Bone And Skeletal Tissues And Ch. 8 Joint

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| By ECapiral7
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ECapiral7
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 1,382
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 306

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Tissue Quizzes & Trivia

Bone and skeletal tissues form part of the anatomy. How interesting is it to learn about them and discover their numerous functions? Find out much more on these through the test below and increase your knowledge. Enjoy.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is

    • A.

      Osteoporosis

    • B.

      Osteomyelitis

    • C.

      Osteitis

    • D.

      Osteopenia

    • E.

      Osteomalacia

    Correct Answer
    A. Osteoporosis
    Explanation
    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a reduction in bone mass, which leads to weakened and brittle bones. This reduction in bone mass is significant enough to compromise normal bone function, making individuals more susceptible to fractures and injuries. Osteomyelitis is a bone infection, osteitis is inflammation of the bone, osteopenia is a milder form of bone loss, and osteomalacia is a softening of the bones due to vitamin D deficiency. None of these conditions specifically involve a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function, unlike osteoporosis.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following factors would NOT affect bone growth?

    • A.

      Exercise and gravity

    • B.

      Genetic factors

    • C.

      Increased intake of protein

    • D.

      Diet deficiencies in vitamins D and C, and minerals such as calcium

    • E.

      Stimulation by hormones such as growth hormone, testosterone, thyroid hormone and estrogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased intake of protein
    Explanation
    Increased intake of protein would not affect bone growth. While protein is important for overall bone health, it is not directly responsible for bone growth. Factors such as exercise, genetic factors, diet deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, and stimulation by hormones play a more significant role in bone growth. Protein helps in the formation of collagen, which is a component of bone, but it does not directly contribute to bone growth.

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  • 3. 

    Elevated levels of calcium ions in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone

    • A.

      Growth hormone

    • B.

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C.

      Calcitonin

    • D.

      Thyroxine

    • E.

      Testosterone

    Correct Answer
    C. Calcitonin
    Explanation
    Calcitonin is a hormone that is released by the thyroid gland in response to elevated levels of calcium ions in the blood. Its main function is to lower blood calcium levels by inhibiting the release of calcium from the bones and promoting its excretion by the kidneys. Therefore, when there are elevated levels of calcium ions in the blood, the body stimulates the secretion of calcitonin to help regulate and maintain calcium homeostasis.

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  • 4. 

    How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?

    • A.

      The bones would be less compressible

    • B.

      The bones would be stronger

    • C.

      The bones would be less flexible

    • D.

      The bones would be more brittle

    • E.

      The bones would be more flexible

    Correct Answer
    E. The bones would be more flexible
    Explanation
    Increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix would result in the bones being more flexible. Organic molecules, such as collagen, provide flexibility and elasticity to the bone, allowing it to withstand bending and stretching forces. Inorganic components, such as calcium phosphate, provide strength and rigidity to the bone. Therefore, increasing the proportion of organic molecules would decrease the overall strength and rigidity of the bone, making it more flexible.

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  • 5. 

    During a checkup of a 50 year old woman, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. Her physican suggests hormone therapy after reviewing the test results. What hormone is prescribed for the patient?

    • A.

      Growth hormone

    • B.

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C.

      Estrogen

    • D.

      Thyroid hormone

    • E.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    C. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is prescribed for the patient because it helps to prevent bone loss and maintain bone density. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weakened and brittle bones, and estrogen therapy can help to slow down the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of fractures. Estrogen plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health, and its decline during menopause can contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Therefore, hormone therapy with estrogen is recommended for postmenopausal women to help protect their bones and prevent further deterioration.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the periosteum of a bone is NOT true?

    • A.

      The periosteum provides strong attachment and continuity from tendon to bone

    • B.

      The periosteum consists of an outer dense connective tissue layer and an inner osteogenic layer

    • C.

      All bone in the body is covered by periosteum

    • D.

      Blood vessels enter bone through periosteum

    • E.

      Periosteum is important for bone growth in width

    Correct Answer
    C. All bone in the body is covered by periosteum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All bone in the body is covered by periosteum." This statement is not true because not all bone in the body is covered by periosteum. Some bones, such as the sesamoid bones, do not have periosteum. Periosteum is a connective tissue that covers most bones in the body, but not all.

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  • 7. 

    Bone forming cells originate from

    • A.

      Osteocytes

    • B.

      Osteoclasts

    • C.

      Osteoprogenitor cells

    • D.

