Anthropology 205- Incorrect Ones

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Anthropology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In the United States, approximately what percentage of children under 18 years has been involved in incestuous relations?

    • A.

      A. 2 to 3%

    • B.

      B. 14 to 15%

    • C.

      C. 4 to 10%

    • D.

      D. 10 to 14%

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 10 to 14%
  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements about incest is most accurate?

    • A.

      A. just as marriage in various forms is found in all cultures, so is the incest taboo

    • B.

      B. there are essentially two incest taboos found in different cultures

    • C.

      C. there is only one incest taboo found in all cultures

    • D.

      D. every religion has only one incest taboo

    Correct Answer
    B. B. there are essentially two incest taboos found in different cultures
    Explanation
    The most accurate statement about incest is that there are essentially two incest taboos found in different cultures. This suggests that different cultures may have different rules or restrictions regarding incestuous relationships. It implies that there is not a universal consensus or agreement on the subject across all cultures and societies.

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  • 3. 

    Currently, first cousin marriage is illegal in how many states in the United States?

    • A.

      A. none

    • B.

      B. 19

    • C.

      C. 31

    • D.

      D. 50

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 31
    Explanation
    First cousin marriage is illegal in 31 states in the United States. This means that it is legal in the remaining 19 states. The laws regarding cousin marriage vary from state to state, with some states allowing it without any restrictions, some allowing it with certain conditions, and others outright prohibiting it.

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  • 4. 

    Polygyny is favored by what percentage of the world’s cultures?

    • A.

      A. 20%

    • B.

      B. 40%

    • C.

      C. 60%

    • D.

      D. 80%

    Correct Answer
    D. D. 80%
    Explanation
    Polygyny is the practice of having multiple wives at the same time. The given answer suggests that 80% of the world's cultures favor polygyny. This means that in the majority of cultures around the world, polygyny is accepted and practiced.

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  • 5. 

    The simultaneous marriage of several brothers to a single wife is called:

    • A.

      A. fraternal polyandry

    • B.

      B. fraternal monogamy

    • C.

      C. fraternal polygyny

    • D.

      D. fraternal polygamy

    Correct Answer
    A. A. fraternal polyandry
    Explanation
    Fraternal polyandry refers to the practice of multiple brothers being married to one woman. This form of marriage is found in certain cultures and is often motivated by economic factors, such as limited resources or land. It can also serve to maintain family unity and prevent the division of ancestral property. Fraternal polyandry is different from fraternal monogamy, which would involve each brother having their own individual wife. Fraternal polygyny, on the other hand, would involve multiple wives for one man. Fraternal polygamy is a more general term that can encompass both polyandry and polygyny.

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  • 6. 

    What is the rationale for bridewealth in a patrilineal society?

    • A.

      A. the wife is expensive to maintain and the groom must be compensated

    • B.

      B. the wife’s family will lose her labor and reproductive capacity

    • C.

      C. the wife’s family negotiates a better marriage with a high bridewealth

    • D.

      D. the wife’s children will drain resources from her husband’s family over time

    Correct Answer
    B. B. the wife’s family will lose her labor and reproductive capacity
    Explanation
    In a patrilineal society, where descent is traced through the male line, the rationale for bridewealth is that the wife's family will lose her labor and reproductive capacity. In such societies, women typically leave their natal families and join their husband's family after marriage. The bridewealth serves as compensation to the wife's family for the loss of her productive abilities, as she will now be contributing to her husband's family instead. This practice helps to ensure that the wife's family is not left at a disadvantage after the marriage takes place.

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  • 7. 

    Among the Mundurucu, until the age of 13 all children live exclusively with their:

    • A.

      A. grandparents

    • B.

      B. both mothers and fathers

    • C.

      C. fathers and older brothers

    • D.

      D. mothers and younger siblings

    Correct Answer
    D. D. mothers and younger siblings
    Explanation
    In the Mundurucu culture, children live exclusively with their mothers and younger siblings until the age of 13. This suggests that the mothers play a primary caregiving role in the upbringing of the children, while the younger siblings may also contribute to their care. The absence of fathers and older brothers in the living arrangement implies that they may have different roles or responsibilities within the community.

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  • 8. 

    According to a cross-cultural survey of 192 families, the most common family is:

    • A.

      A. nuclear

    • B.

