Anatomy And Physiology Test 1

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Anatomy And Physiology Test 1 - Quiz

Exam cover Chapters 1 - 4 


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    This is the study of the functions of body structures. 

    • A.

      Anatomy

    • B.

      Physiology

    • C.

      Dissection

    • D.

      Histology

    • E.

      Immunology

    Correct Answer
    B. Physiology
    Explanation
    Physiology is the study of the functions of body structures. It focuses on how organs and systems work together to maintain homeostasis and carry out various biological processes. This field of study explores the mechanisms behind bodily functions, such as digestion, respiration, circulation, and reproduction. Unlike anatomy, which focuses on the structure of body parts, physiology delves into the processes and mechanisms that enable these structures to function. Dissection, histology, and immunology are all related fields, but they do not specifically study the functions of body structures like physiology does.

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  • 2. 

    This is defined as a group of cells with similar structure and function. 

    • A.

      Tissue

    • B.

      Organ

    • C.

      Molecules

    • D.

      Compounds

    • E.

      Organisms

    Correct Answer
    A. Tissue
    Explanation
    Tissue is the correct answer because it refers to a group of cells that have similar structure and function. Tissues work together to perform specific functions within an organism. This is different from organs, which are made up of different types of tissues and perform more complex functions. Molecules and compounds are not related to the concept of a group of cells, and organisms refer to a complete living entity rather than a specific group of cells.

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  • 3. 

    Using your fingers to find your pulse on your wrist is an example of 

    • A.

      Auscultation

    • B.

      Palpation

    • C.

      Responsiveness

    • D.

      Gross Anatomy

    • E.

      Physiologist

    Correct Answer
    B. Palpation
    Explanation
    Using your fingers to find your pulse on your wrist is an example of palpation because palpation refers to the act of using touch or pressure to examine the body for signs of illness or abnormalities. In this case, by feeling the pulse in the wrist, one is using palpation to assess the heart rate and rhythm. Auscultation, on the other hand, involves listening to internal body sounds using a stethoscope, which is not applicable in this scenario. Responsiveness, gross anatomy, and physiologist are not relevant to the act of finding a pulse.

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  • 4. 

    Percussion techniques can be used to determine 

    • A.

      Fluid in the lungs

    • B.

      Heart Beats

    • C.

      Amplify sounds

    • D.

      Pulse Rate

    • E.

      Enlarged Organs

    Correct Answer
    A. Fluid in the lungs
    Explanation
    Percussion techniques involve tapping on the body to produce sounds and assess the underlying structures. By using percussion techniques, healthcare professionals can determine the presence of fluid in the lungs. The sound produced during percussion can vary depending on the presence or absence of fluid in the lungs, helping to diagnose conditions such as pneumonia, pleural effusion, or congestive heart failure.

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  • 5. 

    This is the sum of all cellular processes that occur in the body. 

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Catabolism

    • D.

      Auscultation

    • E.

      Palpation

    Correct Answer
    A. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the sum of all cellular processes that occur in the body. It includes both anabolism, which is the building up of molecules, and catabolism, which is the breaking down of molecules. Auscultation and palpation, on the other hand, are medical examination techniques and are not related to cellular processes. Therefore, the correct answer is metabolism.

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  • 6. 

    The systems that provide homeostatis are: 

    • A.

      Cardiovascular and Integumentary

    • B.

      Nervous system and Endocrine

    • C.

      Cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    • D.

      Respiratory and muscular systems

    • E.

      Urinary and integumentary system

    Correct Answer
    B. Nervous system and Endocrine
    Explanation
    The nervous system and endocrine system are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the body. The nervous system regulates and coordinates bodily functions through electrical impulses, while the endocrine system secretes hormones that regulate various processes. Together, they work to control body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and other vital functions to keep the body in balance. The cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, urinary, and integumentary systems also play important roles in maintaining homeostasis, but the nervous system and endocrine system are specifically mentioned in the question as the correct answer.

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  • 7. 

    In which cavity are the lungs located? 

    • A.

      Pericardial cavity

    • B.

      Cranial cavity

    • C.

      Vertebral Cavity

    • D.

      Abdominal cavity

    • E.

      Pleural cavity

    Correct Answer
    E. Pleural cavity
    Explanation
    The lungs are located in the pleural cavity. The pleural cavity is a space between the visceral and parietal pleura, which are two layers of serous membrane that surround the lungs. This cavity contains a small amount of fluid that helps to reduce friction during breathing and allows the lungs to expand and contract easily.