      Osteoblasts

    Correct Answer
    D. Osteoblasts
    Explanation
    Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of bones. They originate from osteoprogenitor cells, which are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts secrete the collagen and other proteins that form the bone matrix, and they also play a role in mineralizing the bone. Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are derived from osteoblasts and are involved in maintaining the bone tissue. Osteoclasts, on the other hand, are responsible for bone resorption, breaking down the bone tissue.

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  • 8. 

    In month three of endochondral ossification, the first structure to be formed is a collection of elements known as the ______ that invades the bone cavities present at this time.

    • A.

      Periosteal bud

    • B.

      Bone collar

    • C.

      Primary ossification center

    • D.

      Secondary ossification center

    Correct Answer
    A. Periosteal bud
    Explanation
    In month three of endochondral ossification, the first structure to be formed is a collection of elements known as the periosteal bud that invades the bone cavities present at this time. The periosteal bud consists of blood vessels, nerves, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. It plays a crucial role in the development of new bone tissue by bringing in necessary nutrients and cells for bone growth and remodeling. The periosteal bud is responsible for the formation of the primary ossification center, where bone formation begins in the diaphysis of long bones.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following hormones primary function is to regular bone density?

    • A.

      Growth hormone

    • B.

      Calcitonin

    • C.

      PTH

    • D.

      Leptin

    Correct Answer
    C. PTH
    Explanation
    PTH, or parathyroid hormone, is responsible for regulating bone density. It does this by stimulating the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream when levels of calcium in the blood are low. This helps to maintain a proper balance of calcium in the body and prevent bone loss. PTH also enhances the absorption of calcium from the intestines and promotes the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. Overall, PTH plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy bone density.

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  • 10. 

    Decreased levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone

    • A.

      Calcitonin

    • B.

      PTH

    • C.

      Leptin

    • D.

      Acetylcholine

    Correct Answer
    B. PTH
    Explanation
    When the levels of calcium ion in the blood decrease, the body needs to increase the levels of calcium in order to maintain homeostasis. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is responsible for this regulation. PTH stimulates the release of calcium from bones, enhances the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and promotes the activation of vitamin D, which increases the absorption of calcium in the intestines. Therefore, PTH is the hormone that is secreted in response to decreased levels of calcium ion in the blood.

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  • 11. 

    The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of

    • A.

      Red marrow

    • B.

      Yellow marrow

    • C.

      The matrix of bone tissue

    • D.

      The ground substance

    Correct Answer
    B. Yellow marrow
    Explanation
    Yellow marrow is the correct answer because it is responsible for storing energy reserves as lipids in the bones of the skeleton. Yellow marrow is found in the central cavities of long bones and consists mainly of fat cells. It serves as a source of energy for the body and can be converted into other types of tissue when needed. In contrast, red marrow is responsible for producing blood cells and is not involved in storing energy reserves. The matrix of bone tissue and the ground substance play important roles in providing structure and support to the bones but do not store energy reserves.

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  • 12. 

    Maintenance of mature compact bone is accomplished by the function of

    • A.

      Lacunae

    • B.

      Osteocytes

    • C.

      Chondrocytes

    • D.

      Osteoblasts

    • E.

      Osteoclasts

    Correct Answer
    B. Osteocytes
    Explanation
    Osteocytes are responsible for maintaining mature compact bone. They are mature bone cells that are found within the lacunae, which are small spaces within the bone matrix. Osteocytes play a crucial role in bone remodeling and repair. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts to regulate bone turnover. Osteocytes are involved in detecting mechanical stress and signaling for bone formation or resorption as needed. They also help in the exchange of nutrients and waste products within the bone. Overall, osteocytes are essential for the maintenance and integrity of mature compact bone.

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  • 13. 

    The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to

    • A.

      Endochondral ossification

    • B.

      The process of osteopenia

    • C.

      Intramembranous ossification

    • D.

      The process of healing a bone fracture

    Correct Answer
    A. Endochondral ossification
    Explanation
    The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to endochondral ossification. Endochondral ossification is the process by which most of the bones in the body are formed. It involves the replacement of cartilage with bone tissue. Similarly, at the epiphyseal plate, which is a layer of cartilage located at the ends of long bones, new bone tissue is formed as the cartilage cells divide and mature. This process allows for the growth and lengthening of bones during childhood and adolescence.

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  • 14. 

    Stem cells in periosteum and endosteum give rise to soteoblasts

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Stem cells in the periosteum and endosteum have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone formation. This process is crucial for bone growth and repair. Therefore, the statement that stem cells in periosteum and endosteum give rise to osteoblasts is true.