      B. extended

    • C.

      C. conjugal

    • D.

      D. polygamous

    Correct Answer
    B. B. extended
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B. extended. According to the cross-cultural survey of 192 families, the most common family structure is the extended family. This means that in a majority of the surveyed families, multiple generations and relatives live together in the same household. This finding suggests that in many cultures, the extended family is the prevailing family structure rather than nuclear (A), conjugal (C), or polygamous (D) families.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is considered primarily responsible for raising children among the Inuit?

    • A.

      A. siblings only

    • B.

      B. the extended family

    • C.

      C. the wife in a nuclear family

    • D.

      D. all adult members of the community

    Correct Answer
    C. C. the wife in a nuclear family
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C. the wife in a nuclear family. This means that in Inuit culture, it is primarily the responsibility of the wife in a nuclear family to raise children. This suggests that the Inuit value the role of the mother in child-rearing and see it as her primary duty within the family structure.

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  • 10. 

    The most common family type in traditional farming and herding cultures is the:

    • A.

      A. conjugal family

    • B.

      B. nuclear family

    • C.

      C. extended family

    • D.

      D. blended family

    Correct Answer
    A. A. conjugal family
    Explanation
    In traditional farming and herding cultures, the most common family type is the conjugal family. This type of family consists of a husband, wife, and their dependent children. In these cultures, the family unit is typically focused on the nuclear family, with the parents and children living together and sharing responsibilities. The extended family, which includes relatives beyond the immediate family, may also be important in these cultures, but the conjugal family is the most prevalent family type. The blended family, which includes step-parents and step-siblings, is less common in traditional farming and herding cultures.

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  • 11. 

    In nonindustrial societies, the most common way of meeting needs such as resource allocation, law enforcement, and societal functions is through the:

    • A.

      A. clan system

    • B.

      B. religious system

    • C.

      C. kinship system

    • D.

      D. political system

    Correct Answer
    D. D. political system
    Explanation
    In nonindustrial societies, the most common way of meeting needs such as resource allocation, law enforcement, and societal functions is through the political system. This is because the political system involves the establishment and implementation of rules, regulations, and policies that govern the functioning of a society. It provides a structure for decision-making, organization, and coordination of various societal functions. The political system also ensures the allocation of resources and the enforcement of laws to maintain order and stability within the society.

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  • 12. 

    In what country do we find the Maori?

    • A.

      A. New Zealand

    • B.

      B. Australia

    • C.

      C. Trobriand Islands

    • D.

      D. Papua New Guinea

    Correct Answer
    A. A. New Zealand
    Explanation
    The Maori people are indigenous to New Zealand. They have a rich cultural heritage and are known for their unique language, art, and customs. The Maori have a significant presence in New Zealand and have contributed to shaping the country's identity and history.

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  • 13. 

    In matrilineal descent groups, the children of a family belong to the descent group of their:

    • A.

      A. father

    • B.

      B. father’s brother

    • C.

      C. father’s grandmother

    • D.

      D. mother’s brother

    Correct Answer
    C. C. father’s grandmother
    Explanation
    In matrilineal descent groups, the children belong to the descent group of their father's grandmother. This means that the lineage is traced through the female line, specifically through the father's mother's side of the family. This is different from patrilineal descent groups, where the lineage is traced through the male line. In matrilineal societies, the father's grandmother holds a significant role in determining the descent group to which the children belong.

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  • 14. 

    The clan results from:

    • A.

      A. extended family

    • B.

      B. descent group formation

    • C.

      C. lineage fission

    • D.

      D. lineage fusion

    Correct Answer
    A. A. extended family
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A. extended family. A clan is a social group that consists of multiple extended families who share a common ancestor. This means that the clan results from the formation and inclusion of multiple extended families within it. The extended family is a larger kinship group that includes multiple generations and branches of a family, and it forms the basis for the formation of a clan.

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  • 15. 

    An extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor is called a:

    • A.

      A. phratry

    • B.

      B. descent group

    • C.

      C. clan

    • D.

      D. lineage

    Correct Answer
    C. C. clan
    Explanation
    A clan is an extended unilineal kinship group that consists of multiple lineages and its members claim to have descended from a common ancestor. Clans are often found in societies that practice unilineal descent, where kinship is traced through either the maternal or paternal line. The members of a clan typically share a sense of identity and solidarity, and often have certain rights and obligations towards each other.