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  • 8. 

    In which cavity is the stomach located?

    • A.

      Vertebral cavity

    • B.

      Cranial cavity

    • C.

      Abdominal cavity

    • D.

      Pericardial cavity

    • E.

      Pleural cavity

    Correct Answer
    C. Abdominal cavity
    Explanation
    The stomach is located in the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is the space located below the diaphragm and above the pelvic cavity. It houses several organs including the stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys. The stomach is positioned in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, between the esophagus and the small intestine. It is responsible for the digestion and breakdown of food.

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  • 9. 

    In which cavity is the brain located? 

    • A.

      Cranial cavity

    • B.

      Vertebral cavity

    • C.

      Abdominal cavity

    • D.

      Pericardial cavity

    • E.

      Pleural cavity

    Correct Answer
    A. Cranial cavity
    Explanation
    The brain is located in the cranial cavity. The cranial cavity is a hollow space within the skull that houses and protects the brain. It is surrounded by the bones of the skull and is lined with protective membranes called meninges. The cranial cavity provides a secure environment for the brain, shielding it from external forces and maintaining its stability.

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  • 10. 

    Which cavity would include the heart? 

    • A.

      Pericardial cavity

    • B.

      Cranial cavity

    • C.

      Vertebral cavity

    • D.

      Abdominal cavity

    • E.

      Pleural cavity

    Correct Answer
    A. Pericardial cavity
    Explanation
    The heart is located in the pericardial cavity. This cavity is a small space that surrounds the heart and is lined by the pericardium, a protective sac. The pericardial cavity contains a small amount of fluid that helps reduce friction as the heart beats. The other cavities listed, such as the cranial cavity, vertebral cavity, abdominal cavity, and pleural cavity, do not contain the heart.

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  • 11. 

    This plane divides the body into right and left halves. 

    • A.

      Sagittal

    • B.

      Frontal

    • C.

      Transverse

    • D.

      Oblique

    • E.

      Coronal

    Correct Answer
    A. Sagittal
    Explanation
    The plane that divides the body into right and left halves is called the sagittal plane. This plane runs parallel to the midline of the body and separates it into two symmetrical halves. The term "sagittal" is derived from the Latin word "sagitta" which means arrow, as the plane resembles an arrow slicing through the body from front to back.

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  • 12. 

    This plane divides the body into anterior and posterior halves. 

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Sagittal

    • C.

      Transverse

    • D.

      Oblique

    • E.

      Midsagittal

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal
    Explanation
    The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves is called the frontal plane. This plane runs vertically from side to side, dividing the body into front and back sections. It is also known as the coronal plane. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves, while the transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower halves. The oblique plane runs at an angle and does not have a specific division pattern. The midsagittal plane is a specific type of sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves.

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  • 13. 

    A transverse plane will cut a body or organ into 

    • A.

      Superior and inferior

    • B.

      Anterior and posterior

    • C.

      Left and right

    • D.

      At an angle

    • E.

      Unequal left and right sides

    Correct Answer
    A. Superior and inferior
    Explanation
    A transverse plane is a horizontal plane that divides the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. This means that the plane cuts the body or organ into two sections, with one section being above the plane (superior) and the other section being below the plane (inferior).

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  • 14. 

    This directional term means farthest from the midline. 

    • A.

      Lateral

    • B.

      Medial

    • C.

      Anterior

    • D.

      Proximal

    • E.

      Deep

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral
    Explanation
    The term "lateral" refers to a position or direction that is farthest from the midline. In anatomical terms, the midline is an imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves. Therefore, if something is described as being "lateral," it means it is located further away from the midline towards the side of the body.

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  • 15. 

    This directional term means farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk or farther from the origination of a structure.

    • A.

      Distal

    • B.

      Deep

    • C.

      Contralateral

    • D.

      Lateral

    • E.

      Cephalic

    Correct Answer
    A. Distal
    Explanation
    Distal is the correct answer because it refers to a location that is farther away from the attachment of a limb to the trunk or farther away from the origination of a structure. In anatomical terms, distal is used to describe a position that is further away from the body's midline or center. This term is commonly used to describe the location of body parts in relation to each other, such as the fingers being distal to the wrist or the toes being distal to the ankle.

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  • 16. 

