Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Neurodegenerative Diseases - Quiz

Based on Dr. Pak's Lecture on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. These questions are all multiple-multiple choice. That is, you may choose more than one correct answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Alzheimer's Disease

    • A.

      Was cured in 2004

    • B.

      Has no cure

    • C.

      Can be reversed with drugs

    • D.

      Can be reversed with therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Has no cure
    Explanation
    Alzheimer's Disease currently has no known cure. While there have been advances in research and treatment options, there is still no definitive cure for the disease. Various drugs and therapies can help manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease, but they cannot completely reverse or cure it. Ongoing research aims to find more effective treatments and ultimately a cure for Alzheimer's Disease.

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  • 2. 

    Late symptoms include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Behavior problems

    • B.

      Loss of Speech

    • C.

      Difficulty with self-care

    • D.

      Hallucinations

    Correct Answer
    D. Hallucinations
    Explanation
    Late symptoms of a condition typically refer to symptoms that occur in the later stages of the disease. In this case, the late symptoms mentioned are behavior problems, loss of speech, and difficulty with self-care. Hallucinations, on the other hand, are not typically associated with late-stage symptoms. Therefore, the correct answer is hallucinations.

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  • 3. 

    The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's is:

    • A.

      Exposure to nicotine

    • B.

      Gender

    • C.

      Age

    • D.

      Genetics

    • E.

      Head injury

    Correct Answer
    C. Age
    Explanation
    Age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's because the likelihood of developing the disease increases with advancing age. As people get older, the risk of developing Alzheimer's significantly increases. While other factors such as genetics, head injury, and gender may also play a role, age is considered the most significant risk factor. This is because the brain undergoes natural changes and becomes more vulnerable to damage and disease as a person ages. Therefore, age is the most influential factor in determining the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 4. 

    Hallmarks of Alzheimer's Include:

    • A.

      Degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons

    • B.

      Reduced cholinergic transmission

    • C.

      Neuritic plaques

    • D.

      Neurofibrillary Tangles

    • E.

      Micro Tubules

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons
    B. Reduced cholinergic transmission
    C. Neuritic plaques
    D. Neurofibrillary Tangles
    Explanation
    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons, reduced cholinergic transmission, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. These are all characteristic features that are commonly observed in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. The degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons leads to the impairment of memory and cognitive functions. Reduced cholinergic transmission refers to the decreased activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in memory and learning. Neuritic plaques are abnormal clusters of proteins, primarily beta-amyloid, that accumulate between nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted fibers of tau protein that build up inside nerve cells. These pathological features are indicative of Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 5. 

    Which form of ABeta is most prone to aggregation?

    • A.

      AB40

    • B.

      AB41

    • C.

      AB42

    • D.

      AB43

    Correct Answer
    C. AB42
    Explanation
    AB42 is the most prone to aggregation among the given forms of ABeta. This is because AB42 has a longer sequence of amino acids, making it more likely to form aggregates and plaques compared to the shorter forms of ABeta (AB40, AB41, and AB43). The aggregation of AB42 is a key characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, as these aggregates can disrupt normal brain function and lead to the development of amyloid plaques.

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  • 6. 

    Mutations in genes such as APP, PS1, and PS2:

    • A.

      Increase risk for Alzheimer's

    • B.

      Are autosomal dominant

    • C.

      Are autosomal recessive

    • D.

      Are solely responsible for Alzheimer's

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase risk for Alzheimer's
    B. Are autosomal dominant
    Explanation
    Mutations in genes such as APP, PS1, and PS2 increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease. These mutations are autosomal dominant, meaning that if an individual inherits a mutated copy of the gene from one parent, they have a 50% chance of developing the disease. However, it is important to note that these mutations are not solely responsible for Alzheimer's, as there are other genetic and environmental factors that also contribute to the development of the disease.

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  • 7. 

    APP mutations are associated with:

    • A.

      Early Onset

    • B.

      Middle Onset

    • C.

      Late Onset

    • D.

      More AB aggregation

    • E.

      More tau aggregation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Early Onset
    D. More AB aggregation
    Explanation
    APP mutations are associated with early onset of the condition. This means that individuals with these mutations are more likely to develop the condition at a younger age compared to those without the mutations. Additionally, APP mutations are also associated with more AB aggregation, which refers to the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques in the brain. These plaques are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and are believed to play a role in the development and progression of the condition.

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  • 8. 

    The Swedish mutation is at the ___ while the Arctic mutation is at the ____

    • A.

      C-terminus of B-secretase site, N-terminus of B-secretase site

    • B.

      AB peptide coding sequence, N-terminus of B-secretase site

    • C.

      N-terminus of B-secretase site, AB peptide coding sequence

    • D.

