Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 2 (2013)

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Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 2 (2013) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Taung Child" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    B. Australopithecus africanus
    Explanation
    The Taung Child, an ancient bipedal hominid, is a member of the species Australopithecus africanus. This species is known for being one of the earliest hominids to have walked upright on two legs. The Taung Child is a significant fossil discovery, as it provided crucial evidence for the theory of human evolution. It was discovered in 1924 in South Africa and is believed to have lived around 2.8 million years ago.

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  • 2. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Lucy" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    A. Australopithecus aferensis
    Explanation
    Lucy, the ancient bipedal hominid, is a member of the species Australopithecus aferensis. This species lived around 3.2 million years ago and is considered an important ancestor of modern humans. Lucy's skeletal remains were discovered in Ethiopia in 1974 and provided valuable insights into the early stages of human evolution.

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  • 3. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Handy Man" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • B.

      Homo habilis

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo habilis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Homo habilis. Homo habilis, also known as "Handy Man," is an ancient bipedal hominid species. This species lived approximately 2.4 to 1.4 million years ago and is considered one of the earliest members of the Homo genus. Homo habilis is known for its tool-making abilities, which earned it the nickname "Handy Man."

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  • 4. 

    Modern humans are members of which species?

    • A.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • B.

      Homo habilis

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    C. Homo sapiens
    Explanation
    Modern humans are members of the species Homo sapiens. Homo neanderthalensis, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus are all different species of early humans that existed in the past, but they are not the same species as modern humans.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not a monkey?

    • A.

      Homo sapiens

    • B.

      Baboon

    • C.

      Lemur

    • D.

      Tarsier

    Correct Answer
    A. Homo sapiens
    Explanation
    Homo sapiens is not a monkey because it belongs to the species of great apes. While monkeys and humans share a common ancestor, humans have evolved separately and are classified as a distinct species. Monkeys, on the other hand, belong to the group of primates known as simians. Therefore, Homo sapiens is not a monkey.

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  • 6. 

    The oldest living primate group are the ___.

    • A.

      Prosimians

    • B.

      Old world monkeys

    • C.

      Hominids

    • D.

      Gorillas

    Correct Answer
    A. Prosimians
    Explanation
    The correct answer is prosimians. Prosimians are a group of primates that include lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. They are considered the oldest living primate group because they have characteristics that resemble early primates. Prosimians have retained some primitive features such as a wet nose, large eyes, and a reliance on olfaction. They are also typically smaller in size compared to other primate groups. Overall, the characteristics and evolutionary history of prosimians make them the oldest living primate group.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of hominids?

    • A.

      Prehensile tails

    • B.

      Walking upright

    • C.

      Opposable thumbs

    • D.

      Large brains

    Correct Answer
    A. Prehensile tails
    Explanation
    Hominids are a group of primates that includes humans and their closest relatives. They are characterized by several distinct features, such as walking upright, having opposable thumbs, and possessing large brains. However, one characteristic that hominids do not possess is prehensile tails. Unlike some other primates, hominids do not have tails that are capable of grasping or holding onto objects. Therefore, prehensile tails are not a characteristic of hominids.

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  • 8. 

    What is the only hominid to co-exist with Homo sapiens in Europe?

    • A.

      Homo erectus

    • B.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • C.

      Homo habilis

    • D.

      Homo robustus

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo neanderthalensis
    Explanation
    Homo neanderthalensis is the correct answer because it is the only hominid species that co-existed with Homo sapiens in Europe. Neanderthals lived in Europe and parts of Asia from about 400,000 to 40,000 years ago. They had a close evolutionary relationship with modern humans and evidence suggests that there was some interbreeding between the two species. The other options, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, and Homo robustus, did not coexist with Homo sapiens in Europe.

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  • 9. 

    Humans are thought to be descendants of ___.

    • A.

      Homo erectus

    • B.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • C.

      Homo habilis

    • D.

      Paranthropus boisei

    Correct Answer
    A. Homo erectus
    Explanation
    Homo erectus is believed to be the direct ancestor of modern humans. Fossil evidence suggests that Homo erectus lived approximately 1.8 million to 200,000 years ago and was the first hominin species to migrate out of Africa. They had a larger brain size, walked upright, and used tools, making them an important evolutionary link between earlier hominin species and Homo sapiens. Therefore, it is widely accepted that modern humans are descendants of Homo erectus.