    This directional term is the opposite of deep 

    • A.

      Superficial

    • B.

      Superior

    • C.

      Inferior

    • D.

      Distal

    • E.

      Proximal

    Correct Answer
    A. Superficial
    Explanation
    Superficial is the correct answer because it means "near the surface" or "shallow." In the context of direction, it refers to something that is closer to the surface or outer part rather than being deep. Therefore, it is the opposite of deep.

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  • 17. 

    What are the major elements found in the body? 

    • A.

      Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

    • B.

      Nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, sodium

    • C.

      Hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium

    • D.

      Oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium

    • E.

      Potassium, phosphorous, sodium, hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
    Explanation
    The major elements found in the body are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These elements are essential for various biological processes and are found in abundance in living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, hydrogen and oxygen are crucial for energy production and water balance, and nitrogen is necessary for the formation of proteins and nucleic acids.

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  • 18. 

    The subatomic particles that make up atoms include: 

    • A.

      Protons, Neutrons, Electrons

    • B.

      Neutrons, quarks, muons

    • C.

      Muons, positions, neutrons

    • D.

      Electrons, quarks, protons

    • E.

      Positions, protons, neutrons

    Correct Answer
    A. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
    Explanation
    The subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have no charge, and electrons have a negative charge. These particles are essential for the structure and behavior of atoms. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of an atom, while electrons orbit around the nucleus. Together, these three particles determine the atomic number, mass number, and overall charge of an atom.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following particles has a neutral charge? 

    • A.

      Neutron

    • B.

      Electron

    • C.

      Proton

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutron
    Explanation
    The neutron has a neutral charge because it has no net electrical charge. It is composed of three quarks: two down quarks and one up quark. The down quarks have a charge of -1/3 each, while the up quark has a charge of +2/3. The charges of the quarks cancel each other out, resulting in a neutral overall charge for the neutron. In contrast, the electron has a negative charge of -1, and the proton has a positive charge of +1. Therefore, the correct answer is neutron.

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  • 20. 

    What region of an atom contains the protons and neutrons? 

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Cloud

    • C.

      Element

    • D.

      Ring

    • E.

      Shell

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The region of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons is called the nucleus. The nucleus is located at the center of the atom and is surrounded by the electron cloud. Protons and neutrons are both subatomic particles that are found within the nucleus. The protons have a positive charge, while the neutrons have no charge. Together, protons and neutrons make up the majority of an atom's mass.

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  • 21. 

    This is the number of protons or electrons. 

    • A.

      Atomic number

    • B.

      Mass number

    • C.

      Isotope

    • D.

      Valence shell

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Atomic number
    Explanation
    The atomic number refers to the number of protons or electrons in an atom. It is a unique identifier for each element on the periodic table. The number of protons determines the element's chemical properties and its position on the periodic table. Therefore, the correct answer is atomic number.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following particles plays a role in creating chemical bonds? 

    • A.

      Electron

    • B.

      Neutron

    • C.

      Proton

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Electron
    Explanation
    Electrons play a crucial role in creating chemical bonds. They are negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of an atom. During a chemical reaction, electrons are either shared or transferred between atoms, which leads to the formation of chemical bonds. This process allows atoms to achieve a more stable configuration by filling their outermost electron shells. Neutrons and protons, on the other hand, are found in the nucleus of an atom and do not directly participate in chemical bonding.

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  • 23. 

    This type of bond requires a sharing of electrons 

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Ionic

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Atomic

    • E.

      Electronic

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent
    Explanation
    Covalent bonds require a sharing of electrons between atoms. In this type of bond, two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, resulting in a stable arrangement of outer electrons for both atoms. This sharing of electrons allows the atoms to achieve a full outer electron shell, similar to the noble gases. Covalent bonds are typically formed between nonmetal atoms and are characterized by their strong bond strength and directional nature.

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  • 24. 

    This is the type of bond between the atoms forming water 

    • A.

      Nonpolar covalent

    • B.

      Poloar covalent

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Ionic

    • E.

      Atomic

    Correct Answer
    B. Poloar covalent
    Explanation
    A polar covalent bond is formed between the atoms in water. In a polar covalent bond, the electrons are not shared equally between the atoms, resulting in a slight positive charge on one atom and a slight negative charge on the other. In water, the oxygen atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms, creating a polar molecule. This polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other, giving water its unique properties such as high boiling point and surface tension.