      C-terminus of gamma-secretase site, AB peptide coding sequence

    Correct Answer
    C. N-terminus of B-secretase site, AB peptide coding sequence
    Explanation
    The Swedish mutation is at the N-terminus of the B-secretase site, while the Arctic mutation is at the AB peptide coding sequence.

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  • 9. 

    This mutation leads to the earliest development of AD:

    • A.

      APP

    • B.

      PS1

    • C.

      PS2

    • D.

      PS3

    • E.

      S3G4

    Correct Answer
    B. PS1
    Explanation
    PS1 (Presenilin 1) is a gene mutation that has been identified as a major cause of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). This mutation affects the production and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to an increased production of amyloid-beta peptides, which are the main component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of AD patients. The accumulation of amyloid-beta plaques is one of the key pathological features of AD and is believed to play a crucial role in the development and progression of the disease. Therefore, the PS1 mutation is associated with the earliest development of AD.

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  • 10. 

    Tau is present in __ where it stabilizes ___ but loses its abilities when ____

    • A.

      Dendrites, microtubules, dephosphorylated

    • B.

      Axons, microtubules, hyperphosphorylated

    • C.

      Soma, proteins, dephosphorylated

    • D.

      Soma, proteins, hyperphosphorylated

    Correct Answer
    B. Axons, microtubules, hyperphosphorylated
    Explanation
    Tau is a protein that is present in axons, where it stabilizes microtubules. However, its abilities to stabilize microtubules are lost when it becomes hyperphosphorylated.

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  • 11. 

    This APOE reduces AD risk:

    • A.

      E2

    • B.

      E3

    • C.

      E4

    • D.

      E5

    Correct Answer
    A. E2
    Explanation
    The APOE gene has different alleles, including E2, E3, and E4. Research has shown that the E2 allele of the APOE gene is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This means that individuals who have the E2 allele are less likely to develop AD compared to those with the E3 or E4 alleles. The E5 allele mentioned in the question is not associated with AD risk.

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  • 12. 

    ApoE4 works by:

    • A.

      Necrosis

    • B.

      Apoptosis

    • C.

      Increasing neurofibrillary tangles

    • D.

      Reducing solubility of AB

    Correct Answer
    D. Reducing solubility of AB
    Explanation
    ApoE4 works by reducing the solubility of AB. This means that it causes AB (Amyloid-Beta) to become less soluble, leading to the formation of insoluble clumps or plaques in the brain. These plaques are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and can disrupt normal brain function. By reducing the solubility of AB, ApoE4 contributes to the accumulation of these plaques, which is believed to be a key factor in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 13. 

    Donepezil or Aricept works by:

    • A.

      Preventing breakdown of Ach

    • B.

      Inhibition of cholinesterase

    • C.

      Doing the same as Rivastigmine and Galantamine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Preventing breakdown of Ach
    B. Inhibition of cholinesterase
    C. Doing the same as Rivastigmine and Galantamine
    Explanation
    Donepezil or Aricept works by preventing the breakdown of Ach and inhibiting cholinesterase. This means that it helps to increase the levels of Ach in the brain, which is a neurotransmitter involved in memory and learning. By inhibiting cholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down Ach, Donepezil allows Ach to stay in the brain for longer periods of time, improving cognitive function. It is also mentioned that it does the same thing as Rivastigmine and Galantamine, which are other drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting cholinesterase.

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  • 14. 

    Memantine or Namenda is:

    • A.

      An AMPA blocker

    • B.

      An NMDA blocker

    • C.

      FDA approved

    • D.

      Banned by the FDA

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. An NMDA blocker
    C. FDA approved
    Explanation
    Memantine or Namenda is an NMDA blocker that is FDA approved. NMDA blockers are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain. This receptor is involved in the transmission of signals between nerve cells and is believed to play a role in the symptoms of certain neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. Memantine is approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 15. 

    Crossword puzzles can reduce risk for AD

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Crossword puzzles can reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Engaging in mentally stimulating activities, such as solving crossword puzzles, has been shown to have a positive impact on brain health and cognitive function. These activities help to keep the brain active and may contribute to building cognitive reserve, which can help delay the onset of AD or slow down its progression. Therefore, it is true that crossword puzzles can reduce the risk for AD.

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  • 16. 

    NSAIDs can reduce risk for AD:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    NSAIDs, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have been shown to potentially reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These medications have anti-inflammatory properties that may help reduce inflammation in the brain, which is believed to play a role in the development and progression of AD. Several studies have found a potential link between NSAID use and a decreased risk of AD, although more research is needed to fully understand the relationship. Therefore, the correct answer is true.

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  • 17. 

    Opioids can reduce risk for AD:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Opioids are not known to reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In fact, long-term use of opioids has been associated with cognitive impairment and an increased risk for developing dementia. Therefore, the statement that opioids can reduce the risk for AD is false.