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  • 10. 

    What two groups are most hominid species classified into?

    • A.

      Australopithecus and Homo

    • B.

      Africanus and habilis

    • C.

      Homo and sapiens

    • D.

      Australopithecus and Anthropida

    Correct Answer
    A. Australopithecus and Homo
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Australopithecus and Homo. Hominid species are classified into these two groups because they represent different stages of human evolution. Australopithecus species are considered to be early hominids, while Homo species are considered to be more closely related to modern humans. This classification is based on various anatomical and behavioral characteristics observed in fossil records.

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  • 11. 

    In searching for the origins of humanity, what characteristic did scientists identify as the first step in human evolution?

    • A.

      Bipedal locomotion

    • B.

      Language

    • C.

      Art and imagination

    • D.

      Large brain

    Correct Answer
    A. Bipedal locomotion
    Explanation
    Scientists have identified bipedal locomotion as the first step in human evolution. This means that the ability to walk on two legs instead of four was a crucial characteristic that distinguished early humans from their primate ancestors. Bipedalism allowed humans to free up their hands for tool use and eventually led to the development of complex societies and civilizations. Additionally, bipedal locomotion played a significant role in shaping the human skeleton and musculature, leading to further adaptations and advancements in human evolution.

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  • 12. 

    Why is it most common to find only the skull of an ancient hominid?

    • A.

      They only buried the heads of the dead.

    • B.

      Scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily.

    • C.

      Skulls tend to look more like rocks.

    • D.

      Other hominids cannibalize their dead.

    Correct Answer
    B. Scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily.
    Explanation
    It is most common to find only the skull of an ancient hominid because scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily. This is because smaller bones are lighter and easier to transport, making them more vulnerable to being carried away by scavengers. The skull, being larger and heavier, is less likely to be carried off, resulting in a higher chance of preservation and discovery.

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  • 13. 

    Scientist often take dirt samples from the area around the fossil find. They do this to ....

    • A.

      Help determine the relative age of the fossil

    • B.

      Keep the fossil from rotting

    • C.

      Provide visual context for where the fossil was found

    • D.

      Provide a keep-sake of the discovery

    Correct Answer
    A. Help determine the relative age of the fossil
    Explanation
    Scientists often take dirt samples from the area around the fossil find to help determine the relative age of the fossil. By analyzing the layers of sediment and the types of rocks present in the soil, scientists can establish the geological context in which the fossil was deposited. This information allows them to estimate the age of the fossil and understand the environmental conditions at the time it was formed.

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  • 14. 

    To help unravel the mysteries of human evolution, paleoanthropologists use all of the following except ___.

    • A.

      Fossilized bones

    • B.

      Endocasts of the brains

    • C.

      Molecular clocks

    • D.

      Written historical records

    Correct Answer
    D. Written historical records
    Explanation
    Paleoanthropologists study human evolution by examining various sources of evidence. Fossilized bones provide valuable information about our ancestors' physical characteristics and behavior. Endocasts of the brains help researchers understand the cognitive abilities and brain structures of early humans. Molecular clocks enable scientists to estimate the timing of evolutionary events based on genetic data. However, written historical records are not used in the study of human evolution because they only cover a relatively recent period of time and do not provide direct evidence of our evolutionary past.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following facts supporting evolution would be found in the study of paleontology?

    • A.

      Embryos of very different organisms have very similar developmental stages.

    • B.

      A bats wing and a whales flipper have very similar bone structure.

    • C.

      Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).

    • D.

      More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.

    Correct Answer
    D. More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.
    Explanation
    The fact that more primitive fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers supports evolution because it suggests a progression of life forms over time. As organisms evolve and new species emerge, they leave behind their fossilized remains in the layers of the Earth's crust. The deeper layers contain fossils of simpler, more primitive organisms, while the upper layers contain fossils of more complex organisms. This pattern is consistent with the idea that life has evolved and become more complex over millions of years.

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  • 16. 

    All of the following branches of science provide evidence for evolution EXCEPT ___.

