Evolution And Natural Selection Quiz! Trivia Questions

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Evolution And Natural Selection Quiz! Trivia Questions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The image illustrates what evolutionary concept?

    • A.

      Embryological similarities

    • B.

      Variation among species

    • C.

      Vestigial structures

    • D.

      Homologous structures

    Correct Answer
    D. Homologous structures
    Explanation
    The image is likely showing different species with similar anatomical structures, indicating that they share a common ancestor. This is known as homologous structures, where organisms have similar body parts despite having different functions. This concept supports the theory of evolution, as it suggests that different species have evolved from a common ancestor and have inherited certain traits from them.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?

    • A.

      Competition for food and space

    • B.

      Variation among species

    • C.

      Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    • D.

      Survival and reproduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Competition for food and space
    Explanation
    Competition for food and space is not a component of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. The theory states that variation among species, inheritance of acquired characteristics, and the ability to survive and reproduce are the driving forces behind evolution. Competition for resources may occur as a result of these factors, but it is not considered a fundamental component of the theory itself.

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  • 3. 

    A structure that seems to serve no purpose in an organism is called:

    • A.

      Homologous

    • B.

      Vestigial

    • C.

      Dichotomous

    • D.

      Fossilized

    Correct Answer
    B. Vestigial
    Explanation
    A structure that seems to serve no purpose in an organism is called vestigial. Vestigial structures are remnants of organs or structures that had a function in the organism's ancestors but have lost their original purpose over time. These structures may have reduced in size or become non-functional due to changes in the organism's environment or evolution. Vestigial structures provide evidence for evolution, as they suggest that organisms have evolved from ancestors with different anatomical features.

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  • 4. 

    A group of mice becomes separated by the formation of a river. Over time, the northern mice became smaller and whiter, while the southern mice became larger and browner. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Industrial evolution

    • B.

      Homology

    • C.

      Convergence

    • D.

      Divergence

    Correct Answer
    D. Divergence
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes the process of divergence. Divergence occurs when a population splits into two or more groups and each group adapts to different environmental conditions, leading to distinct characteristics. In this case, the formation of the river caused the separation of the mice population into northern and southern groups. Over time, different selection pressures influenced the traits of each group, resulting in smaller and whiter mice in the north and larger and browner mice in the south. This divergence is a clear example of how populations can evolve separately in response to different environmental factors.

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  • 5. 

    Any variation that can help an organism survive in its environment is called a(n):

    • A.

      Characteristic

    • B.

      Competition

    • C.

      Adaptation

    • D.

      Vestigial structure

    Correct Answer
    C. Adaptation
    Explanation
    An adaptation is any variation that helps an organism survive in its environment. It is a trait or characteristic that has evolved over time and allows the organism to better suit its surroundings. Adaptations can include physical features, behaviors, or physiological processes that enhance an organism's chances of survival and reproduction. These adaptations can be inherited and passed on to future generations, leading to the continued success and survival of the species.

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  • 6. 

    The strongest evidence for change over a long period of time comes from:

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      Fossils

    • C.

      Embryo studies

    • D.

      Direct observation of living species

    Correct Answer
    B. Fossils
    Explanation
    Fossils provide the strongest evidence for change over a long period of time because they are the preserved remains or traces of past organisms. By studying fossils, scientists can observe the physical characteristics of ancient species and track their evolutionary changes over time. Fossils allow us to understand the diversity of life that existed in the past and how it has transformed through natural selection and other evolutionary processes. DNA, embryo studies, and direct observation of living species can also provide valuable evidence, but fossils offer a more direct and tangible record of past life forms.

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  • 7. 

    Genetic sequence data shows that two alien species (let's call them A and B) share 94% of their DNA with each other, and a third alien species (C) shares only 75% of its DNA sequences with the first two. From this information, you conclude: 

    • A.

      Species A and B have a common ancestor, but neither has a common ancestor with species C

    • B.

      Species C evolved more recently than species A and B

    • C.

      Species A and B share a more recent common ancestry with each other than either shares with C

    • D.

      Species C is more closely related to species B than it is to species A

    Correct Answer
    C. Species A and B share a more recent common ancestry with each other than either shares with C
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, it can be concluded that species A and B share 94% of their DNA with each other, indicating that they have a common ancestor. Additionally, species C shares only 75% of its DNA sequences with species A and B, suggesting that it is less closely related to them. Therefore, the most plausible conclusion is that species A and B share a more recent common ancestry with each other than either shares with species C.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following are analogous structures?

    • A.

      The tibia (lower leg bone) of a tortoise and a monkey

    • B.

      The spines of a cactus and the "jaws" of a Venus fly trap

    • C.

      The phalanges (finger bones) of bats and humans

    • D.