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  • 18. 

    Parkinson's is:

    • A.

      A movement disorder

    • B.

      A neurodegenerative disorder

    • C.

      An airborne pathogen

    • D.

      Curable

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A movement disorder
    B. A neurodegenerative disorder
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance. It is also a neurodegenerative disorder, meaning it involves the progressive loss of neurons in the brain. However, Parkinson's disease is not an airborne pathogen, as it is not caused by a virus or bacteria. While there are treatments available to manage the symptoms of Parkinson's, there is currently no known cure for the disease.

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  • 19. 

    Symptoms of Parkinson's include all of the following except:

    • A.

      Tachykinesia

    • B.

      Rigidity

    • C.

      Resting tremor

    • D.

      Postural instability

    • E.

      Bradykinesia

    Correct Answer
    A. Tachykinesia
    Explanation
    Tachykinesia is not a symptom of Parkinson's. Parkinson's is characterized by symptoms such as rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia. Tachykinesia refers to excessive and rapid movements, which is not typically associated with Parkinson's.

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  • 20. 

    Parkinson's may lead to depression

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the nervous system, particularly the part of the brain that controls movement. It is commonly associated with motor symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. However, research has shown that Parkinson's can also have non-motor symptoms, including depression. The exact relationship between Parkinson's and depression is not fully understood, but it is believed that chemical changes in the brain, as well as the impact of living with a chronic illness, can contribute to the development of depression in individuals with Parkinson's. Therefore, it is true that Parkinson's may lead to depression.

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  • 21. 

    Parkinson's may change a person's handwriting and speech:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder that affects the brain's ability to control movement. One of the common symptoms of Parkinson's is a change in handwriting and speech. This can include smaller and more cramped handwriting, as well as a softer or more monotone voice. These changes occur due to the loss of control over fine motor skills and muscle coordination that is characteristic of Parkinson's. Therefore, it is true that Parkinson's may change a person's handwriting and speech.

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  • 22. 

    The basal ganglia includes:

    • A.

      Amygdala

    • B.

      The striatum

    • C.

      The globus pallidus

    • D.

      Subthalamic nuclei

    • E.

      Substantia Nigra

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. The striatum
    C. The globus pallidus
    D. Subthalamic nuclei
    E. Substantia Nigra
    Explanation
    The basal ganglia is a group of structures in the brain that play a role in movement control. It includes the striatum, which is responsible for receiving and processing information from other parts of the brain, the globus pallidus, which helps regulate movement, the subthalamic nuclei, which are involved in motor functions, and the substantia nigra, which produces dopamine and is essential for controlling movement. These structures work together to coordinate and regulate voluntary movements.

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  • 23. 

    The basal ganglia help:

    • A.

      Impulse control

    • B.

      Initiate movement

    • C.

      End a movement

    • D.

      Suppress unwanted movement

    • E.

      Suppress cravings

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Initiate movement
    D. Suppress unwanted movement
    Explanation
    The basal ganglia are a group of structures in the brain that play a crucial role in motor control. They are responsible for initiating voluntary movements and suppressing unwanted movements. When we decide to move, the basal ganglia help in initiating the necessary motor commands to execute the movement. At the same time, they also suppress any unwanted or inappropriate movements that may interfere with the intended action. This dual function of the basal ganglia allows for precise and controlled movement execution.

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  • 24. 

    The substantia nigra provides ___ for the striatum

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      5HT

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Glutamate

    Correct Answer
    C. Dopamine
    Explanation
    The substantia nigra is a region in the brain that produces and releases dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various brain functions, including movement, reward, and motivation. The striatum, another region in the brain, receives dopamine from the substantia nigra. This dopamine release helps regulate and modulate the activity of the striatum, influencing motor control and other cognitive processes. Therefore, the substantia nigra provides dopamine for the striatum.

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  • 25. 

    The striatum delicately balances ____ and ____

    • A.

      GABA, Glutamate

    • B.

      DA, Ach

    • C.

      5HT, DA

    • D.

      Ach, nicotine

    Correct Answer
    B. DA, Ach
    Explanation
    The striatum delicately balances dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (Ach). The striatum is a key component of the basal ganglia, which is involved in motor control and reward-related behaviors. DA is known to promote movement and reward, while Ach is involved in inhibiting movement. The balance between these two neurotransmitters is crucial for proper motor function and reward processing.

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  • 26. 

    The direct path ____ while the indirect path ____

    • A.

      Inhibits movement, activates the cortex

    • B.

      Activates the cortex, inhibits the cortex

    • C.

      Activates the cortex, inhibits movement

    • D.