    • A.

      Biogeography

    • B.

      Embriology

    • C.

      Paleontology

    • D.

      Oncology

    Correct Answer
    D. Oncology
    Explanation
    Oncology is the study of cancer, which does not provide direct evidence for evolution. Biogeography studies the distribution of species, which can provide evidence for evolution through patterns of migration and adaptation. Embryology examines the development of organisms, which can reveal similarities in early stages of development among different species, supporting the idea of common ancestry. Paleontology studies fossils, which provide direct evidence for the existence and evolution of past species.

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  • 17. 

    Modern whales have vestigieal pelvic bones and lungs instead of gills. What does this evidence suggest about whale ancestors?

    • A.

      Whale ancestors lived on land.

    • B.

      Whale ancestors did not evolve.

    • C.

      Whale ancestors lived 850 million years ago.

    • D.

      Whale ancestors ate opossums.

    Correct Answer
    A. Whale ancestors lived on land.
    Explanation
    The presence of vestigial pelvic bones and lungs in modern whales suggests that their ancestors lived on land. The vestigial pelvic bones indicate a previous adaptation for hind limbs, which would have been necessary for land-dwelling animals. Additionally, the presence of lungs instead of gills suggests that their ancestors did not have an aquatic lifestyle, further supporting the idea that they lived on land.

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  • 18. 

    The wing of an ostrich would be classified as a(n) ___.

    • A.

      Homologous structure

    • B.

      Analogous structure

    • C.

      Vestigial structure

    • D.

      Fossil structure

    Correct Answer
    C. Vestigial structure
    Explanation
    The wing of an ostrich would be classified as a vestigial structure because it is a reduced and non-functional version of a structure that was fully functional in its ancestors. Ostriches are flightless birds and their wings have evolved to be smaller and less developed compared to the wings of birds that can fly. These wings serve no purpose in terms of flight but may still have some residual functions, such as balance or courtship displays. Therefore, the vestigial structure classification is appropriate for the ostrich wing.

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  • 19. 

    Charles Darwin's poetic grandfather was ___.

    • A.

      Erasmus Darwin

    • B.

      Eugene Darwin

    • C.

      Carolus Linnaeus

    • D.

      Georges de Buffon

    Correct Answer
    A. Erasmus Darwin
    Explanation
    Erasmus Darwin is the correct answer because he was Charles Darwin's grandfather and was known for his poetic abilities. Erasmus Darwin was a physician, naturalist, and poet who wrote several works on botany and evolution. He was a prominent figure in the scientific community and influenced Charles Darwin's interest in natural history and evolutionary thinking. Erasmus Darwin's poetic skills and scientific contributions made him a significant figure in the intellectual development of Charles Darwin.

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  • 20. 

    The process of biological change over time by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors is called ___.

    • A.

      Evolution

    • B.

      Artificial selection

    • C.

      Uniformitarianism

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Evolution
    Explanation
    Evolution refers to the process of biological change over time in which descendants come to differ from their ancestors. It involves the gradual accumulation of genetic variations through mechanisms such as natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation. This process leads to the development of new species and the diversity of life on Earth. Artificial selection, on the other hand, is a human-driven process that involves selectively breeding organisms for desired traits. Uniformitarianism is a geological principle that states that the same natural processes observed today have operated throughout Earth's history. Mutation is a random change in an organism's DNA sequence, which can lead to genetic variation but is not the sole driver of evolution.

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  • 21. 

    Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. From this evidence Darwin suggested that Earth was

    • A.

      Only 6000 years old.

    • B.

      Only 2000 years old.

    • C.

      Less than 6000 years old.

    • D.

      Much more than 6000 years old.

    Correct Answer
    D. Much more than 6000 years old.
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. This evidence contradicted the idea that Earth was only a few thousand years old. Instead, it suggested that Earth must be much older than previously believed. Darwin's theory of evolution and the concept of natural selection also supported the idea of a much older Earth, as these processes would require significant amounts of time for species to evolve and adapt. Therefore, the correct answer is much more than 6000 years old.

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  • 22. 

    Which theory states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history?

    • A.

      Catastrophism

    • B.

      Uniformitarianism

    • C.

