Non-consequentialist Theories Of Morality And Virtue Ethics Quiz

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Non-consequentialist Theories Of Morality And Virtue Ethics Quiz - Quiz

We welcome you to this non-consequentialist theory of morality and virtue ethics quiz. All the questions in the quiz are designed to test your knowledge and make you think deeply. Do you believe you can answer all the questions correctly in the quiz? If yes, then why not give this quiz a fair try? Interestingly, you can take this quiz to prepare yourself for your upcoming philosophy examination. There's no time limit on the quiz, so feel free to take up this quiz as many times as you want. We wish you all the very best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A "moral dilemma" will occur whenever you find yourself obliged to follow two different moral rules which require mutually exclusive actions. For instance, you might discover a co-worker embezzling from your employer, and, in a moment of weakness, promise not to expose the thief. On the one hand, it seems you are morally obliged to blow the whistle on your co-worker. At the same time, you also seem bound by your promise to remain silent. One nonconsequentialist theory that tells us how such conflicts might be resolved is 

    • A.

      Kant's Duty Ethics.

    • B.

      Ross's theory based on Prima Facie Duties.

    • C.

      Virtue Ethics.

    • D.

      Divine Command Theory.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ross's theory based on Prima Facie Duties.
    Explanation
    Ross's theory based on Prima Facie Duties is a nonconsequentialist theory that provides a framework for resolving moral dilemmas. According to this theory, there are several prima facie duties, such as fidelity, non-maleficence, and justice, which are considered morally binding. In the given scenario, the conflicting duties of blowing the whistle on the co-worker and keeping the promise to remain silent can be resolved by considering the weight and importance of each prima facie duty. Ross's theory allows for a flexible approach to moral decision-making, taking into account the specific circumstances and the different moral rules involved.

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  • 2. 

    Many of us encounter people who truly enjoy doing good turns for others. We meet people who help the homeless, who feed the hungry, and who contribute to worthy causes not out of a sense of duty, but rather because that's what makes these people happiest. They get a sense of fulfillment from acting in a morally upright fashion.What does Kant have to say about such individuals?

    • A.

      They are violating the Practical Imperative.

    • B.

      They are violating the Categorical Imperative.

    • C.

      Since their good acts are done purely from natural inclination, they are the most moral acts possible.

    • D.

      Their good acts are less morally worthy because they are done from inclination, rather than a respect for duty.

    Correct Answer
    D. Their good acts are less morally worthy because they are done from inclination, rather than a respect for duty.
    Explanation
    Kant would argue that individuals who perform good acts solely out of natural inclination are less morally worthy compared to those who act out of a respect for duty. According to Kant's moral philosophy, the morality of an action is determined by the intention behind it, rather than the outcome. Acting out of a sense of duty means that individuals are motivated by a moral obligation to do what is right, regardless of personal inclination or happiness. On the other hand, acting from natural inclination suggests that individuals are simply following their own desires and preferences, which Kant believes is less morally significant.

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  • 3. 

    In 19th century England, a group of prison reformers decided that convicts should be required to engage in "improving labor." In some cases, they were put to productive work; in others, they simply toiled at meaningless occupations like turning a heavy wheel, producing nothing. The idea behind this practice was that by forcing the prisoners (who were often viewed as being naturally lazy) to engage in regular hard labor, their characters would be improved, no matter how much they resented it at the time.The reformers' beliefs seem most closely to resemble those of

    • A.

      Kant.

    • B.

      The Intuitionists.

    • C.

      Aristotle.

    • D.

      Ross.

    Correct Answer
    C. Aristotle.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Aristotle. Aristotle believed in the concept of virtue ethics, which emphasizes the importance of developing good character through moral education and habituation. The prison reformers' belief that engaging in regular hard labor would improve the character of the prisoners aligns with Aristotle's idea that individuals can cultivate virtuous qualities through repetitive actions and experiences.

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  • 4. 

    In debates about public morality, the argument is often between those who want some sort of government regulation and those who favor a reliance on personal responsibility. For instance, there is currently a dispute between those who want to require schools to use "filtering" software to block students from accessing some portions of the Web, and those who think children ought to be taught by their parents and others to simply avoid certain sorts of content.If these young people actually need to be taught the difference between right and wrong, this seems like it might supply the basis for a strong argument against

    • A.

      Ross's Prima Facie Duties.

    • B.

      All nonconsequentialist theories.

    • C.

      Kant's Duty Ethics.

    • D.

      Intuitionism.

    Correct Answer
    D. Intuitionism.
    Explanation
    The argument presented in the passage suggests that if children need to be taught the difference between right and wrong, it would provide a strong argument against Intuitionism. Intuitionism is a moral theory that emphasizes the importance of intuitive moral judgments and does not rely on external factors such as government regulation or personal responsibility. If children need external guidance to distinguish right from wrong, it challenges the core principle of Intuitionism, making it an argument against this moral theory.

