Cross-cultural Psychology - Intermediate Quiz

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| By Sirius.black
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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Among Hofstede’s dimensions, which one represents the following sentence “a society's tolerance for ambiguity:

    • A.

      Power Distance

    • B.

      Risk Avoidance

    • C.

      Uncertainty Acceptance

    • D.

      Uncertainty Avoidance

    Correct Answer
    D. Uncertainty Avoidance
    Explanation
    Uncertainty Avoidance represents a society's tolerance for ambiguity. This dimension measures the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. Societies with high uncertainty avoidance tend to have strict rules, regulations, and social norms to reduce uncertainty and minimize risks. On the other hand, societies with low uncertainty avoidance are more open to change, ambiguity, and new ideas. Therefore, Uncertainty Avoidance is the dimension that best represents a society's tolerance for ambiguity.

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  • 2. 

    Among Hofstede’s dimensions, “Subordinates expect to be consulted VS Subordinates expect to be told what to do” is a difference regarding: 

    • A.

      Power distance

    • B.

      Uncertainty Avoidance

    • C.

      Masculinity - Femininity

    • D.

      Long-term or short-term orientation

    Correct Answer
    A. Power distance
    Explanation
    This difference regarding "Subordinates expect to be consulted VS Subordinates expect to be told what to do" is related to the concept of power distance. Power distance refers to the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. In societies with a high power distance, subordinates typically expect to be told what to do and follow instructions without question. In contrast, in societies with a low power distance, subordinates expect to be consulted and have more input in decision-making processes.

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  • 3. 

    Among Hofstede’s dimensions, “Sympathy for the weak VS Admiration for the strong” is a difference regarding:

    • A.

      Power distance

    • B.

      Uncertainty Avoidance

    • C.

      Masculinity-Femininity

    • D.

      Long-term versus Short-term orientation

    Correct Answer
    C. Masculinity-Femininity
    Explanation
    The dimension of "Sympathy for the weak VS Admiration for the strong" falls under the category of Masculinity-Femininity. This dimension refers to the extent to which a society values traditionally masculine traits such as assertiveness, competition, and material success, versus traditionally feminine traits such as compassion, cooperation, and quality of life. The question is asking about a difference in attitudes towards the weak and the strong, which is related to the values and preferences associated with masculinity and femininity.

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  • 4. 

    Among Hofstede’s dimensions, Individualism versus Collectivism is:

    • A.

      Related to the different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality

    • B.

      Related to the level of stress in a society in the face of an unknown future

    • C.

      Related to the integration of individuals into primary groups

    • D.

      Related to the choice of focus for people's efforts: the future or the present and past

    Correct Answer
    C. Related to the integration of individuals into primary groups
  • 5. 

    Among Hofstede’s dimensions, one difference related to the dimension “Masculinity-Femininity” is: 

    • A.

      Right of privacy VS stress on belonging

    • B.

      Balance between work and family VS work prevails over family

    • C.

      Changing jobs no problem VS staying in jobs even if disliked

    • D.

      Immediate need gratification expected VS Need gratification deferred

    Correct Answer
    B. Balance between work and family VS work prevails over family
    Explanation
    This difference is related to the dimension of "Masculinity-Femininity" because it contrasts the balance between work and family, which is associated with a more feminine culture, with work prevailing over family, which is associated with a more masculine culture. In a culture where work prevails over family, there is a stronger emphasis on achievement, competition, and material success, while in a culture with a balance between work and family, there is a greater focus on quality of life, relationships, and well-being.

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  • 6. 

    According to Gannon's cultural metaphor Italian Opera, Italy can be described by the following components:

    • A.

      Spectacle and pageantry; use of voice; interiorization; the chorus

    • B.

      Spectacle and pageantry; use of voice; exteriorization; the chorus

    • C.

      Spectacle and pageantry; use of voice; exteriorization; the individual

    • D.

      Strategy warlike atmosphere; extreme specialization; selection and training; celebrating perfection

    Correct Answer
    B. Spectacle and pageantry; use of voice; exteriorization; the chorus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is spectacle and pageantry; use of voice; exteriorization; the chorus. This answer aligns with Gannon's cultural metaphor of Italian Opera, which describes Italy as a country characterized by grand displays, vocal expression, outward expression of emotions, and the importance of the chorus in performances.

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  • 7. 

    According to Bennet’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, people in a Defense worldview:

    • A.

      Can construct culture-general categories that allow them to generate a range of relevant cultural contrasts among many cultures

    • B.

      Experience their cultural elements as universal

    • C.

      Consider their own culture as the only viable one –the most “evolved” form of civilization

    • D.

      Generally are disinterested in cultural difference even when it is brought to their attention

    Correct Answer
    C. Consider their own culture as the only viable one –the most “evolved” form of civilization
    Explanation
    According to Bennet's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, people in a Defense worldview consider their own culture as the only viable one and the most evolved form of civilization. This means that they believe their own culture is superior to others and may not be open to understanding or appreciating cultural differences. They may not be interested in learning about other cultures even when it is brought to their attention. This worldview reflects a lack of cultural sensitivity and an ethnocentric perspective.

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  • 8. 

    The ABC theory of cultural contact stays for:

    • A.

      Acculturation, Beliefs, Change

    • B.

      Acculturation, Behavior, Cognition

    • C.

      Affection, Behavior, Cognition

    • D.

      Affection, Behavior, Contact

    Correct Answer
    C. Affection, Behavior, Cognition
    Explanation
    The ABC theory of cultural contact states that when individuals from different cultures come into contact with each other, three key factors come into play: affection, behavior, and cognition. Affection refers to the emotional aspects of the interaction, such as feelings of liking or disliking the other culture. Behavior refers to the observable actions and practices exhibited by individuals during the contact. Cognition refers to the mental processes involved, such as thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes towards the other culture. This theory suggests that these three factors interact and influence each other during cultural contact.

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  • 9. 

    The lower standing of women in some societies attracts condemnation in cultures that value non-discriminatory gender relations. Conversely, members of male-dominated societies regard the occupational and sexual independence of Western women as repugnant and offensive. This represents an evidence for:

    • A.

      Similarity-attraction hypothesis

    • B.

      The Culture-Distance hypothesis

    • C.

      The Differences in Core Values hypothesis

    • D.

      None of the above mentioned options

    Correct Answer
    C. The Differences in Core Values hypothesis
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, "The Differences in Core Values hypothesis," is that the statement describes a situation where different cultures have contrasting values and beliefs regarding the standing and independence of women. This suggests that the lower standing of women in some societies and the condemnation of it in other cultures is due to differences in core values. This hypothesis implies that cultural norms and values play a significant role in shaping attitudes towards gender relations.

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  • 10. 

    Bennet’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) describes:

    • A.

      The process of culture shock

    • B.

      The process of cumulative cultural evolution

    • C.

      The formation of stereotypes and prejudices

    • D.

      The move from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism

    Correct Answer
    D. The move from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism
    Explanation
    Bennet's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) describes the move from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism. Ethnocentrism refers to the belief that one's own culture is superior to others, while ethnorelativism is the ability to understand and appreciate cultural differences without judgment. The model explains how individuals progress through different stages of cultural sensitivity, starting from a more ethnocentric mindset and gradually developing a more ethnorelative perspective. It emphasizes the importance of recognizing and valuing cultural diversity, leading to increased intercultural understanding and effective communication.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 09, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Sirius.black
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