      Gradualism

    • D.

      Natural selection

    Correct Answer
    A. Catastrophism
    Explanation
    Catastrophism is the theory that states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history. This theory suggests that these natural disasters are the result of sudden and violent events, such as massive floods or earthquakes, rather than gradual processes. This theory was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries but has been largely replaced by the theory of uniformitarianism, which suggests that geological processes occur gradually and at a constant rate.

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  • 23. 

    Which scientist developed a classification system for organisms?

    • A.

      Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

    • B.

      Carolus Linnaeus

    • C.

      Charles Darwin

    • D.

      Georges de Buffon

    Correct Answer
    B. Carolus Linnaeus
    Explanation
    Carolus Linnaeus developed a classification system for organisms. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy and is credited with developing the binomial nomenclature system, which assigns a two-part scientific name to each species. Linnaeus's system of classification organized organisms into a hierarchical structure based on their similarities and differences, allowing for easier identification and categorization of species. His work laid the foundation for the modern field of taxonomy and has greatly influenced the study of biodiversity.

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  • 24. 

    What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?

    • A.

      Variation

    • B.

      Adaptation

    • C.

      Homologous structure

    • D.

      Vestigial structure

    Correct Answer
    B. Adaptation
    Explanation
    Adaptation refers to a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment. It is a trait or characteristic that has developed over time through the process of natural selection. Organisms that are better adapted to their environment have a higher chance of survival and reproduction, passing on their advantageous traits to future generations. Variation, homologous structure, and vestigial structure are related concepts but do not specifically refer to the feature that enhances survival in an environment.

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  • 25. 

    If an organism has a vestigial structure, that structure likely once had a function in a(n)

    • A.

      Earlier ancestor.

    • B.

      Close relative.

    • C.

      Unrelated organism.

    • D.

      Embryological stage.

    Correct Answer
    A. Earlier ancestor.
    Explanation
    If an organism has a vestigial structure, it means that the structure is present in the organism but no longer serves its original purpose. This suggests that the structure was functional in an earlier ancestor of the organism. As organisms evolve over time, certain structures may become unnecessary or redundant, leading to their gradual loss of function. Therefore, the presence of a vestigial structure indicates a shared ancestry with an organism in which the structure was functional.

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  • 26. 

    Which scientist proposed that if an organism used a structure so much that it grew, the trait of that larger structure could be passed to its offspring?

    • A.

      Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

    • B.

      Erasmus Darwin

    • C.

      Charles Lyell

    • D.

      Georges de Buffon

    Correct Answer
    A. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    Explanation
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed the idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics. According to Lamarck, if an organism used a structure extensively during its lifetime, that structure would grow and develop, and these changes would be passed down to its offspring. This concept, known as Lamarckism, suggested that traits acquired during an individual's lifetime could be inherited by future generations. However, this idea has been largely discredited by modern genetics and natural selection.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a term for a group of similar organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring?

    • A.

      Individual

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Species

    • D.

      Fossil

    Correct Answer
    C. Species
    Explanation
    A species is a term used to describe a group of similar organisms that have the ability to reproduce and produce fertile offspring. This is because members of the same species share similar genetic traits and can interbreed successfully. The other options, such as individual, population, and fossil, do not specifically refer to a group of organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring.

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  • 28. 

    The difference in the physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals in a group is called a(n)

    • A.

      Variation.

    • B.

      Change.

    • C.

      Adaptation.

    • D.

      Species.

    Correct Answer
    A. Variation.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "variation". Variation refers to the differences in physical traits among individuals within a group. It can include variations in characteristics such as height, hair color, eye color, and other physical features. This term is used to describe the natural diversity that exists within a species, allowing for different individuals to have unique traits while still belonging to the same group. Change, adaptation, and species are not accurate descriptions of the differences in physical traits among individuals.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is a fossil?

    • A.

      A plant that has recently died

    • B.

      A group of similar organisms that can reproduce

    • C.

      A structure or organ that no longer functions

    • D.