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  • 16. 

    When descent derives from both mother’s and father’s lines equally, it is called:

    • A.

      Unilineal descent

    • B.

      Ambilineal descent

    • C.

      Double descent

    • D.

      Bilateral descent

    Correct Answer
    D. Bilateral descent
    Explanation
    Bilateral descent refers to a system of tracing descent from both the mother's and father's lines equally. In this system, individuals belong to both their mother's and father's kinship groups and have rights and obligations towards both sides of the family. This is different from unilineal descent, where descent is traced only through one line (either the mother's or father's), ambilineal descent, where individuals have the choice to affiliate with either the mother's or father's line, or double descent, where descent is traced through both the mother's and father's lines but with different purposes or functions.

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  • 17. 

    “Kindred” is frequently associated with what mode of subsistence?

    • A.

      Industrialism

    • B.

      Horticulture

    • C.

      Pastoralism

    • D.

      Foraging

    Correct Answer
    A. Industrialism
    Explanation
    "Kindred" is a term commonly used to refer to a group of people who are related by blood or marriage. In the context of subsistence, it is often associated with industrialism because industrial societies tend to prioritize individualism and nuclear family units over extended kinship networks. In contrast, horticulture, pastoralism, and foraging are modes of subsistence that are typically associated with smaller, more tightly-knit kinship groups where the concept of "kindred" is more relevant.

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  • 18. 

    With which type of descent is Eskimo terminology most associated?  

    • A.

      Unilineal

    • B.

      Double

    • C.

      Ambilineal

    • D.

      Bilateral

    Correct Answer
    D. Bilateral
    Explanation
    Bilateral descent is a type of descent system in which individuals trace their ancestry through both their mother's and father's lineages. In Eskimo terminology, the concept of kinship is based on bilateral descent, meaning that individuals are equally related to both their mother's and father's relatives. This is in contrast to unilineal descent systems, such as patrilineal or matrilineal, where individuals trace their ancestry through only one line. The term "bilateral" in this context refers to the equal importance and recognition of both maternal and paternal kinship ties.

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  • 19. 

    Which kinship terminology reflects the absence of strong unilineal descent?

    • A.

      Eskimo

    • B.

      Hawaiian

    • C.

      Crow

    • D.

      Omaha

    Correct Answer
    B. Hawaiian
    Explanation
    Hawaiian kinship terminology reflects the absence of strong unilineal descent because it does not emphasize tracing descent through either the father's or mother's line exclusively. In Hawaiian kinship, there is a more fluid approach to tracing kinship, with equal importance given to both sides of the family. This is in contrast to Eskimo, Crow, and Omaha kinship terminologies, which place a stronger emphasis on tracing descent through either the father's or mother's line.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following factors affect a person’s position in society all over the world (universally)?

    • A.

      Age and sex

    • B.

      Social class and occupation

    • C.

      Sex and social class

    • D.

      Age and occupation

    Correct Answer
    A. Age and sex
    Explanation
    The factors that universally affect a person's position in society are age and sex. These two factors are often used to categorize individuals and determine their roles, rights, and responsibilities within a society. Age can influence a person's access to education, employment opportunities, and social status. Similarly, sex or gender can shape societal expectations, roles, and access to resources. These factors are pervasive across cultures and can significantly impact an individual's position in society.

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  • 21. 

    The Jewish bar mitzvah is an example of an:

    • A.

      Age group

    • B.

      Age class

    • C.

      Age grade

    • D.

      Age set

    Correct Answer
    C. Age grade
    Explanation
    The Jewish bar mitzvah is an example of an age grade. In Jewish tradition, a boy becomes a bar mitzvah at the age of 13, which signifies his coming of age and his responsibility to observe the commandments of the Torah. This age grade marks the transition from childhood to adulthood in the Jewish community.

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  • 22. 

    The degree of mobility in a stratified society is related to the kind of:

    • A.

      Family organization

    • B.

      Class statuses

    • C.

      Occupation classes

    • D.

      Religious organization

    Correct Answer
    C. Occupation classes
    Explanation
    The degree of mobility in a stratified society is related to the kind of occupation classes. This means that the social mobility within a society is determined by the different classes of occupations that exist. In a stratified society, individuals from lower occupation classes may have limited opportunities for upward mobility, while those in higher occupation classes may have more opportunities for advancement. Therefore, the kind of occupation classes present in a society plays a significant role in determining the degree of mobility within that society.

