Unit 2 - Cell Structures Test

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Unit 2 - Cell Structures Test - Quiz


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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    After learning about viruses in Biology class, Sam decides to have his cat vaccinated against feline leukemia virus. According to cell theory, are viruses, such as feline leukemia, considered living things? Type question here

    • A.

      Yes, because they are composed of cells.

    • B.

      No, because they cannot evolve.

    • C.

      No, because they are not composed of cells.

    • D.

      Yes, because they can reproduce.

    Correct Answer
    C. No, because they are not composed of cells.
    Explanation
    Viruses are not cells and so they are not considered living. They do evolve, reproduce, & contain DNA.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following do prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses all have in common?

    • A.

      They are alive.

    • B.

      They evolve.

    • C.

      They are made of at least one cell.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. They evolve.
    Explanation
    Viruses are not cells and so they are not considered living. They do evolve, reproduce, & contain DNA.

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  • 3. 

    What can a vaccine do when it is injected into the body?

    • A.

      Destroy new pathogens as they arise in the body

    • B.

      Prompt the body to produce immunity to a disease

    • C.

      Produce toxins that disrupt bacterial equilibrium

    • D.

      Use bacterial cells for food

    Correct Answer
    B. Prompt the body to produce immunity to a disease
    Explanation
    Vaccines introduce a weakened or inactive virus into an organism. The organism then produces antibodies to that virus, which make the organism immune to future infections.

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  • 4. 

    What do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common?

    • A.

      Ribosomes

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Chloroplasts

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    All cells contain the following: cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA & RNA
    Prokaryotes do NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles like chloroplasts & mitochondria.

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  • 5. 

    Eukaryotes usually contain

    • A.

      A nucleus.

    • B.

      Specialized organelles surrounded by membranes.

    • C.

      Genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes have a nucleus with DNA and membrane-bound organelles.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is TRUE of viruses?

    • A.

      Viruses do NOT evolve.

    • B.

      Viruses do NOT use and obtain materials and energy.

    • C.

      Viruses do NOT have a genetic code.

    • D.

      Viruses do NOT reproduce.

    Correct Answer
    B. Viruses do NOT use and obtain materials and energy.
    Explanation
    Viruses evolve, reproduce, and have a genetic code (DNA or RNA).
    They do NOT meet the other characteristics of life.

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  • 7. 

    The presence of which structure indicates that cells are NOT bacteria?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Chloroplast

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    C. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    Bacteria (prokaryotes) will have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, & DNA/RNA.
    Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles like chloroplasts.

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  • 8. 

    All cells contain which of the following?

    • A.

      Viruses

    • B.

      Cytoplasm

    • C.

      A nucleus

    • D.

      Organelles

    Correct Answer
    B. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    All cells (prokaryotes & eukaryotes) will have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, & DNA/RNA.

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  • 9. 

    What is the basic structure of a virus?

    • A.

      A tail sheath surrounded by tail fibers

    • B.

      A tiny cell surrounded by a cell wall

    • C.

      DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

    • D.

      A capsid surrounded by a protein coat

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
    Explanation
    Viruses do not have "tails." Viruses are not cells. A capsid is the same thing as a protein coat.
    Viruses are made of 2 things: nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) on the inside & protein on the outside

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  • 10. 

    Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have

    • A.

      A cell wall.

    • B.

      A cell membrane.

    • C.

      Membrane-bound organelles.

    • D.

      Definite shape.

    Correct Answer
    C. Membrane-bound organelles.
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following contains a nucleus?

    • A.

      Organelles

    • B.

      Prokaryotes

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Eukaryotes

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Eukaryotes
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes have a nucleus. Prokaryotes do NOT have a nucleus.

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  • 12. 

    Viruses cause disease by

    • A.

      Producing toxins that harm the body.

    • B.

      Producing antibodies.

    • C.

      Forming endospores in the body.

    • D.

      Entering body cells and replicating.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Entering body cells and replicating.
    Explanation
    Viruses force cells to reproduce the virus. Viruses can not make anything themselves. They must have a host.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a function of the cell membrane?

    • A.

      Regulates which materials enter and leave the cell

    • B.

      Stores water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates

    • C.

      Breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from foods

    • D.

      Keeps the cell wall in place

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Regulates which materials enter and leave the cell
    Explanation
    The cell membrane acts like a gate-keeper, receptionist, or security guard because it regulates (controls) which materials can come in or go out of the cell.

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  • 14. 

    The main function of the cell wall is to

    • A.

      Support and protect the cell.

    • B.

      Help the cell move.

    • C.

      Direct the activities of the cell.

    • D.

      Store DNA.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Support and protect the cell.
    Explanation
    The cell wall is like the walls, foundation, & roof of a building because it provides support and protection.

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  • 15. 

    Which organelle contains digestive enzymes used to break down large compounds into small particles that the cell can use?

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosome contains digestive enzymes that break down large molecules, invading bacteria, and damaged organelles. It acts like a janitor.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about endoplasmic reticulum?

    • A.

      Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum makes lipids for membranes.

    • B.

      Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum modifies proteins.

    • C.

      Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum modifies proteins.

    • D.

      Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum has ribosomes attached to its surface.

    Correct Answer
    B. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum modifies proteins.
    Explanation
    Smooth ER makes lipids & does not contain ribosomes. It is not involved in protein production/modification.

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  • 17. 