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  • 15. 

    Havesian canal contains blood vessels and nerves

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Haversian canal, also known as the central canal, is a microscopic channel found in compact bone tissue. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply nutrients and oxygen to the bone cells and help in the transmission of nerve signals. Therefore, the statement that the Haversian canal contains blood vessels and nerves is true.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following movements would cause the distal end of the radius to cross over the ulna to form an X?

    • A.

      Flexion at the elbow joint

    • B.

      Extension at the wrist

    • C.

      Supination

    • D.

      Pronation

    Correct Answer
    D. Pronation
    Explanation
    Pronation is the movement that causes the distal end of the radius to cross over the ulna to form an X. During pronation, the palm of the hand faces posteriorly, and the radius rotates medially, crossing over the ulna. This movement is commonly seen when turning the palm downwards or when twisting the forearm. Flexion at the elbow joint, extension at the wrist, and supination do not involve the crossing of the radius over the ulna.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following factors would not provide stability to a synovial joint?

    • A.

      Good muscle tone in those muscles that cross the joint

    • B.

      Ligaments binding the bones together

    • C.

      The presence of tendon shealths and bursae

    • D.

      Well fitting articular surfaces between the bones involved in the synovial joint

    Correct Answer
    C. The presence of tendon shealths and bursae
    Explanation
    The presence of tendon sheaths and bursae does not provide stability to a synovial joint. Tendon sheaths and bursae are structures that help reduce friction between tendons, ligaments, and bones, but they do not directly contribute to the stability of the joint. Stability is primarily provided by factors such as good muscle tone in the muscles that cross the joint, ligaments binding the bones together, and well-fitting articular surfaces between the bones involved in the synovial joint.

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  • 18. 

    Plantar flexion of the foot corresponds to _____ of the wrist

    • A.

      Abduction

    • B.

      Extension

    • C.

      Adduction

    • D.

      Flexion

    Correct Answer
    B. Extension
    Explanation
    Plantar flexion of the foot refers to pointing the foot downward, like when standing on tiptoes. The corresponding movement in the wrist is extension, which involves bending the hand backward. This movement is opposite to flexion, which is bending the hand forward. Abduction and adduction are movements that occur in the frontal plane, away from and towards the midline of the body, respectively, and are not directly related to plantar flexion of the foot.

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  • 19. 

    All of the following statements about condyloid joints are true except:

    • A.

      They are formed when the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression of another bone

    • B.

      An important characteristic is that both articular surfaces are oval

    • C.

      They have a limited range of movement

    • D.

      Examples include the wrist joint and the knuckles

    Correct Answer
    A. They are formed when the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression of another bone
    Explanation
    Condylar joints are formed when the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression of another bone. An important characteristic of condylar joints is that both articular surfaces are oval. They also have a limited range of movement. Examples of condylar joints include the wrist joint and the knuckles. Therefore, the statement "they are formed when the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression of another bone" is not true.

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  • 20. 

    An immovable joint is a (an)

    • A.

      Syndesmosis

    • B.

      Diathrosis

    • C.

      Symphysis

    • D.

      Synarthrosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Synarthrosis
    Explanation
    A synarthrosis is a type of joint that is immovable. This means that the bones in the joint are tightly connected and do not allow for any movement. Unlike other types of joints, such as diarthrosis or symphysis, a synarthrosis lacks any mobility. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is synarthrosis.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a function of synovial fluid?

    • A.

      Increases osmotic pressure within joint

    • B.

      Shock absorption

    • C.

      Lubrication

    • D.

      Protects articular cartilages

    Correct Answer
    A. Increases osmotic pressure within joint
    Explanation
    Synovial fluid is a thick, viscous fluid that is present in the synovial joints of the body. It serves several important functions, including shock absorption, lubrication, and the protection of articular cartilages. However, increasing osmotic pressure within the joint is not one of its functions. Osmotic pressure refers to the pressure exerted by solutes in a solution, and synovial fluid does not play a role in regulating or increasing this pressure within the joint.

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  • 22. 

    The epiphyseal growth plate is an example of a(n)

    • A.

      Synchondrosis

    • B.

      Amphiarthrosis

    • C.

      Symphysis

    • D.

      Gomphosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Synchondrosis
    Explanation
    The epiphyseal growth plate is an example of a synchondrosis. A synchondrosis is a type of joint where the bones are connected by hyaline cartilage. In the case of the epiphyseal growth plate, it is a cartilaginous joint that connects the long bone to the epiphysis. This cartilage allows for growth and lengthening of the bone during childhood and adolescence. Once growth is complete, the growth plate ossifies and becomes a synostosis, or a bony joint.

