found in nature.

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  • 20. 

    Organic compounds always contain the element ____.

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Organium

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon
    Explanation
    Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon atoms. Carbon is the key element in organic chemistry as it has the ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms and a wide variety of other elements. This allows carbon to form the complex and diverse structures found in organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Therefore, the correct answer is carbon.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of RNA?

    • A.

      It contains uracil.

    • B.

      It contains thymine.

    • C.

      It is made of only one strand.

    • D.

      It transfers genes to the ribosome.

    Correct Answer
    B. It contains thymine.
    Explanation
    RNA contains uracil instead of thymine. Thymine is found in DNA, not RNA. RNA is a single-stranded molecule and it plays a crucial role in transferring genetic information from DNA to the ribosome for protein synthesis.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following describes DNA?

    • A.

      It contains uracil.

    • B.

      It contains the sugar ribose.

    • C.

      It controls the production of proteins.

    • D.

      It is made of amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    C. It controls the production of proteins.
    Explanation
    DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. It is composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine). DNA controls the production of proteins through the process of transcription and translation. Transcription involves the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA, while translation converts the mRNA into proteins. Therefore, the statement "It controls the production of proteins" accurately describes DNA.

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  • 23. 

    The functional group -NH2 is called the ____.

    • A.

      Amino group

    • B.

      Acid group

    • C.

      Hydroxide group

    • D.

      Fatty acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Amino group
    Explanation
    The functional group -NH2 is called the amino group. This group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. It is commonly found in organic compounds, especially in amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The amino group plays a crucial role in the formation of peptide bonds and the overall structure and function of proteins.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is a structural form of carbohydrate?

    • A.

      Cellulose

    • B.

      Starch

    • C.

      Enzyme

    • D.

      RNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellulose
    Explanation
    Cellulose is a structural form of carbohydrate because it is a complex polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together. It forms the main structural component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity and strength to plant cells. Starch, on the other hand, is a storage form of carbohydrate, enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, and RNA is a nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis. Therefore, cellulose is the correct answer as it specifically refers to a structural form of carbohydrate.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following monomers make up a lipid?

    • A.

      Glycerol and fatty acid

    • B.

      Glycerol and amino acids

    • C.

      Glycerol and nucleic acids

    • D.

      Thymine and guanine

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycerol and fatty acid
    Explanation
    Lipids are a diverse group of molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They are made up of two main components: glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol, while fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end. When glycerol combines with three fatty acids through dehydration synthesis, a triglyceride molecule is formed, which is a common type of lipid. Therefore, the correct answer is glycerol and fatty acid.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is NOT a nucleotide found in DNA?

    • A.

      Adenine

    • B.

      Cytosine

    • C.

      Uracil

    • D.

      Guanine

    Correct Answer
    C. Uracil
    Explanation
    Uracil is not a nucleotide found in DNA. It is a nitrogenous base that is only found in RNA. DNA contains the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Thymine pairs with adenine, while cytosine pairs with guanine in DNA. Uracil replaces thymine in RNA and pairs with adenine.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a polymer of nucleotides?

    • A.

      Nucleic Acid

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Lipid

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleic Acid
    Explanation
    Nucleic Acid is the correct answer because it is a polymer of nucleotides. Nucleic acids are macromolecules made up of repeating units called nucleotides, which consist of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides are linked together through phosphodiester bonds to form long chains, which are known as nucleic acids. DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids, and they play essential roles in storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is a polymer of amino acids?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Lipid

    • D.

      Nucleic Acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein
    Explanation
    Proteins are polymers of amino acids, as they are composed of long chains of amino acid monomers linked together by peptide bonds. These chains can fold and interact with each other to form complex three-dimensional structures, which determine their specific functions in the body. Carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids are not polymers of amino acids, but rather have different molecular structures and functions.

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  • 29. 

    What is the main function of the Krebs cycle?

    • A.

      Breaking down pyruvate molecules to form molecules of NADH and oxygen

    • B.

      Forming citric acid to make NADH, water, and carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Producing molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain

    • D.

      Bonding coenzyme A to pyruvate

    Correct Answer
    C. Producing molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain
    Explanation
    The main function of the Krebs cycle is to produce molecules that carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain. The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells. During the cycle, molecules such as NADH and FADH2 are produced, which carry high-energy electrons. These electrons are then transferred to the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP, the energy currency of the cell.

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  • 30. 

    Which phrase best describes the electron transport chain in photosynthesis?

    • A.

      A chain of photosynthetic proteins located in the stroma

    • B.

      A collection of enzymes used to make ADP

    • C.

      A series of proteins located in the thylakoid membrane

    • D.

      A group of enzymes that carries energy to the Calvin cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. A series of proteins located in the thylakoid membrane
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain in photosynthesis is a series of proteins located in the thylakoid membrane. This chain of proteins plays a crucial role in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it transfers electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I, creating a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This proton gradient is then used to generate ATP, which is essential for the synthesis of glucose in the Calvin cycle.

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  • 31. 