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  • 23. 

    Greater mobility is generally associated with a:

    • A.

      Nontraditional family

    • B.

      Polygamous family

    • C.

      Extended family

    • D.

      Nuclear family

    Correct Answer
    C. Extended family
    Explanation
    An extended family typically consists of multiple generations living together or in close proximity, which allows for greater mobility within the family unit. This is because extended families often provide support and assistance to one another, which may involve moving to be closer to family members or sharing resources such as housing. In contrast, a nuclear family typically consists of only parents and their children, limiting the potential for mobility within the family unit. Nontraditional and polygamous families do not necessarily have a direct correlation with mobility.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following characteristics does not describe an uncentralized political system?

    • A.

      Large population

    • B.

      High levels of individual freedom

    • C.

      Leaders with no formal political power

    • D.

      Subsistence economy

    Correct Answer
    A. Large population
    Explanation
    An uncentralized political system is characterized by high levels of individual freedom, leaders with no formal political power, and a subsistence economy. However, the presence of a large population does not necessarily define an uncentralized political system. A political system can have a large population and still be centralized, with power concentrated in the hands of a few individuals or a central authority. Therefore, a large population is not a characteristic of an uncentralized political system.

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  • 25. 

    What is the primary reason for lower incidences of warfare among food foragers?

    • A.

      Frequent mobility

    • B.

      Little occupational specialization

    • C.

      Significant role of the family lineage

    • D.

      Small amounts of food surplus

    Correct Answer
    C. Significant role of the family lineage
    Explanation
    The primary reason for lower incidences of warfare among food foragers is the significant role of the family lineage. In food foraging societies, the family lineage plays a crucial role in maintaining social order and resolving conflicts. The strong kinship ties and shared ancestry create a sense of unity and cooperation among the members of the society. This reduces the likelihood of warfare as disputes and conflicts are often resolved through mediation and negotiation within the family lineage.

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  • 26. 

    What is unique about the Kpelle chiefdoms?

    • A.

      The paramount chiefs tax their citizens to generate revenue

    • B.

      The paramount chiefs do not represent the people

    • C.

      The paramount chiefs receive a salary from the state government

    • D.

      The chiefs are paramount and each rules a separate country

    Correct Answer
    C. The paramount chiefs receive a salary from the state government
    Explanation
    The unique aspect of the Kpelle chiefdoms is that the paramount chiefs receive a salary from the state government. This sets them apart from other chiefdoms where chiefs may rely on taxes or other means to generate revenue. The fact that the chiefs receive a salary indicates a formalized relationship with the government and suggests a level of integration between the chiefdoms and the state.

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  • 27. 

    What is the primary difference between a rule of law and a rule of custom?

    • A.

      Laws employ overt coercion

    • B.

      Customs employ overt coercion

    • C.

      Laws involve few legal claims

    • D.

      Customs involve legal sanctions

    Correct Answer
    D. Customs involve legal sanctions
    Explanation
    The primary difference between a rule of law and a rule of custom is that customs involve legal sanctions. This means that customs are backed by the legal system and can be enforced through legal means. On the other hand, laws also employ overt coercion, but they may not necessarily involve legal sanctions. Laws can be enforced through various means, including legal action, but they can also be enforced through social norms and informal mechanisms. Therefore, the key distinction lies in the fact that customs specifically involve legal sanctions, while laws may or may not involve them.

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  • 28. 

    Why does every society develop sanctions?

    • A.

      Because internalized controls are not sufficient

    • B.

      Because they are threatened by other groups at all times

    • C.

      Because sanctions provide structure to social institutions

    • D.

      Because sanctions allow societies to compete with each other

    Correct Answer
    A. Because internalized controls are not sufficient
    Explanation
    Every society develops sanctions because internalized controls are not sufficient. Internalized controls refer to the individual's own moral compass and personal values. However, these internal controls may not always be enough to ensure that individuals adhere to societal norms and expectations. Sanctions, such as laws and punishments, provide external reinforcement and consequences for deviating from these norms. They serve as a deterrent and help maintain order and social cohesion within a society.

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  • 29. 

    All of the following are basic functions of the law except:

    • A.