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  • 23. 

    Bursae may be located in all but which of the following areas?

    • A.

      Around most synovial joints

    • B.

      Around blood vessels

    • C.

      Within connective tissue exposed to friction or pressure

    • D.

      Beneath the skin covering a bone

    • E.

      Tendon sheaths

    Correct Answer
    B. Around blood vessels
    Explanation
    Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that act as cushions between bones, tendons, and muscles, reducing friction and allowing smooth movement. They are commonly found in areas where there is a lot of movement and pressure, such as around most synovial joints, within connective tissue exposed to friction or pressure, beneath the skin covering a bone, and in tendon sheaths. However, bursae are not typically found around blood vessels, as their main function is to reduce friction and pressure between structures involved in movement.

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  • 24. 

    Rheumatoid Arthritis is

    • A.

      Treated with moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate

    • B.

      Related to the normal aging process

    • C.

      A chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause
    Explanation
    Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause. This means that it is a long-lasting condition that causes inflammation in the joints, resulting in pain, stiffness, and swelling. It is also an autoimmune disease, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissues. The exact cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis is still unknown. The treatment options for this condition include moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams, and supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

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  • 25. 

    When a bone is forced out of alignment

    • A.

      It is accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization

    • B.

      It is called a luxation

    • C.

      It is called a subluxation

    • D.

      Both A and B apply

    • E.

      Both A and C apply

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B apply
    Explanation
    When a bone is forced out of alignment, it is accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization. This condition is known as a luxation. The answer "both A and B apply" is correct because both statements A (it is accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization) and B (it is called a luxation) are true in this context.

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  • 26. 

    From which joint does a tooth that has been knocked out of a person's mouth get dilodged?

    • A.

      Synovial

    • B.

      Fibrous

    • C.

      Gomphoses

    • D.

      Both B and C apply

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B and C apply
    Explanation
    The correct answer is both B and C apply. A tooth that has been knocked out of a person's mouth can become dislodged from either a fibrous joint or a gomphoses joint. A fibrous joint is a type of joint where the bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue, such as the joint between the bones of the skull. A gomphoses joint is a specific type of fibrous joint that occurs between a tooth and its socket in the jawbone. Therefore, a knocked-out tooth can become dislodged from either a fibrous joint or a gomphoses joint.

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  • 27. 

    A suture is a

    • A.

      Fibrous and synarthrotic joint

    • B.

      Synovial and diarthrotic joint

    • C.

      Cartilaginous and amphiarthrotic joint

    • D.

      Fibrous and amphiarthortic joint

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibrous and synarthrotic joint
    Explanation
    A suture is a fibrous and synarthrotic joint. Fibrous joints are connected by dense connective tissue, such as collagen, and allow for very little or no movement. Synarthrotic joints are immovable joints, meaning they provide stability and support to the bones they connect. In the case of sutures, they are found between the flat bones of the skull and help to protect the brain and provide structural integrity to the skull.

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  • 28. 

    The most complex joint of the body is the knee joint

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The knee joint is considered the most complex joint in the body due to its intricate structure and the multiple functions it performs. It is a hinge joint that allows for flexion and extension of the leg, as well as limited rotation. The knee joint is comprised of several components, including bones (femur, tibia, and patella), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), cartilage, and tendons. It also has a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. The complexity of the knee joint makes it susceptible to various injuries and conditions, such as ligament tears, meniscus tears, and osteoarthritis.

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  • 29. 

    Ball and socket joints are the most freely movable synovial joints

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ball and socket joints are indeed the most freely movable synovial joints. These joints allow for a wide range of motion in multiple directions, as they consist of a rounded bone (ball) that fits into a cup-shaped socket. This structure allows for rotational movement, as well as flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. Examples of ball and socket joints in the human body include the shoulder and hip joints.

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  • 30. 

    Condyloid joints are

    • A.

      Biaxial joints

    • B.

      Both articular surfaces are oval

    • C.

      Permit all angular movements

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Condyloid joints are a type of synovial joint that allow for movement in two planes, making them biaxial. The articular surfaces of these joints are oval, allowing for a greater range of motion. Additionally, condyloid joints permit all angular movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as all the statements are true for condyloid joints.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 15, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    ECapiral7
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