Phylogenetic Exam For Animal

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The goal for animal _________ is to arrange animals into groups that reflect _______ _________ .

    Explanation
    The goal for animal taxonomy is to arrange animals into groups that reflect their evolutionary relationships. Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms based on their characteristics and evolutionary history. By studying the similarities and differences between different species, taxonomists can determine how closely related they are and group them accordingly. This helps scientists understand the evolutionary history of different species and how they are related to one another.

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  • 2. 

    What is the tool used to depict evolutionary relationships? 

    • A.

      Dendrodites

    • B.

      Fossil

    • C.

      Cladistics

    • D.

      Nomenclature

    • E.

      Phylogenetic Tree

    Correct Answer
    E. Phylogenetic Tree
    Explanation
    A phylogenetic tree is a tool used to depict evolutionary relationships. It is a branching diagram that shows the evolutionary history and relationships between different species or groups of organisms. The branches of the tree represent the evolutionary lineages, and the nodes indicate the common ancestors. By analyzing the similarities and differences in genetic and physical traits, scientists can construct phylogenetic trees to understand the evolutionary connections between organisms and trace their common ancestry.

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  • 3. 

    The two types of phylogenetic trees are __________ and _________.

    Correct Answer
    dendrograms, cladograms
    cladograms, dendrograms
    Explanation
    The two types of phylogenetic trees are dendrograms and cladograms. Dendrograms are tree-like diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships between different species or groups of species. They are commonly used in biology to represent the similarities and differences between organisms. On the other hand, cladograms are also tree-like diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships between organisms, but they specifically focus on the branching patterns of shared derived characteristics. Both dendrograms and cladograms are important tools in understanding the evolutionary history and relationships of different species.

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  • 4. 

    Cladograms help indicate

    • A.

      Distance

    • B.

      Recent common ancestor

    Correct Answer
    B. Recent common ancestor
    Explanation
    Cladograms are diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among different species or groups. They are used to illustrate the branching patterns of evolution and the relationships between different organisms. The term "recent common ancestor" refers to the most recent individual from which two or more different species or groups have descended. Therefore, the correct answer indicates that cladograms help in indicating the recent common ancestor of different species or groups.

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  • 5. 

    What are the three main schools of systematics used to construct trees?

    • A.

      Molecular systematics

    • B.

      Numerical taxonomy (phenetics)

    • C.

      Cladistics/Phylogenetics

    • D.

      Anatomical taxonomy

    • E.

      Evolutionary systematics

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Numerical taxonomy (phenetics)
    C. Cladistics/Phylogenetics
    E. Evolutionary systematics
    Explanation
    The three main schools of systematics used to construct trees are numerical taxonomy (phenetics), cladistics/phylogenetics, and evolutionary systematics. Numerical taxonomy focuses on quantifying similarities and differences among organisms based on observable characteristics. Cladistics/phylogenetics, on the other hand, uses shared derived characteristics to determine evolutionary relationships and construct trees. Evolutionary systematics combines both the morphological and genetic data to understand the evolutionary history of organisms. Anatomical taxonomy is not one of the main schools of systematics used to construct trees.

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  • 6. 

    _______________ _____________ says that organisms closely related to an ancestor will resemble that ancestor more closely than they resemble distantly related organisms.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Evolutionary systematics
    Explanation
    Evolutionary systematics is a branch of biology that focuses on classifying organisms based on their evolutionary relationships. According to this concept, organisms that share a more recent common ancestor will exhibit more similarities to that ancestor compared to organisms that are distantly related. This principle helps scientists understand the evolutionary history of different species and how they are related to one another.

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  • 7. 

    Resemblances that result from common ancestry, common evolutionary orgins are called:

    • A.

      Homologies

    • B.

      Analogies

    • C.

      Homoplasy

    Correct Answer
    A. Homologies
    Explanation
    An example would be a whale's flipper and a bat's wing. Different function, same parts.

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  • 8. 

    Resemblances that evolved independently of each other are called:

    • A.

      Homologies

    • B.

      Analogies

    • C.

      Homoplasy

    Correct Answer
    C. Homoplasy
    Explanation
    (non-homologous) An example would be a katydid and a leaf.

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  • 9. 

    ____________ _________ mathematically computes organismal relatedness based on the total number of shared techniques. 

    Correct Answer
    Numerical taxonomy
    Explanation
    Numerical taxonomy is a method that uses mathematical calculations to determine the relatedness between organisms based on the number of shared characteristics or techniques. It involves assigning numerical values to different characteristics and then using these values to calculate the overall similarity between organisms. This approach allows for a quantitative assessment of organismal relatedness, making it a useful tool in the field of taxonomy.

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  • 10. 

    These are characteristcs of phylogentics/cladistics

    • A.

      The classification is based upon recency of common decent

    • B.

      Uses three types: analogies, homologies, and homoplasy to classify

    • C.

      The use of mathematical techniques to classify organisms.

    • D.

      Relationships are based on the number of shared characteristics.

    • E.

      Priority is given to the number of shared, derived characteristics.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The classification is based upon recency of common decent
    D. Relationships are based on the number of shared characteristics.
    E. Priority is given to the number of shared, derived characteristics.
    Explanation
    The classification in phylogenetics/cladistics is based upon the recency of common descent, meaning that organisms are grouped together based on how recently they shared a common ancestor. Relationships between organisms are determined by the number of shared characteristics, with priority given to the number of shared, derived characteristics. This means that organisms with more shared characteristics are considered to be more closely related.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 13, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Colleennicole
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