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  • 5. 

    One argument given for intuitionism is that people who have never formally studied ethics still seem to have a moral sense. That is, they seem to have some idea of what moral rules they are supposed to follow, even if they haven't spent any time reasoning or reflecting about moral matters. In fact, our legal system imposes what seems a minimal requirement for defendants to be able to stand trial: they must be able to tell right from wrong.This clearly seems to pose a difficulty for

    • A.

      Kant's claim that nothing is good in itself but a good will.

    • B.

      Kant's claim that morality is known by reason alone.

    • C.

      Kant's Categorical Imperative.

    • D.

      Kant's Practical Imperative.

    Correct Answer
    B. Kant's claim that morality is known by reason alone.
    Explanation
    The argument given for intuitionism suggests that people without formal ethics education still possess a moral sense and an understanding of moral rules. This implies that moral knowledge is not solely derived from reason, as Kant argued, but rather can be instinctual or intuitive. Therefore, this argument challenges Kant's claim that morality is known by reason alone.

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  • 6. 

    Ross's prima facie duty of fidelity requires, among other things, that we tell the truth. His duty of nonmaleficence requires that we not injure others. Imagine a case in which you have knowledge that a friend's spouse is carrying on an affair. You would violate the duty of fidelity by not telling your friend what you know, and you would violate nonmaleficence by telling, since that would inevitably cause pain.According to Ross, which of the following applies to this case?

    • A.

      We should consult the Practical Imperative before acting.

    • B.

      We should always act in accord with the stronger prima facie duty.

    • C.

      Conflicting duties cannot be resolved.

    • D.

      Fidelity is always more important than nonmaleficence.

    Correct Answer
    B. We should always act in accord with the stronger prima facie duty.
    Explanation
    In this case, according to Ross, we should always act in accord with the stronger prima facie duty. This means that when faced with conflicting duties, we should prioritize the duty that is stronger or more weighty. In the given scenario, the duty of fidelity and the duty of nonmaleficence are in conflict. However, Ross argues that the duty of fidelity is stronger in this case because not telling the truth to your friend would violate a more important duty. Therefore, we should act in accordance with the duty of fidelity and tell our friend about their spouse's affair, even though it may cause pain.

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  • 7. 

    Every child learns the "Golden Rule:" we ought treat others as we would have them treat us. This bears a marked resemblance to which element of an ethical theory discussed in the text?

    • A.

      The "Golden Mean" between two extremes discussed by Aristotle.

    • B.

      Kant's Good Will.

    • C.

      Ross's prima facie duty of Justice.

    • D.

      Kant's reversibility criterion.

    Correct Answer
    D. Kant's reversibility criterion.
    Explanation
    The "Golden Rule" teaches that we should treat others as we would like to be treated, which aligns with Kant's reversibility criterion. Kant's reversibility criterion states that an action is morally right if we can will that everyone else also performs that action in similar circumstances. This criterion emphasizes the importance of treating others with respect and fairness, just as we would want to be treated. The "Golden Mean" discussed by Aristotle refers to finding a balance between extremes, which is not directly related to the "Golden Rule." Kant's Good Will and Ross's prima facie duty of Justice are not specifically related to the concept of treating others as we would like to be treated.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following are a part of 3 virtue ethical theories? 

    • A.

      Eudaimonism

    • B.

      Agent-based theories

    • C.

      Ethics of care.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed, namely Eudaimonism, Agent-based theories, and Ethics of care, are part of virtue ethical theories. Eudaimonism focuses on achieving personal well-being and flourishing through virtuous actions. Agent-based theories emphasize the importance of individual character and virtues in making ethical decisions. Ethics of care emphasizes the significance of interpersonal relationships and caring for others in ethical decision-making. Therefore, all of these theories fall under the umbrella of virtue ethics.

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  • 9. 

    Who invented Divine Command Theory? 

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Socrates 

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Socrates 
    Explanation
    Socrates is credited with inventing Divine Command Theory. This ethical theory argues that moral obligations are based on the commands or decrees of a divine being. Socrates believed that moral principles are not subjective or based on personal opinion, but rather determined by a higher power. He argued that individuals should follow these divine commands in order to lead a moral and virtuous life.

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  • 10. 

    Most of the decisions are based upon _____________. 

    • A.

      Impulsivity 

    • B.

      Desires

    • C.

      Needs

    • D.

      Intuitionism

    Correct Answer
    D. Intuitionism
    Explanation
    Intuitionism refers to the act of making decisions based on gut feelings, instincts, or inner knowledge rather than relying solely on logical reasoning or external information. This approach suggests that individuals have a natural ability to make accurate judgments and choices without conscious deliberation. Therefore, the given statement implies that many decisions are influenced by intuition rather than impulsivity, desires, or needs.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 24, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Reyimp
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