      To define relationships among society’s members

    • B.

      To redefine social relations and ensure social flexibility

    • C.

      To allocate authority to employ coercion

    • D.

      To mark out proper behavior under unspecified circumstances

    Correct Answer
    D. To mark out proper behavior under unspecified circumstances
    Explanation
    The law serves to define relationships among society's members, allocate authority to employ coercion, and redefine social relations to ensure social flexibility. However, it does not specifically mark out proper behavior under unspecified circumstances. The law provides guidelines and regulations for behavior in specific situations, but it cannot account for every possible circumstance. Therefore, it is not a basic function of the law to mark out proper behavior under unspecified circumstances.

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  • 30. 

    According to Ury, what is the “third side?”

    • A.

      The ability to resolve disputes without the use of legal sanctions and coercion

    • B.

      The role that the surrounding community plays in resolving disputes between parties

    • C.

      The actual conflict resolution itself

    • D.

      The goal of promoting world peace and the elimination of all disputes

    Correct Answer
    B. The role that the surrounding community plays in resolving disputes between parties
    Explanation
    The "third side" refers to the role that the surrounding community plays in resolving disputes between parties. According to Ury, this third side includes people who are not directly involved in the conflict but have an interest in its resolution. They can act as mediators, facilitators, or arbitrators, helping the conflicting parties find a mutually agreeable solution. This concept emphasizes the importance of involving the community in conflict resolution and highlights the potential for collective action to address disputes without resorting to legal sanctions or coercion.

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  • 31. 

    In the United States today, there are approximately how many declared practitioners of Buddhism?

    • A.

      10,000-20,000

    • B.

      9-10 million

    • C.

      800,000-1 million

    • D.

      2-3 million

    Correct Answer
    C. 800,000-1 million
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 800,000-1 million. This range represents the approximate number of declared practitioners of Buddhism in the United States today. It suggests that there is a significant population of individuals who identify as Buddhists and actively practice the religion in the country.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is one of the most common activities of shamross-culturally?

    • A.

      Controlling animals

    • B.

      Healing the sick

    • C.

      Bringing rain

    • D.

      Punishing enemies

    Correct Answer
    C. Bringing rain
    Explanation
    Bringing rain is considered one of the most common activities of shamans cross-culturally. Shamans are spiritual practitioners who are believed to have the ability to communicate with spirits and influence the natural world. Many indigenous cultures believe that shamans have the power to bring rain through their rituals and connections with the spiritual realm. This belief is prevalent in various cultures around the world, where shamans are called upon to perform rain-making ceremonies during periods of drought or to ensure a successful harvest.

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  • 33. 

    The meanings ascribed to sensations experienced in altered states are:

    • A.

      Determined solely by the shaman

    • B.

      Universally the same

    • C.

      Biologically determined

    • D.

      Culturally determined

    Correct Answer
    D. Culturally determined
    Explanation
    The answer "culturally determined" means that the meanings ascribed to sensations experienced in altered states vary based on the culture in which the individual resides. Different cultures may have different beliefs, interpretations, and understandings of altered states of consciousness. These cultural factors shape and influence the way individuals perceive and interpret their experiences in altered states. Therefore, the meaning of these sensations is not universally the same but rather dependent on the cultural context in which they are experienced.

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  • 34. 

    The powerful healing force recognized by the Ju/’hoansi is called:  

    • A.

      Boa

    • B.

      Manitou

    • C.

      N/um

    • D.

      Mana

    Correct Answer
    C. N/um
    Explanation
    The Ju/'hoansi recognize a powerful healing force called n/um.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is not a common reason to enter a trance state among the Ju/’hoansi?

    • A.

      To bring rain

    • B.

      To heal the sick

    • C.

      To control animals

    • D.

      To preserve crops

    Correct Answer
    D. To preserve crops
    Explanation
    The Ju/'hoansi people commonly enter a trance state for various purposes such as bringing rain, healing the sick, and controlling animals. However, preserving crops is not mentioned as one of the common reasons for entering a trance state among the Ju/'hoansi.

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  • 36. 

    The transition that is effected in a rite of passage is comparable to:

    • A.

      Social death and rebirth

    • B.

      Marriage and union

    • C.

      Sorcery and witchcraft

    • D.