    The process by which plants use sunlight to make glucose is called ___.

    • A.

      Photosynthesis

    • B.

      Cellular respiration

    • C.

      The cell cycle

    • D.

      Mitosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the correct answer because it is the process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. It occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells and is essential for the plant's survival. During photosynthesis, plants capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce glucose, which is a source of energy for the plant. This process also releases oxygen into the atmosphere, making it crucial for maintaining the balance of gases in the environment.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following takes place in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Sugars are made.

    • B.

      Energy is captured.

    • C.

      Chlorophyll is pumped.

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide is formed.

    Correct Answer
    B. Energy is captured.
    Explanation
    In the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, energy is captured from sunlight. This energy is used to convert ADP and NADP+ into ATP and NADPH, which are energy-rich molecules that are essential for the next stage of photosynthesis. This process occurs in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts, where pigments like chlorophyll absorb light energy and transfer it to the electron transport chain. This chain then generates ATP through chemiosmosis, using the energy from the captured light. Therefore, "Energy is captured" is the correct answer as it accurately describes one of the key processes in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

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  • 33. 

    The main light-absorbing molecules found in plant leaves are called

    • A.

      Chloroplasts

    • B.

      Thylakoids

    • C.

      Chlorophyll

    • D.

      Grana

    Correct Answer
    C. Chlorophyll
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll is the correct answer because it is the main light-absorbing pigment found in plant leaves. It is responsible for capturing sunlight energy during photosynthesis and converting it into chemical energy. Chlorophyll molecules are located within the chloroplasts, which are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plants. Thylakoids are the membranous structures within the chloroplasts where chlorophyll molecules are embedded. Grana are stacks of thylakoids. Therefore, while chloroplasts, thylakoids, and grana are all related to the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll is specifically the light-absorbing molecule.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following statements best describes the process of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Plants use oxygen to make simple sugars.

    • B.

      Chlorophyll builds sugars in the thylakoid membrane.

    • C.

      Light breaks down water molecules and releases carbon dioxide.

    • D.

      Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and store chemical energy.

    Correct Answer
    D. Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and store chemical energy.
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are the organelles in plant cells that contain chlorophyll, the pigment responsible for absorbing sunlight. During photosynthesis, chloroplasts absorb sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in the form of glucose, which is a type of simple sugar. This process allows plants to store energy that can be used for growth and other metabolic activities. Therefore, the statement "Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and store chemical energy" best describes the process of photosynthesis.

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  • 35. 

    What is the term for the jelly-like substance that is contained inside the cell membrane?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Organelle

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    The jelly-like substance that is contained inside the cell membrane is called cytoplasm. It is a semi-fluid medium that fills the interior of the cell and surrounds the organelles. Cytoplasm plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including the movement of organelles, transportation of molecules, and support for cellular structures. It also contains various enzymes and nutrients necessary for cellular metabolism and growth.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of S phase?

    • A.

      Cell growth and normal function.

    • B.

      Cell growth and preparation for mitosis.

    • C.

      Nuclear membrane reforms.

    • D.

      DNA is replicated.

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA is replicated.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is DNA is replicated. During the S phase of the cell cycle, DNA replication takes place. This is a crucial step as it ensures that each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the genetic material. The other options mentioned, such as cell growth and normal function, cell growth and preparation for mitosis, and nuclear membrane reforms, are not specific to the S phase and can occur during other phases of the cell cycle as well.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of prophase?

    • A.

      Nuclear membrane breaks down.

    • B.

      Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.

    • C.

      Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell.

    • D.

      The cytoplasm splits.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear membrane breaks down.
    Explanation
    During prophase, the nuclear membrane breaks down, allowing the chromosomes to become visible and move freely within the cell. This breakdown is necessary for the subsequent stages of mitosis, as it allows the chromosomes to align in the middle of the cell and be separated during anaphase. The breakdown of the nuclear membrane is a characteristic specific to prophase and is essential for the proper progression of cell division.

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  • 38. 

    What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?

    • A.

      Convert solar energy to chemical energy

    • B.

      Communicate with other cells

    • C.

      Process and deliver proteins

    • D.

      Copy genetic material

    Correct Answer
    C. Process and deliver proteins
    Explanation
    The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and deliver proteins. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, modifies and sorts them, and then packages them into vesicles for transport to their final destination within the cell or for secretion outside the cell. This process involves adding carbohydrates and lipids to the proteins, which helps in their proper folding and stability. The Golgi apparatus plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's protein homeostasis and ensuring that proteins are correctly targeted and delivered to their intended locations.

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  • 39. 

    Unlike a eukaryoteic cell, a prokaryotic cell does not have...

    • A.

      DNA.

    • B.

      A nucleus.

    • C.

      Cytoplasm.

    • D.

      A cell membrane.

    Correct Answer
    B. A nucleus.
    Explanation
    A prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus. This is because prokaryotic cells are simpler and lack a membrane-bound nucleus. Instead, their DNA is located in the cytoplasm, which is the gel-like substance that fills the cell. Prokaryotes have a nucleoid region where the DNA is concentrated, but it is not enclosed within a membrane. In contrast, eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the DNA. The absence of a nucleus is one of the key characteristics that differentiate prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells.