      A trace of an organism that existed in the past

    Correct Answer
    D. A trace of an organism that existed in the past
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a trace of an organism that existed in the past". Fossils are the remains or traces of plants, animals, or other organisms that lived long ago. They can include bones, shells, footprints, imprints, or even preserved soft tissues. Fossils provide valuable information about the history of life on Earth and can help scientists understand how organisms have evolved over time.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following facts supporting evolution would be found in the study of biogeography?

    • A.

      Embryos of very different organisms have very similar developmental stages.

    • B.

      A bats wing and a whales flipper have very similar bone structure.

    • C.

      Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).

    • D.

      More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).
    Explanation
    The presence of large, flightless birds on different continents supports the idea of evolution through biogeography. This is because it suggests that these birds evolved independently on each continent after their ancestors were separated by geographical barriers. The fact that these birds share similar characteristics despite being geographically isolated indicates convergent evolution, where different species develop similar traits in response to similar environmental conditions. This supports the theory that species can adapt and evolve in different regions, leading to the development of similar traits in unrelated organisms.

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  • 31. 

    The combined alleles of all the individuals in a population is called the ___.

    • A.

      Allele frequency

    • B.

      Gene pool

    • C.

      Adaptation

    • D.

      Phenotype frequency

    Correct Answer
    B. Gene pool
    Explanation
    The combined alleles of all the individuals in a population is referred to as the gene pool. This term encompasses the total genetic information present in a population, including all the different alleles for each gene. The gene pool is essential for understanding genetic diversity and how traits are inherited and distributed within a population. It serves as the basis for studying population genetics and evolutionary processes.

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  • 32. 

    Which effect of natural selection is depicted in the graph?

    • A.

      Directional selection

    • B.

      Disruptive selection

    • C.

      Stabilizing selection

    • D.

      Sexual selection

    Correct Answer
    C. Stabilizing selection
    Explanation
    Stabilizing selection is depicted in the graph when the average phenotype of a population is favored over extreme variations. This means that individuals with traits close to the average have a higher fitness, while those with extreme traits have lower fitness. This results in a reduction of genetic diversity in the population as the extreme traits are selected against.

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  • 33. 

    When a few individuals start a new colony, it most likely results in ...

    • A.

      Genetic drift through the founder effect.

    • B.

      More variety in the new population.

    • C.

      Extinction due to the bottleneck effect.

    • D.

      Mutation due to disruptive selection.

    Correct Answer
    A. Genetic drift through the founder effect.
    Explanation
    When a few individuals start a new colony, it most likely results in genetic drift through the founder effect. This is because when a small group of individuals separate from a larger population to start a new colony, they carry only a fraction of the genetic diversity present in the original population. As a result, the new population is likely to have a reduced genetic variation compared to the original population. This genetic drift can lead to the fixation of certain alleles and the loss of others, which can have significant effects on the genetic makeup of the new population over time.

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  • 34. 

    The movement of alleles from one population to another is called ___.

    • A.

      The founder effect

    • B.

      Microevolution

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Gene flow

    Correct Answer
    D. Gene flow
    Explanation
    Gene flow refers to the movement of alleles from one population to another. This can occur through the migration of individuals, who carry their genetic material with them to a new population. Gene flow plays a crucial role in shaping the genetic diversity of populations and can introduce new alleles or remove existing ones. It can also prevent populations from becoming genetically isolated and promote the exchange of genetic material between different populations.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is not a mechanism for evolution?

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Sexual selection

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Random mating

    Correct Answer
    D. Random mating
    Explanation
    Random mating refers to the process where individuals in a population mate without any preference or selection based on specific traits. This means that individuals mate with each other purely by chance, without any influence from factors such as physical characteristics or behavior. While random mating can affect the distribution of genetic traits in a population, it is not considered a mechanism for evolution because it does not lead to changes in the genetic composition of a population over time. Evolution requires mechanisms such as natural selection, sexual selection, and genetic drift, which can result in changes in the frequency of specific traits within a population.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the five mechanisms of evolution is illustrated in the following scenario: A change in body color enabled animals to better hide from predators.

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Gene flow

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection
    Explanation
    The correct answer is natural selection. Natural selection is the process by which organisms that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their beneficial traits to future generations. In this scenario, the change in body color allowed the animals to better hide from predators, increasing their chances of survival. As a result, individuals with this advantageous trait were more likely to reproduce and pass on the trait, leading to a gradual increase in the population with the new body color. This is a clear example of natural selection favoring individuals with a specific trait that enhances their survival and reproductive success.