      Specialization

    Correct Answer
    A. Social death and rebirth
    Explanation
    In a rite of passage, individuals go through a significant change or transformation, similar to the concept of social death and rebirth. During this transition, they leave behind their old social identity and status, symbolizing a "death" of their previous self. They then undergo a period of liminality, where they are in a state of ambiguity and transition, before emerging with a new social identity and status, symbolizing a "rebirth" into a new role or position within society. This comparison highlights the transformative nature of a rite of passage and the profound impact it can have on an individual's social identity.

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  • 37. 

    Rites of passage include all of the following stages except:  

    • A.

      Incorporation

    • B.

      Transformation

    • C.

      Transition

    • D.

      Separation

    Correct Answer
    B. Transformation
    Explanation
    Rites of passage are ceremonies or rituals that mark important transitions in a person's life. These transitions typically involve three stages: separation from the previous status, a liminal or transitional phase, and incorporation into the new status. Transformation, on the other hand, refers to a change or conversion. While transformation can occur during a rite of passage, it is not one of the stages that are typically included in the concept of rites of passage.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following best describes witchcraft?

    • A.

      Belief that some individuals possess the supernatural power to manipulate objects

    • B.

      Belief that some individuals possess psychic power to cause harm

    • C.

      Belief that some individuals can travel at night and cause altered states

    • D.

      Belief that some individuals possess specific formulas to temporarily change people

    Correct Answer
    B. Belief that some individuals possess psychic power to cause harm
    Explanation
    Witchcraft is best described as the belief that some individuals possess psychic power to cause harm. This belief suggests that certain people have the ability to use supernatural forces to intentionally inflict harm on others. It implies that these individuals have the power to manipulate and control events through their psychic abilities, specifically for malicious purposes. This understanding of witchcraft aligns with historical and cultural perceptions of witches as malevolent beings who use their powers to cause harm or misfortune.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is not commonly used in the practice of contagious magic?

    • A.

      Clips of hair from someone

    • B.

      Images and likenesses of someone

    • C.

      Fingernail clippings from someone

    • D.

      A special piece of jewelry that belongs to someone

    Correct Answer
    B. Images and likenesses of someone
    Explanation
    In the practice of contagious magic, various objects are used to transfer or invoke certain qualities or powers. Clips of hair, fingernail clippings, and special pieces of jewelry that belong to someone are commonly used as they are believed to contain the essence or energy of the person. However, images and likenesses of someone are not commonly used in contagious magic as they are considered to be representations rather than actual objects that hold the person's energy.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following best describes revitalization movements?

    • A.

      A movement for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption

    • B.

      A movement for political change in response to economic destruction

    • C.

      A movement for liberation during times of oppression by outside forces

    • D.

      A religious movement that styles itself on communistic structures

    Correct Answer
    A. A movement for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption
    Explanation
    Revitalization movements refer to movements that aim to bring about significant cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption. These movements typically seek to revitalize or rejuvenate traditional cultural practices and values in order to address the challenges and changes brought about by social disruption. They are not primarily focused on political change or economic destruction, but rather on cultural revitalization. Additionally, they are not specifically religious movements or modeled after communistic structures.

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  • 41. 

    In the United States which of the following revitalization movements occurred?

    • A.

      Asatru

    • B.

      Cargo cults

    • C.

      Mau Mau uprising

    • D.

      Sun Dance

    Correct Answer
    B. Cargo cults
  • 42. 

    Which of the following is not a subprocess of modernization?

    • A.

      Industrialization

    • B.

      Agricultural development

    • C.

      Urbanization

    • D.

      Politicization

    Correct Answer
    D. Politicization
    Explanation
    Politicization is not a subprocess of modernization because modernization refers to the process of adopting modern ways of life, technology, and systems. It typically involves industrialization, which is the development of industries and manufacturing, agricultural development, which is the improvement of agricultural practices, and urbanization, which is the growth and development of cities. Politicization, on the other hand, refers to the act of making something political or involving politics, which is not directly related to the process of modernization.

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  • 43. 

    Two or more neighboring ethnic groups maintaining a loose political union while retaining their own cultural identities is referred to as a:

    • A.

      Pluralistic society

    • B.

      Ethnocentric society

    • C.

      International society

    • D.