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  • 40. 

    Which phrase best describes the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction?

    • A.

      Decreases the rate of reaction

    • B.

      Increases the temperature

    • C.

      Decreases the activation energy

    • D.

      Increases the volume of the reactants

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreases the activation energy
    Explanation
    A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. By decreasing the activation energy, a catalyst provides an alternative reaction pathway with a lower energy barrier, allowing more reactant molecules to overcome the barrier and participate in the reaction. This results in an increased rate of reaction without being consumed in the process. Therefore, the phrase "decreases the activation energy" best describes the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following organelles can be found on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Centrioles

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    Ribosomes can be found on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is because the endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for protein synthesis, and ribosomes are the cellular structures where proteins are synthesized. The endoplasmic reticulum provides a surface for ribosomes to attach and carry out protein synthesis. Therefore, ribosomes are the correct answer.

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  • 42. 

    Which organelle is the storehouse for most of a cell's genetic information?

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Centriole

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is the storehouse for most of a cell's genetic information. It contains the cell's DNA, which carries the instructions for the cell's functioning and development. The DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes, which are found within the nucleus. The nucleus also controls the cell's activities by regulating the expression of genes and directing the synthesis of proteins. Therefore, the nucleus is essential for the cell's genetic control and is responsible for storing and transmitting the genetic information to the next generation of cells.

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  • 43. 

    In the diagram to the right, what is structure B?

    • A.

      Folded inner membrane

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondrial matrix
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitochondrial matrix. In the diagram, structure B is labeled as the mitochondrial matrix. The mitochondrial matrix is the space enclosed by the inner membrane of the mitochondria. It contains enzymes that are involved in various metabolic reactions, including the citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation. The matrix also contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes, which are necessary for the synthesis of proteins within the mitochondria.

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  • 44. 

    In the diagram to the right, what is structure A?

    • A.

      Folded inner membrane

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Thylakoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Folded inner membrane
    Explanation
    The correct answer is folded inner membrane. In the diagram, structure A is shown as a folded membrane within a larger membrane structure. This is characteristic of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion, which is highly folded to increase its surface area and accommodate various enzymes and proteins involved in cellular respiration. The mitochondrial matrix refers to the central compartment within the inner membrane, stroma is found in chloroplasts, and thylakoid membrane is a part of the chloroplast where photosynthesis occurs.

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  • 45. 

    The part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down is called

    • A.

      Photosynthesis.

    • B.

      Aerobic respiration.

    • C.

      Electron transport.

    • D.

      Glycolysis.

    Correct Answer
    D. Glycolysis.
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the correct answer because it is the initial step in cellular respiration where glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and does not require oxygen. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy, while aerobic respiration and electron transport are subsequent steps in cellular respiration, occurring in the presence of oxygen.

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  • 46. 

    Where does glycolysis take place?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • C.

      Mitochondrial inner membrane

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. This is where glucose is converted into smaller molecules like pyruvate through a series of enzymatic reactions. The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled region of the cell outside the nucleus, where most cellular processes occur. Therefore, glycolysis occurring in the cytoplasm is the correct answer.

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  • 47. 

    ___ is known as the universal solvent.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Water
    Explanation
    Water is known as the universal solvent because it has the ability to dissolve a wide variety of substances. This is due to its unique molecular structure, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. These hydrogen bonds break apart the solute molecules and surround them, dispersing them evenly throughout the water. As a result, water can dissolve many different types of compounds, making it an excellent solvent for various chemical reactions and biological processes.

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  • 48. 

    In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring?

    • A.

      Phylum

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Genus

    • D.

      Order

    Correct Answer
    B. Species
    Explanation
    In the Linnaean system of classification, a species is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. This is because species is the most specific and fundamental category in the Linnaean hierarchy, representing a group of organisms that share common characteristics and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. The other options, such as phylum, genus, and order, are higher taxonomic ranks that encompass larger groups of organisms with broader characteristics and reproductive compatibility.

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  • 49. 

    Which kingdom is not included in domain Eukarya?

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Plantae

    • C.

      Protista

    • D.

      Animalia

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria is not included in domain Eukarya because it belongs to the domain Bacteria, which is a separate classification from Eukarya. Eukarya includes organisms that have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, while bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Therefore, bacteria are not part of the Eukarya domain.

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  • 50. 

    How many kingdoms are in the current tree of life?

    • A.

      Four

    • B.

      Five

    • C.

      Six

    • D.

      Eight

    Correct Answer
    C. Six
    Explanation
    The correct answer is six. This suggests that there are currently six kingdoms in the tree of life. The tree of life is a way to categorize and understand the diversity of life on Earth. It organizes organisms into different kingdoms based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships. The six kingdoms typically recognized in the tree of life are Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea, and Bacteria. Each kingdom represents a distinct group of organisms with shared characteristics and evolutionary history.

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