      Wings in birds and bats

    Correct Answer
    D. Wings in birds and bats
    Explanation
    Wings in birds and bats are analogous structures because they have similar functions (flight) but have evolved independently in different lineages. While birds and bats are both capable of flying, their wings have different anatomical structures. Birds have feathers and their wings are modified forelimbs, while bats have membranes of skin stretched between elongated fingers. Despite the differences in structure, both wings serve the same purpose of enabling flight, making them analogous structures.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is NOT evidence in support of evolution?

    • A.

      Paleontology

    • B.

      Embryology

    • C.

      Biochemistry

    • D.

      Mutations

    Correct Answer
    D. Mutations
    Explanation
    Mutations are actually evidence in support of evolution. Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that can lead to new traits and variations in a population. These variations can then be acted upon by natural selection, leading to the evolution of new species over time. Therefore, mutations provide evidence for the process of evolution by showing how genetic changes can drive the diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is an example of microevolution?

    • A.

      The increase in size, over time, of fossil horses

    • B.

      The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    • C.

      The speciation of finches on the Galapagos islands

    • D.

      The evolution of humans from an ancestral primates

    Correct Answer
    B. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
    Explanation
    Microevolution refers to the small-scale changes that occur within a population over a relatively short period of time. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of microevolution because it involves the adaptation of bacterial populations to the use of antibiotics. Through natural selection, bacteria that possess genetic variations allowing them to survive exposure to antibiotics are more likely to reproduce and pass on these traits to future generations. Over time, this can lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

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  • 11. 

    The process of biological evolution

    • A.

      Is not supported by scientific evidence

    • B.

      Results in changes in allele frequencies over generations

    • C.

      Requires biological diversity in a population

    • D.

      Both the second and third choices

    Correct Answer
    D. Both the second and third choices
    Explanation
    The process of biological evolution involves changes in allele frequencies over generations, which is supported by scientific evidence. Additionally, biological diversity in a population is necessary for evolution to occur. Therefore, both the second and third choices are correct.

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  • 12. 

    In many cases, one type of organism puts selection pressure on another, so they evolve together. For example, flowers and their pollinators. This is called

    • A.

      Artificial selection

    • B.

      Coevolution

    • C.

      Random mutation

    • D.

      Mimicry

    Correct Answer
    B. Coevolution
    Explanation
    Coevolution refers to the process where two or more species influence each other's evolution over time. In this case, the relationship between flowers and their pollinators is an example of coevolution. Flowers have evolved to produce specific colors, shapes, and scents to attract certain pollinators, while pollinators have evolved specific behaviors, body structures, and preferences to efficiently gather nectar from flowers. This mutual evolutionary influence between the two species is a classic example of coevolution.

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  • 13. 

    During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow classmates remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." To correct your friend's misconception, what would you say?

    • A.

      Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.

    • B.

      Only favorable adaptation have survival value

    • C.

      Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival

    • D.

      Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes

    Correct Answer
    D. Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes
    Explanation
    The statement made by your classmate, that the giraffe stretching its neck resulted in its offspring inheriting longer necks, is incorrect. This is because characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes. Inheritance is determined by genetic information that is already present in the organism's DNA, and not by any acquired traits during its lifetime.

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  • 14. 

    Natural selection tends to reduce variation in gene pools. What process serves to balance natural selection by creating new alleles?

    • A.

      Meiosis

    • B.

      Sex

    • C.

      Mutation

    • D.

      Migration

    Correct Answer
    C. Mutation
    Explanation
    Mutation serves to balance natural selection by creating new alleles. Mutations are random changes in the DNA sequence that can introduce new genetic variations into a population. These variations can provide a source of new traits and alleles that may be advantageous or disadvantageous in different environments. Natural selection acts on these new alleles, favoring those that increase an organism's fitness and survival. Therefore, mutation is essential for maintaining genetic diversity and counteracting the reduction of variation caused by natural selection.

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  • 15. 

    The core idea of evolutionary "success" is oriented around reproduction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Evolutionary "success" is determined by an organism's ability to pass on its genes to future generations. Reproduction is the key mechanism through which genes are transmitted, making it a fundamental aspect of evolutionary success. Organisms that are successful at reproducing and producing offspring that survive and reproduce themselves are considered to be evolutionarily successful. Therefore, the statement that the core idea of evolutionary "success" is oriented around reproduction is true.

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  • 16. 

    Which owl was most fit?

    • A.

      Owl 1 laid 8 eggs, of which 6 hatched and 5 young successfully left the nest

    • B.

      Owl 2 laid 9 eggs, of which 8 hatched and 3 young successfully left the nest

    • C.

      Owl 3 laid 12 eggs, of which 10 hatched and all were eaten by a squirrel

    • D.