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  • 37. 

    When a male bird of paradise displays its tail feathers, it is exhibiting ____ behavior.

    • A.

      Intrasexual selection

    • B.

      Intersexual selection

    • C.

      Isolation

    • D.

      Natural selection

    Correct Answer
    B. Intersexual selection
    Explanation
    Intersexual selection refers to the process in which individuals of one sex choose mates based on certain desirable traits or behaviors. In the case of male birds of paradise displaying their tail feathers, they are engaging in intersexual selection because they are trying to attract females for mating by showcasing their elaborate and colorful feathers. This behavior is not related to intrasexual selection, isolation, or natural selection, which makes intersexual selection the correct answer.

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  • 38. 

    When an individual ___ from its population, the genetic diversity of the population decreases.

    • A.

      Emigrates

    • B.

      Immigrates

    • C.

      Isolates

    • D.

      Mutates

    Correct Answer
    A. Emigrates
    Explanation
    When an individual emigrates from its population, it means that it leaves and moves to a different location or population. This results in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the original population because the individual takes its unique genetic traits with it, reducing the overall variety of genes within the population.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is not a condition for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

    • A.

      No natural selection

    • B.

      No sexual selection

    • C.

      No mutation

    • D.

      No genetic drift

    • E.

      No gene flow

    • F.

      No overproduction

    Correct Answer
    F. No overproduction
    Explanation
    The concept of overproduction is not a condition for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes that there is a large population size, so the concept of overproduction is not relevant. In Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the population is assumed to be of infinite size, so there is no need for overproduction to ensure genetic variation.

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  • 40. 

    ___ is a type of reproductive isolation in which differing mating rituals prevent individuals from different populations from mating.

    • A.

      Geographic isolation

    • B.

      Behavioral isolation

    • C.

      Temporal isolation

    • D.

      Intersexual isolation

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavioral isolation
    Explanation
    Behavioral isolation is a type of reproductive isolation in which differing mating rituals prevent individuals from different populations from mating. This means that even if individuals from different populations come into contact with each other, they will not mate because their mating behaviors and rituals are different. This can include differences in courtship displays, mating calls, or other behaviors that are necessary for successful reproduction. As a result, individuals from different populations are unable to produce offspring together, leading to reproductive isolation.

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  • 41. 

    ___ is a type of reproductive isolation in which oceans, mountains, or deserts keep populations from interbreeding.

    • A.

      Geographic isolation

    • B.

      Behavioral isolation

    • C.

      Temporal isolation

    • D.

      Intersexual isolation

    Correct Answer
    A. Geographic isolation
    Explanation
    Geographic isolation refers to the physical barriers such as oceans, mountains, or deserts that prevent populations from interbreeding. These barriers create separate habitats for different populations, limiting their ability to mate and exchange genetic material. Over time, the isolated populations may evolve independently, leading to the development of distinct species. Therefore, geographic isolation is a type of reproductive isolation that occurs due to physical barriers in the environment.

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  • 42. 

    ___ is a process by which unrelated organisms independantly evolve similar features in response to changes in the environment.

    • A.

      Coevolution

    • B.

      Convergent evolution

    • C.

      Divergent evolution

    • D.

      Deevolution

    Correct Answer
    B. Convergent evolution
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which unrelated organisms develop similar characteristics in response to similar environmental pressures. This occurs because these organisms occupy similar ecological niches and face similar selective pressures, leading to the independent evolution of similar traits. This phenomenon can be observed in various examples, such as the wings of bats and birds, which evolved independently but serve the same function of flight.

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  • 43. 

    ___ is a type of evolution in which organisms change in response to other organisms with which they have ecological relationships.

    • A.

      Coevolution

    • B.

      Convergent evolution

    • C.

      Divergent evolution

    • D.

      Deevolution

    Correct Answer
    A. Coevolution
    Explanation
    Coevolution is a type of evolution in which organisms change in response to other organisms with which they have ecological relationships. This process occurs when two or more species exert selective pressure on each other, leading to reciprocal adaptations. As a result, both species evolve in response to each other's changes, often leading to a close and mutually beneficial relationship. Coevolution can be seen in various ecological relationships, such as predator-prey interactions, mutualistic symbiosis, or competitive interactions.