      Multicultural society

    Correct Answer
    A. Pluralistic society
    Explanation
    A pluralistic society refers to a situation where two or more neighboring ethnic groups maintain a loose political union while still retaining their own cultural identities. In such a society, different ethnic groups coexist and interact with each other while preserving their distinct cultural practices and beliefs. This allows for diversity and multiculturalism within the larger political framework.

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  • 44. 

    Structural power:

    • A.

      Has decreasing significance in the new global order

    • B.

      Diverts attention from the relationship between the new global order and political institutions

    • C.

      Fails to capture the complex new cultural formation in the world

    • D.

      Applies to regional political organizations

    Correct Answer
    D. Applies to regional political organizations
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "applies to regional political organizations." This means that structural power is applicable or relevant to regional political organizations. The other options in the question suggest that structural power has decreasing significance in the new global order, diverts attention from the relationship between the new global order and political institutions, and fails to capture the complex new cultural formation in the world. However, the correct answer states that structural power applies specifically to regional political organizations.

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  • 45. 

    Globalization involves all of the following except:

    • A.

      Restructured social field of force

    • B.

      Controlled profit growth

    • C.

      Development of new commercial markets

    • D.

      Struggle for scarce natural resources

    Correct Answer
    B. Controlled profit growth
    Explanation
    Globalization involves the restructured social field of force, development of new commercial markets, and the struggle for scarce natural resources. However, it does not involve controlled profit growth. Globalization is characterized by the expansion of economic activities across national borders, the integration of markets, and the movement of goods, services, capital, and technology. Controlled profit growth implies a restriction on the growth of profits, which is not a characteristic of globalization.

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  • 46. 

    What threats do megacorporations pose to national governments?

    • A.

      Megacorporations have their own governments and do not work in national countries

    • B.

      It is challenging for governments to find the sufficient workers for the corporations

    • C.

      Global corporations prefer to make all foreign policy decisions without laws

    • D.

      It is difficult for governments to get information from them for informed policy decisions

    Correct Answer
    D. It is difficult for governments to get information from them for informed policy decisions
    Explanation
    Megacorporations pose a threat to national governments because it is difficult for governments to obtain information from them for making informed policy decisions. This lack of transparency can hinder the government's ability to regulate and control the actions of these corporations, potentially leading to issues such as tax evasion, exploitation of resources, or unfair business practices. Without access to pertinent information, governments may struggle to effectively govern and protect the interests of their citizens.

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  • 47. 

    Today, the top 100 companies control what percentage of the world’s total assets?

    • A.

      33

    • B.

      21

    • C.

      50

    • D.

      73

    Correct Answer
    A. 33
    Explanation
    According to the given question, the top 100 companies control a certain percentage of the world's total assets. The correct answer is 33, which means that these top 100 companies control 33% of the world's total assets. This indicates that a significant portion of global wealth and resources is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small number of powerful corporations.

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  • 48. 

    The collapse of local markets due to subsidized foreign imports is an example of:

    • A.

      Hard power

    • B.

      Structural violence

    • C.

      Structural coercion

    • D.

      External coercion

    Correct Answer
    B. Structural violence
    Explanation
    The collapse of local markets due to subsidized foreign imports can be seen as an example of structural violence. Structural violence refers to the systematic ways in which social structures and institutions harm individuals or groups by preventing them from meeting their basic needs. In this case, the subsidized foreign imports create an unfair advantage for foreign producers, leading to the collapse of local markets and causing harm to local producers and workers who are unable to compete. This can result in poverty, unemployment, and other forms of social and economic deprivation, which are characteristics of structural violence.

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  • 49. 

    Between 1950 and 2000 the world population reached a high of:

    • A.

      16 billion

    • B.

      6 billion

    • C.

      2 billion

    • D.

      8 billion

    Correct Answer
    B. 6 billion
    Explanation
    Between 1950 and 2000, the world population reached a high of 6 billion. This means that during this time period, the global population peaked at 6 billion people.

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  • 50. 

    The poorest 20% of the world’s population subsists on what percentage of all goods and services in the world?

    • A.

      3.2%

    • B.

      0.7%

    • C.

      1.9%

    • D.

      1.3%

    Correct Answer
    D. 1.3%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1.3%. This means that the poorest 20% of the world's population subsists on only 1.3% of all goods and services in the world. This suggests that there is a significant wealth disparity in the world, with a small percentage of the population controlling a large majority of the resources.

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