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  • 25. 

    This is defined as the capacity to do work 

    • A.

      Energy

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Electrolytes

    • D.

      Chemical reaction

    • E.

      Concentration

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy
    Explanation
    Energy is the correct answer because it is defined as the capacity to do work. Energy is the ability to exert force or cause change, and it can exist in various forms such as kinetic, potential, thermal, or chemical energy. Without energy, no work can be done, and it is a fundamental concept in physics and biology.

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  • 26. 

    An Enzyme acts to 

    • A.

      Raise the activation energy needed

    • B.

      Lower the activation energy needed

    • C.

      Convert the activation energy into potential

    • D.

      Convert the activation energy into kinetic

    • E.

      Break a chemical reaction

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower the activation energy needed
    Explanation
    Enzymes lower the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur. Activation energy is the energy required to initiate a reaction, and enzymes facilitate this process by providing an alternative pathway with a lower activation energy. This allows the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. By lowering the activation energy, enzymes increase the rate of reaction without being consumed or permanently altered in the process.

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  • 27. 

    A solute that dissolves in water is 

    • A.

      Hydrophobic

    • B.

      Hydrostatic

    • C.

      Hydroamoure

    • D.

      Hydrophillic

    • E.

      Hydrozone

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrophillic
    Explanation
    A solute that dissolves in water is hydrophilic because it has an affinity for water molecules. Hydrophilic substances are polar or have charged groups that can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, allowing them to dissolve easily in water.

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  • 28. 

    In a typical body solution, the solvent is 

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide

    • D.

      Water

    • E.

      Electrolyte

    • F.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    D. Water
    Explanation
    In a typical body solution, the solvent is water. Water is the most abundant substance in the human body and serves as a universal solvent, meaning it can dissolve a wide variety of solutes. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as transportation of nutrients, removal of waste products, regulation of body temperature, and maintenance of cell structure and function. Without water, many physiological functions would not be possible, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 29. 

    A solution with a pH value smaller than 7 would be a(n)

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Salt

    • C.

      Acid

    • D.

      Alkaline

    • E.

      Concentrate

    Correct Answer
    C. Acid
    Explanation
    A solution with a pH value smaller than 7 indicates that the solution is acidic. Acids have a pH value less than 7, indicating a higher concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution. This higher concentration of hydrogen ions makes the solution acidic in nature.

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  • 30. 

    A substance that adds or removes Hydrogen ions from a solution is a(n)

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Salt

    • C.

      Acid

    • D.

      Alkaline

    • E.

      Buffer

    Correct Answer
    E. Buffer
    Explanation
    A buffer is a substance that can both add or remove hydrogen ions from a solution, depending on the pH of the solution. It helps to maintain the pH of a solution within a specific range by resisting changes in acidity or alkalinity. This is achieved by the presence of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid in the buffer solution. Therefore, a buffer is the correct answer as it fits the description of a substance that can add or remove hydrogen ions from a solution.

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  • 31. 

    These are specific arrangements of atoms that confer characteristic chemical properties 

    • A.

      Acid

    • B.

      Bases

    • C.

      Carbons

    • D.

      Functional groups

    • E.

      Isomers

    Correct Answer
    D. Functional groups
    Explanation
    Functional groups are specific arrangements of atoms within a molecule that determine its chemical properties and reactivity. They are responsible for the characteristic behavior of organic compounds. Functional groups can include hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, and many others. Each functional group imparts unique chemical properties to the molecule, allowing for various reactions and interactions with other substances. Therefore, functional groups are crucial in understanding the behavior and properties of organic compounds.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is a monosaccaride that is important in producing energy. 

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Sucrose

    • C.

      Lactose

    • D.

      Ribose

    • E.

      Deoxyribose

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is a monosaccharide that is important in producing energy because it is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is broken down during cellular respiration to release ATP, which is used by cells for various metabolic processes. Glucose is also used in the process of photosynthesis in plants to produce energy-rich molecules such as starch and cellulose.

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  • 33. 

    The major energy storage polysaccharide in humans in 

    • A.

      Cellulose

    • B.

      Ribose

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      Fats

    • E.

