A General Quiz On Naturally Occuring Fluids

48 Questions | Total Attempts: 498

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A General Quiz On Naturally Occuring Fluids

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Most bosy water comes from ________, whereas most body water is lost via _____.
    • A. 

      Metabolic water; cutaneous transpiration

    • B. 

      Metabolic water; sweat

    • C. 

      Drinking; cutaneous transpiration and expired air

    • D. 

      Drinking; urine

    • E. 

      Drinking; radiation

  • 2. 
    In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    A weak base
    • A. 

      Binds little OH- and has a weak effect on pH

    • B. 

      Binds lots of OH- and has strong effect on pH

    • C. 

      Binds little H+ and has weak effect on pH

    • D. 

      Resists changes in OH-

    • E. 

      Lowers pH

  • 4. 
    A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
    • A. 

      The major calyx

    • B. 

      The ureter

    • C. 

      The urethra

    • D. 

      The urinary bladder

    • E. 

      The renal pelvis

  • 5. 
    Calcium concentration is regulated by
    • A. 

      Hormones

    • B. 

      Sodium and calcium concentration in plasma

    • C. 

      Chloride and phosphate concentration in plasma

    • D. 

      The parasympathetic nervous system

    • E. 

      The sympathetic nervous system

  • 6. 
    Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of AVP, thereby reducing reabsorption bu the collecting duct.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with 
    • A. 

      Cooling of the mouth

    • B. 

      Distention of the stomach by ingested water

    • C. 

      A drop in blood osmolarity

    • D. 

      Moistening of the mouth

    • E. 

      Increased salivation

  • 8. 
    PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
    • A. 

      Potassium

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Urea

    • E. 

      Water

  • 9. 
    Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of all the solute

    • B. 

      A renal clearance of zero

    • C. 

      A net filtration pressure of 1.0

    • D. 

      Appearance of that solute in urine

    • E. 

      Absence of that solute in the urine

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
    • A. 

      Decreased urine volume

    • B. 

      Decreased urine molarity

    • C. 

      Increased urine volume

    • D. 

      Increased urine salinity

    • E. 

      Increased urine acidity

  • 11. 
    Water output is significantly controlled through variation in
    • A. 

      Metabolic water

    • B. 

      Sweating

    • C. 

      Cutaneous transpiration

    • D. 

      Drinking

    • E. 

      Urine volume

  • 12. 
    Hypocalcemia stimulates
    • A. 

      A decrease in adosterone production

    • B. 

      Secretion of parathyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Secretion of renin

    • D. 

      An increase in blood urea nitrogen

    • E. 

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles

  • 13. 
    Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Collecting duct

    • E. 

      Nephron loop

  • 14. 
    The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
    • A. 

      The body's water volume is high

    • B. 

      The body's pH is low

    • C. 

      The output of antidiuretic hormone is high

    • D. 

      The output of natriuretic peptides is high

    • E. 

      A person is lost and deprived of drinking water

  • 15. 
    Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Omosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
    • A. 

      The temperature difference between compartments

    • B. 

      The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

    • C. 

      The relative volume in each compartment

    • D. 

      The relative size of each compartment

    • E. 

      Blood pressure

  • 17. 
    Which are primarily responsible for maintaing the salinity gradient if the renal medulla?
    • A. 

      Cortical nephrons

    • B. 

      Juxtamedullary nephrons

    • C. 

      Collecting ducts

    • D. 

      Proximal convoluted tubules

    • E. 

      Distal convoluted tubules

  • 18. 
    In the nephron, the fluid that immediately preceds urine is known as
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtrate

    • C. 

      Tubular fluid

    • D. 

      Renal filtrate

    • E. 

      Medullary filtrate

  • 19. 
    Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
    • A. 

      Baroreceptors

    • B. 

      Proprioceptors

    • C. 

      Nociceptors

    • D. 

      Osmoreceptors

    • E. 

      Mecchanoreceptors

  • 20. 
    Hypernatremia is a plasma _____ concentration above normal
    • A. 

      Ca2+

    • B. 

      Na+

    • C. 

      K+

    • D. 

      Cl-

    • E. 

      P

  • 21. 
    The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the 
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Cortical radiate veins

    • D. 

      Peritubular capillaries

    • E. 

      Vasa recta

  • 22. 
    The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other base system
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH inbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    • A. 

      The collecting duct

    • B. 

      The countercurrent multiplier

    • C. 

      The countercurrent exchange system

    • D. 

      Diuretics

    • E. 

      The length of the nephrons