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  • 44. 

    The process by which new species arise from prior species is known as ___.

    • A.

      Speciation

    • B.

      Genetic anomaly

    • C.

      Divine creation

    • D.

      Bottleneck effect

    Correct Answer
    A. Speciation
    Explanation
    Speciation refers to the process through which new species are formed from existing species. It involves the development of reproductive isolation, where populations become reproductively incompatible due to various factors such as geographic isolation, genetic changes, or behavioral differences. This leads to the accumulation of genetic differences over time, resulting in the formation of distinct species. Speciation is a fundamental concept in evolutionary biology and is supported by extensive scientific evidence. Genetic anomaly, divine creation, and bottleneck effect are not accurate explanations for the process of new species formation.

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  • 45. 

    The differences between members of the same species are known as ___.

    • A.

      Variations

    • B.

      Adaptations

    • C.

      Mutations

    • D.

      Genetic isolation

    Correct Answer
    A. Variations
    Explanation
    Variations refer to the differences that exist between members of the same species. These differences can be in terms of physical characteristics, behavior, or genetic makeup. Variations can occur due to genetic factors or environmental factors, and they play a crucial role in the process of natural selection and evolution. Adaptations, on the other hand, are specific traits or characteristics that enable an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment. Mutations are random changes in the DNA sequence that can lead to variations. Genetic isolation refers to the separation of a population from others, leading to the development of distinct genetic characteristics.

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  • 46. 

    A ___ is a group of individuals of the same species in the same geographic area.

    • A.

      Population

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Breeding family

    • D.

      Community

    Correct Answer
    A. Population
    Explanation
    A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same geographic area. This term is used to describe the collective group of organisms of a particular species that interact and interbreed with each other. It helps scientists study and understand the dynamics and characteristics of a specific species within a defined area.

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  • 47. 

    The process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than others is known as ___.

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Sexual selection

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Gene flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection
    Explanation
    Natural selection is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment have a higher chance of surviving and reproducing, passing on their advantageous traits to the next generation. This leads to the gradual accumulation of beneficial traits in a population over time. Sexual selection refers to the selection of mates based on certain traits, genetic drift refers to random changes in the frequency of traits in a population, and gene flow refers to the movement of genes between different populations.

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  • 48. 

    ___ is a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce during different times of the year.

    • A.

      Temporal isolation

    • B.

      Behavioral isolation

    • C.

      Geographic isolation

    • D.

      Mutagenic isolation

    Correct Answer
    A. Temporal isolation
    Explanation
    Temporal isolation is a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce during different times of the year. This means that individuals from these populations are unable to mate with each other because they are not in reproductive condition at the same time. This can lead to the formation of separate species over time, as genetic exchange between the populations is prevented.

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  • 49. 

    Scientists attemp to date fossils by examining the radioactive isotopes. This method is called ___.

    • A.

      Radiometric dating

    • B.

      Relative dating

    • C.

      Speed dating

    • D.

      Geologic time scaling

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiometric dating
    Explanation
    Radiometric dating is the correct answer because it refers to the method of dating fossils by analyzing the radioactive isotopes present in them. This process involves measuring the decay of these isotopes over time to determine the age of the fossils. It is a reliable technique used by scientists to estimate the age of rocks and fossils, providing valuable insights into Earth's history and the evolution of life.

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  • 50. 

    What type of selection occurs when individuals in a population with the intermediate phenotype are selected for?

    • A.

      Directional selection

    • B.

      Stabilizing selection

    • C.

      Intermediate selection

    • D.

      Disruptive selection

    Correct Answer
    B. Stabilizing selection
    Explanation
    Stabilizing selection occurs when individuals with the intermediate phenotype are selected for. This means that extreme phenotypes are less favored and individuals with average or intermediate traits have a higher chance of survival and reproduction. This leads to a reduction in phenotypic variation over time and a narrowing of the population's phenotype range. Stabilizing selection helps to maintain the status quo and keeps the population well-adapted to its current environment.

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