      Glycogen

    Correct Answer
    E. Glycogen
    Explanation
    Glycogen is the major energy storage polysaccharide in humans. It is a highly branched polymer of glucose molecules that is primarily stored in the liver and muscles. When the body needs energy, glycogen can be broken down into glucose to fuel cellular processes. This makes glycogen an important source of quick energy during periods of exercise or fasting. Cellulose, on the other hand, is a structural polysaccharide found in plant cell walls and cannot be digested by humans. Ribose is a sugar molecule found in RNA, while lipids and fats are not polysaccharides and are used for long-term energy storage.

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  • 34. 

    This type of lipid is the body's long term energy storage molecule 

    • A.

      Steroid

    • B.

      Phospholipid

    • C.

      Cholesterol

    • D.

      Triglyceride

    • E.

      Lipoprotein

    Correct Answer
    D. Triglyceride
    Explanation
    Triglycerides are a type of lipid that serve as the body's long-term energy storage molecule. They are composed of three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule. When the body needs energy, triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and released into the bloodstream. They can be stored in adipose tissue and used as a source of fuel when needed. Triglycerides are the most abundant type of lipid in the body and play a crucial role in energy metabolism.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is a purine?

    • A.

      Cytosine

    • B.

      Guanine

    • C.

      Thymine

    • D.

      Ribose

    • E.

      Phosphate

    Correct Answer
    B. Guanine
    Explanation
    Guanine is a purine because it is a nitrogenous base that consists of a double-ring structure. Purines are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being pyrimidines. Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines, while ribose and phosphate are not nitrogenous bases but rather components of nucleotides. Therefore, Guanine is the correct answer as it fits the definition of a purine.

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  • 36. 

    Which is the function of RNA?

    • A.

      Produce electrical impulses

    • B.

      Storage of energy

    • C.

      Transfer information for protein synthesis

    • D.

      Store information for protein synthesis

    • E.

      Transport of fluids

    Correct Answer
    C. Transfer information for protein synthesis
    Explanation
    RNA is responsible for transferring information for protein synthesis. RNA molecules are transcribed from DNA and carry the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. This transfer of information is essential for the production of proteins, which are vital for various cellular processes and functions in the body.

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  • 37. 

    Which is the function of DNA?

    • A.

      Produce chemical signals

    • B.

      Storage of energy

    • C.

      Transfer information for protein synthesis

    • D.

      Store information for protein synthesis

    • E.

      Transport of electrolytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Store information for protein synthesis
    Explanation
    DNA is responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in all living organisms. It carries the instructions needed for the synthesis of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells. This information is stored in the sequence of nucleotides within the DNA molecule. Therefore, the function of DNA is to store information for protein synthesis.

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  • 38. 

    Which is the function of ATP?

    • A.

      Produce electrical impulses

    • B.

      Transfers energy for cell functions

    • C.

      Transfer information for protein synthesis

    • D.

      Store information for protein synthesis

    • E.

      Transport of fluids

    Correct Answer
    B. Transfers energy for cell functions
    Explanation
    ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a molecule that serves as the main energy source for cellular functions. It is responsible for transferring energy within cells, providing the necessary fuel for various metabolic processes. ATP is synthesized during cellular respiration and then broken down to release energy when needed. Therefore, the function of ATP is to transfer energy for cell functions.

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  • 39. 

    What monomer is used to build RNA and DNA? 

    • A.

      Fatty acid

    • B.

      Amino acid

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Glycerol

    • E.

      Nucleotide

    Correct Answer
    E. Nucleotide
    Explanation
    Nucleotide is the correct answer because it is the monomer used to build RNA and DNA. Nucleotides are composed of a sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine in DNA, and uracil in RNA). These nucleotides are linked together through phosphodiester bonds to form the backbone of the DNA and RNA strands. Therefore, nucleotide is the building block for the genetic material in living organisms.

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  • 40. 

    What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell? 

    • A.

      Plasma membrane, organelles, cytoplasm

    • B.

      Plasma membrane, organelles, nucleus

    • C.

      Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles

    • D.

      Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

    • E.

      Plasma membrane, cytosol, organelles

    Correct Answer
    D. Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. The plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the cell and contains various organelles. The nucleus is the control center of the cell that contains the genetic material and regulates cell activities.

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  • 41. 

    Plasma membranes consist of what three components? 

    • A.

      Phospholipids, glycoproteins, water

    • B.

      Proteins, cholesterol, fatty acid

    • C.

      Cholesterol, fatty acids, glycolipids

    • D.

      Proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol

    • E.

