Anatomy & Structure Of Joints

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Anatomy & Structure Of Joints - Quiz

A number of questions covering the structure and function of joints with a large focus on synovial joints.
Be sure to check the explanations for answers!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is another word for the term articulation?

    Explanation
    Also known as the meeting of two bone, often referred to as a joint or articulation. Joint or Joints were acceptable answers.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the below is not a functional classification of a joint?

    • A.

      Synarthroses

    • B.

      Syndesmoses

    • C.

      Amphiarthroses

    • D.

      Diarthroses

    Correct Answer
    B. Syndesmoses
    Explanation
    Syndesmoses are fibrous joints (a structural and not functional classification) in which the bones are connected by ligaments.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not a structural classification of joints?

    • A.

      Diathroses

    • B.

      Cartilaginous

    • C.

      Synovial

    • D.

      Fibrous

    Correct Answer
    A. Diathroses
    Explanation
    Diathroses is a functional classification and not structural meaning there is slight movement in the joint.

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  • 4. 

    Syntoses are?

    • A.

      Fibrous Joints

    • B.

      Synovial Joints

    • C.

      Syndesmoses

    • D.

      Ossified Sutures

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Ossified Sutures
    Explanation
    Syntoses are the ossified sutures of what are sometimes referred to as fontanels. The sutures allow for slight skull flexion but are completely ossified (turned to bone) by adulthood.

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  • 5. 

    Where is the only place sutures can be found in the human body?

    Correct Answer
    skull
    cranium
    head
    Explanation
    Sutures are only found in the skull, cranium and head were also acceptable answers.

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  • 6. 

    A ligament connects bone tissue to what?

    • A.

      Tendon

    • B.

      Muscle

    • C.

      Skin

    • D.

      Synovial capsule

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    A ligament is a bone-to-bone fibrous connection of a cord or band of tissue. Ligament means syndesmos which explains why a syndesmoses is so named (it is a ligament connected fibrous joint).

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  • 7. 

    The interosseous membrane of the antebrachial is what type of joint?

    • A.

      Fibrous

    • B.

      Synarthrosis

    • C.

      Syntoses

    • D.

      Syndesmoses

    • E.

      A and d

    Correct Answer
    E. A and d
    Explanation
    The interosseus membrane connects the radius and ulna along their length (antebrachial = forearm) with ligament-like fibers that are long enough that the radius can rotate around the ulna. A syndesmoses is a type of fibrous joint, so both a and d were correct.

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  • 8. 

    The ligament connecting a gomphosis is known as the?

    • A.

      Syndesmoses

    • B.

      Fibrous capsule

    • C.

      Periodontal

    • D.

      Diarthroses

    Correct Answer
    C. Periodontal
    Explanation
    A gomphosis is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint that is only found in the articulation between a tooth and its bony alveolar (part of mandible/maxilla - jaw) socket. The connection in this case is the short periodontal ligament.

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  • 9. 

    The type of joint where articulating bones are joined by JUST hyaline cartilage are known as?

    • A.

      Symphyses

    • B.

      Syndesmoses

    • C.

      Synchondrosis

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Synchondrosis
    Explanation
    a synchondrosis is a "junction of cartilage" Virtually all synchondroses are synarthrotic (immovable). The most common example is the epiphyseal plate of youth which like most things of youth eventually ossifies (turns to bone).

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  • 10. 

    Interverterbal joints are an example of:

    • A.

      Cartilaginous joint

    • B.

      Diarthrotic joint

    • C.

      Symphyses

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Symphyses are cartilaginous joints that are slightly movable (diarthrotic), so the answer was all of the above. Symphyses consist of hyaline cartilage covered articular surfaces fused to a pad or plate of fibrocartilage (which because it is compressible allows the slight movement).

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  • 11. 

    The defining feature of the synovial joint is what?

    • A.

      Synovial fluid

    • B.

      Ligaments

    • C.

      Articular cartilage

    • D.

      Joint cavity

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Joint cavity
    Explanation
    All of the above are features of a synovial joint, but a synovial joint is the only structure containing a joint cavity. Synovial fluid is also found in bursae and in some articular cartilage. Ligaments are also found in syndesmoses and gomphoses. Articular cartilage is also found in all cartilaginous joints.

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  • 12. 

    The external layer of the articular capsule is known as the:

    • A.

      Synovial membrane

    • B.

      Fibrous capsule

    • C.

      Articular cartilage

    • D.

      Loose connective tissue

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Fibrous capsule
    Explanation
    The articular capsule is two-layered, consisting of a tough fibrous capsule external layer (the correct answer) which is composed of dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the periostea of articulating bones. The inner layer of the articular capsule (also known as a joint capsule) is called the synovial membrane. It is composed of loose connective tissue and covers all internal joint surfaces not covered with hyaline (articular) cartilage.

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  • 13. 

    This substance contributes to the viscosity and consistency of synovial fluid:

    • A.

      Hyaluronic acid

    • B.

      Hyaline cartilage

    • C.

      White blood cells

    • D.