      Owl 4 laid 4 eggs, of which all 4 hatched and all 4 young successfully left the nest

    Correct Answer
    D. Owl 4 laid 4 eggs, of which all 4 hatched and all 4 young successfully left the nest
    Explanation
    Owl 4 is the most fit because all 4 eggs hatched and all 4 young successfully left the nest. This indicates that Owl 4 had a high rate of successful reproduction and offspring survival compared to the other owls.

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  • 17. 

    According to the biological species concept, a species is

    • A.

      A group of individuals which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

    • B.

      A group of individuals which can interbreed and which live close enough together to actually do so

    • C.

      A group of individuals who look very similar

    • D.

      A group of individuals who have a common ancestor

    Correct Answer
    A. A group of individuals which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
    Explanation
    According to the biological species concept, a species is defined as a group of individuals who can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. This concept emphasizes reproductive compatibility as the key factor in determining species boundaries. If individuals from different groups can successfully mate and their offspring can also reproduce, then they are considered to belong to the same species. This definition focuses on the genetic exchange and reproductive potential within a group, rather than just physical similarities or common ancestry.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following pairs shows convergent evolution?

    • A.

      A bird wing and an insect wing

    • B.

      A bird wing and a human arm

    • C.

      Both pairs

    • D.

      Neither pair

    Correct Answer
    A. A bird wing and an insect wing
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution refers to the process where different species independently evolve similar traits or characteristics in response to similar environmental pressures. In this case, a bird wing and an insect wing are an example of convergent evolution because they have both evolved wings as a means of flight, despite belonging to different taxonomic groups. This similarity in structure and function is a result of adaptation to similar selective pressures for aerial locomotion.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is a homology shared by all living creatures?

    • A.

      46 chromosomes

    • B.

      A common genetic code

    • C.

      Hair

    • D.

      Nuclei in cells

    Correct Answer
    B. A common genetic code
    Explanation
    A common genetic code is a homology shared by all living creatures because it refers to the universal set of rules that govern the translation of genetic information from DNA to proteins. This code is shared by all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and allows for the transfer of genetic information across different species. It is essential for the functioning of life as it ensures the accurate synthesis of proteins, which are crucial for the structure and function of cells and organisms.

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  • 20. 

    Fossils are used as evidence to show that microevolution occurred.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Fossils are not used as direct evidence to show that microevolution occurred. Fossils provide evidence of macroevolution, which is the evolution of new species over long periods of time. Microevolution, on the other hand, refers to small-scale changes within a species over a shorter period of time. Microevolution is typically studied through genetic analysis and observation of living populations, rather than through the examination of fossils. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 21. 

    At one stage in their development, human embryos resemble fish embryos in having gill slits in their necks, and tails.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During the early stages of development, human embryos do indeed exhibit gill slits in their necks and tails, similar to fish embryos. These structures are remnants of our evolutionary past, highlighting our shared ancestry with fish. As the embryos continue to develop, these gill slits transform into other structures, such as the jaw and inner ear, while the tail eventually regresses. Therefore, the statement is true, as human embryos do resemble fish embryos in these aspects at a certain stage of development.

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  • 22. 

    The structural similarities between the flippers of whales and the arms of humans are used to show that:

    • A.

      The human species began life in the ocean

    • B.

      Humans and whales have a common ancestor

    • C.

      Whales evolved from humans

    • D.

      Whales are older than the human species

    Correct Answer
    B. Humans and whales have a common ancestor
    Explanation
    The structural similarities between the flippers of whales and the arms of humans suggest that humans and whales have a common ancestor. This means that at some point in the past, there was a shared ancestor that had a limb structure similar to both humans and whales. This explanation is supported by the theory of evolution, which states that different species can share common ancestry and that similarities in anatomical structures can be evidence of this shared heritage.

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  • 23. 

    If two species have descended from the same common ancestor, then

    • A.

      Those species will be identical

    • B.

      Those species will have no anatomical features in common

    • C.

      Those species will have DNA in common

    • D.

      Those species will still exist on Earth today

    Correct Answer
    C. Those species will have DNA in common
    Explanation
    If two species have descended from the same common ancestor, it means that they share a genetic heritage. This genetic heritage is passed down through DNA, so it is expected that those species will have DNA in common. This common DNA can be used to trace the evolutionary relationship between the species and identify similarities and differences in their genetic makeup. However, it does not mean that the species will be identical or have no anatomical features in common. The existence of the species on Earth today is not determined solely by their common ancestry, but by various other factors such as environmental changes and natural selection.

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  • 24. 

    Which is easy to see occurring around us?

    • A.

      Microevolution

    • B.