    Plant cells have a large membrane-bound compartment in which water, waste products, and nutrients can be stored. This compartment is called the

    • A.

      Chloroplast.

    • B.

      Vacuole.

    • C.

      Mitochondrion.

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus.

    Correct Answer
    B. Vacuole.
    Explanation
    Vacuoles are storage areas in plant cells. They store mostly water. Plants will have 1 large central vacuole. Animal cells will either have several small vacuoles or none.

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  • 18. 

    Naomi adds a chemical called cyclohexamide to cells grown in a test tube. Within minutes, she identifies short incomplete segments of proteins in the cells. On which organelle does cyclohexamide act?

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribosome
    Explanation
    If the chemical disrupts the proteins from being made, it must act on the organelle that makes proteins. Ribosomes make proteins.

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  • 19. 

    The genetic material that provides instructions for making proteins is

    • A.

      Cytoplasm.

    • B.

      Cytosol.

    • C.

      DNA.

    • D.

      A ribosome.

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA.
    Explanation
    DNA is the instructions for making proteins.
    Ribosomes make proteins.
    Cytoplasm and cytosol are the same thing = cell jelly (not directly involved in making proteins)

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  • 20. 

    Which cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA?

    • A.

      Only eukaryotic cells

    • B.

      All cells

    • C.

      Only prokaryotic cells

    • D.

      Only animal cells

    Correct Answer
    B. All cells
    Explanation
    Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (all cells) contain cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, & DNA.

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  • 21. 

    A cell that requires a lot of energy might contain large numbers of

    • A.

      Mitochondria.

    • B.

      Chromosomes.

    • C.

      Vacuoles.

    • D.

      Lysosomes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria.
    Explanation
    Mitochondria produce energy SO cells that need a lot of energy will need more mitochondria.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following organelles makes food molecules for the cell through the process of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Lysosome

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts make food (glucose) for plant cells.

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  • 23. 

    Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use for energy?

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    Mitochondria make energy for the cell.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following structures serves as the cell’s boundary from its environment?

    • A.

      Chloroplast

    • B.

      Cell membrane

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Nuclear membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane forms a boundary between the cytoplasm and the outer environment.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is NOT a function of the nucleus?

    • A.

      Controls most of the cell’s processes

    • B.

      Contains the information needed to make proteins

    • C.

      Stores DNA

    • D.

      Makes proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Makes proteins
    Explanation
    The nucleus contains the instructions for making proteins (DNA) but it does not make the proteins. That is what the ribosome does.

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  • 26. 

    The organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins is the

    • A.

      Ribosome.

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum.

    • C.

      Lysosome.

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus.

    Correct Answer
    D. Golgi apparatus.
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for sorting & packaging proteins to be exported from the cell.

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  • 27. 

    The organelle that modifies proteins before they are sent to the Golgi apparatus is the

    • A.

      Ribosome.

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum.

    • C.

      Lysosome.

    • D.

      Nucleolus.

    Correct Answer
    B. Endoplasmic reticulum.
    Explanation
    After the protein is made by the ribosome, the Rough ER modifies the proteins and then sends them to the Golgi to be packaged and exported.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is the function of the nucleolus?

    • A.

      Controls most of the cell’s processes

    • B.

      Makes proteins

    • C.

      Contains cytosol

    • D.

      Makes ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    D. Makes ribosomes
    Explanation
    The nucleolus makes ribosomes. The nucleus control's the cell. The cell membrane contains cytosol. The ribosomes make proteins.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following are rarely found in plant cells?

    • A.

      A cell membrane

    • B.

      A vacuole

    • C.

      Lysosomes

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    C. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are found in animal cells but are usually NOT found in plant cells. Both plant and animal cells contain a cell membrane and mitochodria. Plants usually have 1 large vacuole.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following are never found in animal cells?

    • A.

      A cell membrane

    • B.

      A vacuole

    • C.

      Lysosomes

    • D.

      Chloroplasts

    Correct Answer
    D. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells, NEVER in animal cells.

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  • 31. 

    An organelle found in a liver cell would best be identified as a smooth endoplasmic reticulum if its primary function was which of the following? (HINT: What is the function of the smooth ER?)

    • A.

      Digest or break down large molecules and old organelles

    • B.

      Processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export

    • C.

      Harvesting of light energy to produce carbohydrates

    • D.

      Detoxification of poisonous molecules within the cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Detoxification of poisonous molecules within the cell
    Explanation
    Smooth ER is responsible for detox and making lipids to repair the cell membrane (like the school nurse)

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following structures allows for the movement of organelles within the cell as well as movement of the cell itself?

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Cell wall

    • C.

      Cytoskeleton

    • D.

      Cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is responsible for movement and maintaining cell shape.

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  • 33. 

    What is the correct order of organization of all living things from simplest to most complex?

    • A.

      Cell -> organ -> organelle -> organ system -> organism -> tissue

    • B.

      Organelle -> cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organism

    • C.

      Cell -> tissue -> organelle -> organ -> organism -> organ system

    • D.

      Cell -> tissue -> organ -> organelle -> organ system -> organism

    Correct Answer
    B. Organelle -> cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organism
    Explanation
    organelles (cell structures) are the smallest & make up cells. Organisms are the largest.

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  • 34. 

    All the following are found in both plant and animal cells, except ___.

    • A.

      A cell membrane

    • B.

      A cell wall

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    B. A cell wall
    Explanation
    Animal cells do not have a cell wall but plant cells do.

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