      Water, proteins, fatty acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol
    Explanation
    Plasma membranes consist of proteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids form a bilayer structure, with their hydrophilic heads facing outward and their hydrophobic tails facing inward. Proteins are embedded within this phospholipid bilayer and serve various functions such as transport, signaling, and structural support. Cholesterol is also present in the plasma membrane and helps regulate fluidity and stability.

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  • 42. 

    This is the transport process by which gases move through a membrane. 

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Secondary active transport

    • D.

      Simple diffusion

    • E.

      Endocytosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Simple diffusion
    Explanation
    Simple diffusion is the correct answer because it is the transport process by which gases move through a membrane. Simple diffusion is a passive process that occurs due to the random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. In this case, gases move through a membrane by simple diffusion, without the need for energy or any specific transport proteins.

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  • 43. 

    If the solute concentration is greater in the solution on the inside of the cell, compared to the solute concentration of the solution that is outside the cell, then what direction will water move?

    • A.

      Into the cell

    • B.

      Out of the cell

    • C.

      No movement

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Out of the cell
    Explanation
    Water will move out of the cell. This is because water moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration in order to equalize the concentration on both sides of the cell membrane. In this case, since the solute concentration is greater inside the cell compared to outside, water will move out of the cell to balance the concentrations.

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  • 44. 

    These perform special functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction 

    • A.

      Organelles

    • B.

      Cytoskeleton

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Cytosol

    • E.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Organelles
    Explanation
    Organelles are specialized structures within a cell that perform specific functions. They are responsible for cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Each organelle has a specific role in the cell, such as DNA storage and replication, energy production, protein synthesis, and transport of molecules. Therefore, organelles are the correct answer as they are directly involved in the special functions related to cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

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  • 45. 

    This organelle is comprised of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubles. 

    • A.

      Cytoskeleton

    • B.

      Cytoplasm

    • C.

      Cilia

    • D.

      Flagella

    • E.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules that provide structural support and shape to the cell. It also plays a crucial role in cell movement, cell division, and the transport of organelles within the cell. The other options, such as cytoplasm, cilia, flagella, and ribosomes, are not composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.

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  • 46. 

    This organelle contains ribosomes, which synthesis proteins 

    • A.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Cytososol

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Centriole

    • E.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the correct answer because it is an organelle that contains ribosomes. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and they are attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. This organelle plays a crucial role in protein production and transportation within the cell.

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  • 47. 

    This is an organelle that modifies proteins produced elsewhere. 

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Golgi body

    • C.

      Peroxisomes

    • D.

      Nucleus

    • E.

      Proteasome

    Correct Answer
    B. Golgi body
    Explanation
    The Golgi body is an organelle that modifies proteins produced elsewhere. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and processes them by adding carbohydrates, lipids, or other molecules. It also sorts and packages these modified proteins into vesicles for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside of the cell. The Golgi body plays a crucial role in protein processing and trafficking, making it the correct answer for this question.

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  • 48. 

    Which organelle recycles worn out organelles? 

    • A.

      Peroxisomes

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Proteasome

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    • E.

      Lysosomes

    Correct Answer
    E. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are responsible for recycling worn out organelles in the cell. They contain enzymes that break down and digest cellular waste, including old or damaged organelles. This process, known as autophagy, helps to maintain the overall health and functionality of the cell by removing and recycling unnecessary or dysfunctional components. Therefore, lysosomes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and ensuring the proper functioning of the cell.

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  • 49. 

    Mitochondria

    • A.

      Move the cell

    • B.

      Generate ATP

    • C.

      Produces proteins

    • D.

      Oxidize organells

    • E.

      Synthesize glycolipids

    Correct Answer
    B. Generate ATP
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are known as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy for cellular activities. ATP is produced through a process called oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. This process involves the transfer of electrons from molecules derived from food to the electron transport chain, resulting in the production of ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is that mitochondria generate ATP.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following protects the contents of the nucleus? 

    • A.

      Nucleic acids

    • B.

      Nuclear membrane

    • C.

      Nuclear centrosome

    • D.

      Cilia

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    B. Nuclear membrane
    Explanation
    The nuclear membrane is responsible for protecting the contents of the nucleus. It acts as a barrier, separating the nucleus from the rest of the cell, and controls the movement of molecules in and out of the nucleus. This membrane helps to maintain the integrity and organization of the nucleus, ensuring that the genetic material and other important components inside are protected and regulated.

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