      Yellow marrow

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyaluronic acid
    Explanation
    Hyaluronic acid contributes to the viscous, egg-like consistency (synovi = joint egg) of the synovial fluid, which does thin as the joint sees activity and warms up.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following does not contain synovial fluid?

    • A.

      Bursae

    • B.

      Synovial joint capsule

    • C.

      Tendon Sheath

    • D.

      All of the above contain synovial fluid

    • E.

      None of the above contain synovial fluid

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above contain synovial fluid
    Explanation
    All three of these structures may contain some amount of synovial fluid.

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  • 15. 

    The most important factor in the stability of a synovial joint is:

    • A.

      Shape of articular bone surfaces

    • B.

      Number of ligaments

    • C.

      Amount of synovial fluid

    • D.

      Muscle tone of connecting tendons

    • E.

      All of the above are equally important

    Correct Answer
    D. Muscle tone of connecting tendons
    Explanation
    The shape of articular bone surfaces is helpful for stability (especially in the case of the hip joint), and the number of ligaments (and size/strength of them) can contribute to stability, but the muscle tone of the muscles connected to the tendons attached to the joint is the most important factor.

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  • 16. 

    Synovial joints are capable of what types of movement?

    • A.

      Nonaxial - slipping only

    • B.

      Uniaxial - movement in 1 plane

    • C.

      Biaxial - movement in 2 planes

    • D.

      Multiaxial - movement in 3 planes

    • E.

      All of the above movements are possible depending on the joint

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above movements are possible depending on the joint
    Explanation
    All movements are possible depending on the joint.

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  • 17. 

    Intercarpal joints are an example of a:

    • A.

      Plane joint

    • B.

      Hinge joint

    • C.

      Pivot Joint

    • D.

      Condyloid Joint

    • E.

      Ball & Socket Joint

    Correct Answer
    A. Plane joint
    Explanation
    Intercarpal joints are plane joints (flat articular surfaces that allow slight gliding movements)

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  • 18. 

    The interphalangeal joints are what type of joint?

    • A.

      Plane

    • B.

      Hinge

    • C.

      Pivot

    • D.

      Condyloid

    • E.

      Saddle

    Correct Answer
    B. Hinge
    Explanation
    Interphalangeal joints are hinge joints (cylindrical projection articulating with a trough-shaped surface resembling a door hinge)

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  • 19. 

    The Atlantoaxial joint (articulation of C1 & C2/Atlas & Axis) is an example of which type of joint?

    • A.

      Plane

    • B.

      Hinge

    • C.

      Pivot

    • D.

      Condyloid

    • E.

      Ball & Socket

    Correct Answer
    C. Pivot
    Explanation
    The Atlantoaxial join is a pivot joint (rounded end protruding into a ring of bone or connective tissue). In this case it allows you to shake your head no.

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  • 20. 

    The radiocarpal joint is an example of which type of joint?

    • A.

      Plane

    • B.

      Hinge

    • C.

      Pivot

    • D.

      Condyloid

    • E.

      Saddle

    Correct Answer
    D. Condyloid
    Explanation
    The radiocarpal joint is an example of a condyloid joint ( oval surface fitting into complementary depression = both articulations ovular)

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  • 21. 

    The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is which type of joint?

    • A.

      Plane

    • B.

      Hinge

    • C.

      Pivot

    • D.

      Condyloid

    • E.

      Saddle

    Correct Answer
    E. Saddle
    Explanation
    The saddle-type carpometacarpal joint of the thumb allows you to twiddle your thumbs and this type of joint looks like a saddle.

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  • 22. 

    The joint with the largest range of motion is the ball & socket joint known as the:

    • A.

      Acromioclavicular

    • B.

      Glenohumeral

    • C.

      Coxal (hip)

    • D.

      Knee

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Glenohumeral
    Explanation
    Acromioclavicular is a plane joint, the knee is not a ball and socket either (combo hinge/plane), and the coxal joint, although being a ball and socket doesn't have the range that the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint does.

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  • 23. 

    Cartilage injuries tend to heal fairly well all by themselves.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cartilage is avascular (without blood supply) and thus can't readily nourish itself to repair damage. Usually this type of damage is permanent.

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  • 24. 

    What will you most likely end up with if you stretch your deltoid ligament 10%?

    • A.

      A sore shoulder

    • B.

      A dislocated hip

    • C.

      A sprained ankle

    • D.

      A torn medial meniscus

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A sprained ankle
    Explanation
    okay, so this is kind of a trick question. Look up deltoid ligament before you send hate mail or kick the dog.

    The deltoid ligament is the medial ligament of the talocrural (ankle) joint and is rarely sprained by forced eversion and is usually accompanied by cartilage and/or bone damage. My deltoid ligament is in the wrong place due to a skateboarding accident back in the early 90's.

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  • 25. 

    A lateral blow to an extended knee could cause damage to what structures?

    • A.

      Tibial collateral ligament

    • B.

      Medial meniscus

    • C.

      Anterior cruciate ligament

    • D.

      Checkbook

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    This is a fairly common football injury caused by a tackle from the lateral side when the foot is planted and the knee is locked.

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