      Macroevolution

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    A. Microevolution
    Explanation
    Microevolution is the process of small-scale genetic changes within a population over a relatively short period of time. It is easier to observe and study because it can be seen happening within a few generations. Examples of microevolution include changes in allele frequencies, adaptation to local environments, and the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. On the other hand, macroevolution refers to large-scale evolutionary changes that result in the formation of new species or higher taxonomic groups. These changes occur over much longer periods of time and are more difficult to directly observe. Therefore, microevolution is easier to see occurring around us compared to macroevolution.

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  • 25. 

     Green alga is most closely related to ________?

    Correct Answer
    Moss
    Explanation
    Green algae and moss are both part of the plant kingdom, specifically the division Bryophyta. Mosses are classified as bryophytes, which are non-vascular plants that lack specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients. Green algae, on the other hand, are a diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that can be found in various habitats, including freshwater and marine environments. Despite their differences in size and complexity, green algae and moss share many similarities in terms of their reproductive strategies and ecological roles. This close relationship is reflected in their classification within the same division.

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  • 26. 

                       Node _________ corresponds to the most recent common ancestor of mushrooms and sponges.

    Correct Answer
    d
    Explanation
    In the given question, the blank is asking for the node that corresponds to the most recent common ancestor of mushrooms and sponges. Among the options provided, option d is the correct answer as it represents the common ancestor of mushrooms and sponges.

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  • 27. 

    If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then

    • A.

      The frequency of alleles is changing with each generation

    • B.

      It is evolving to adapt to environmental changes

    • C.

      Mutations, immigration, and selective mating are changing allele frequencies

    • D.

      It is not evolving and allele frequencies remain the same with each generation

    Correct Answer
    D. It is not evolving and allele frequencies remain the same with each generation
    Explanation
    If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it means that the population is not evolving. In this state, the allele frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next. This equilibrium is maintained when certain conditions are met, including a lack of mutations, no immigration or emigration, random mating, a large population size, and no natural selection. Therefore, the correct answer is that the population is not evolving and allele frequencies remain the same with each generation.

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  • 28. 

    Genetic drift is increased by all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Small population size

    • B.

      Genetic isolation of small groups within a population

    • C.

      Movement of individuals from one isolated population to another

    • D.

      None of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Genetic isolation of small groups within a population
    Explanation
    Genetic drift refers to the random changes in the frequency of gene variants within a population. It is influenced by factors that affect genetic variation and the likelihood of random changes occurring. Small population size and movement of individuals between isolated populations can increase genetic drift because they reduce genetic variation and increase the chance of random changes occurring. However, genetic isolation of small groups within a population would not increase genetic drift as it does not affect gene flow or the likelihood of random changes. Thus, the correct answer is genetic isolation of small groups within a population.

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  • 29. 

    For some traits (such as birth weight in mammals), natural selection favors individuals that are average and the extremes are selected against. This is known as

    • A.

      Diversifying selection

    • B.

      Adaptive radiation

    • C.

      Stabilizing selection

    • D.

      Directional selection

    Correct Answer
    C. Stabilizing selection
    Explanation
    Stabilizing selection occurs when natural selection favors individuals with average traits and selects against individuals with extreme traits. This leads to a reduction in genetic variation in the population and the maintenance of a stable, intermediate phenotype. In the case of birth weight in mammals, stabilizing selection would favor individuals with average birth weights, as individuals with extremely low or high birth weights may have reduced survival or reproductive success.

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  • 30. 

    A collection of a populations genes is called a _______________?

    Correct Answer
    gene pool
    Explanation
    A gene pool refers to the collection of all the genes, including all the different alleles, present in a particular population. It represents the genetic diversity within a population and is crucial for understanding how traits are inherited and how genetic variation can evolve over time through processes such as natural selection. By studying the gene pool, scientists can gain insights into the genetic makeup and potential for adaptation within a population.

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  • 31. 

    Which pattern of evolution shows how two species of different ancestry look very similar as a result of adapting to the same type of environment?

    Correct Answer
    Convergent Evolution
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution is the pattern of evolution where two species, with different ancestral origins, develop similar traits or characteristics due to adapting to the same type of environment. This occurs because natural selection favors certain traits that are beneficial for survival in a particular environment, leading to the independent evolution of similar features in unrelated species. Therefore, convergent evolution explains how two species of different ancestry can look very similar as a result of adapting to the same type of environment.

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  • 32. 

    During asexual reproduction the number of chromosomes decreases by half.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    During asexual reproduction, the number of chromosomes does not decrease by half. In asexual reproduction, a single organism produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself, without the involvement of gametes or the fusion of genetic material from two parents. Therefore, the number of chromosomes remains the same in the offspring as in the parent organism.

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