      Activates the cortex, also activates the cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Activates the cortex, also activates the cortex
    Explanation
    This answer is incorrect because it states that the direct path activates the cortex, but it also activates the cortex. This is a contradiction and does not make logical sense. The correct answer should provide a clear contrast between the direct and indirect paths, indicating that one activates the cortex while the other inhibits movement.

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  • 27. 

    Parkinson's is associated with:

    • A.

      Somal spheres

    • B.

      AB plaques

    • C.

      Neurofibrillary Tangles

    • D.

      Lewy Bodies

    Correct Answer
    D. Lewy Bodies
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Lewy bodies are abnormal protein deposits that develop inside nerve cells and are commonly found in the brains of individuals with Parkinson's disease. These Lewy bodies consist of a protein called alpha-synuclein and are believed to play a role in the degeneration of dopamine-producing cells. Therefore, the presence of Lewy bodies is associated with Parkinson's disease.

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  • 28. 

    SNCA is ___ while PARK2 (Parkin) is ______

    • A.

      Autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant

    • B.

      Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive

    • C.

      Autosomal dominant, autosomal dominant

    • D.

      Autosomal recessive, autosomal recessive

    Correct Answer
    B. Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive
    Explanation
    SNCA is autosomal dominant, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is sufficient to cause the disorder. In contrast, PARK2 (Parkin) is autosomal recessive, requiring two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to manifest the disorder.

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  • 29. 

    Alpha synuclein:

    • A.

      Can lead to early PD

    • B.

      Is not dangerous if duplicated

    • C.

      Is the main component of lewy bodies

    • D.

      Clearly works in 5HT trafficking

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Can lead to early PD
    C. Is the main component of lewy bodies
    Explanation
    Alpha synuclein is a protein that can lead to early Parkinson's disease (PD) when it becomes misfolded and aggregates in the brain. It is also the main component of Lewy bodies, which are abnormal protein clumps found in the brains of individuals with PD. This suggests that alpha synuclein plays a crucial role in the development and progression of PD. Duplications of alpha synuclein can increase the risk of PD, indicating that it is not harmless if duplicated.

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  • 30. 

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies is associated with:

    • A.

      Lewy bodies in the brain

    • B.

      Lewy bodies in the nasal cavity

    • C.

      Hallucinations

    • D.

      Impaired balance

    • E.

      Improved coordination

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lewy bodies in the brain
    C. Hallucinations
    D. Impaired balance
    Explanation
    Dementia with Lewy Bodies is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain. These abnormal protein deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells and contribute to the development of symptoms such as hallucinations and impaired balance. Improved coordination is not typically associated with Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

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  • 31. 

    Parkin works as a:

    • A.

      AMPA antagonist

    • B.

      NMDA agonist

    • C.

      E3 ubiquitin ligase

    • D.

      E4 ubiquitin ligase

    Correct Answer
    C. E3 ubiquitin ligase
    Explanation
    Parkin is a protein that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. E3 ubiquitin ligases are enzymes that play a crucial role in the process of ubiquitination, which is the attachment of ubiquitin molecules to target proteins. This modification marks the target protein for degradation by the proteasome, a cellular machinery responsible for protein breakdown. Parkin's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is particularly important in the context of Parkinson's disease, as mutations in the parkin gene can lead to dysfunctional protein degradation and the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates, contributing to the development of the disease.

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  • 32. 

    Parkin mutation may let ____ accumulate

    • A.

      Lysosomes

    • B.

      AB plaques

    • C.

      GABA

    • D.

      Alpha synuclein

    Correct Answer
    D. Alpha synuclein
    Explanation
    Parkin mutation is a genetic mutation that has been associated with Parkinson's disease. Alpha synuclein is a protein that forms abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, a parkin mutation may impair the ability of cells to clear alpha synuclein, leading to its accumulation and the formation of Lewy bodies.

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  • 33. 

    MPTP is:

    • A.

      A drug that treats PD

    • B.

      A drug that causes PD

    • C.

      A drug that treads AD

    • D.

      A drug that causes AD

    Correct Answer
    B. A drug that causes PD
    Explanation
    MPTP is a drug that causes Parkinson's disease (PD). This drug is known to selectively destroy dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, leading to the development of PD symptoms. It is commonly used in research to induce Parkinson's-like symptoms in animal models for studying the disease and testing potential treatments. MPTP is not a drug used for treating PD, but rather a chemical compound that can trigger its onset.

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  • 34. 

    Paraquat, when exposure is long-term, leads to death of these neurons:

    • A.

      Cholinergic

    • B.

      Dopaminergic

    • C.

      Gabaergic

    • D.

      Hippocampal

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopaminergic
    Explanation
    Long-term exposure to Paraquat leads to the death of dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons are responsible for producing and releasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement control, reward, and motivation. The death of these neurons can result in a decrease in dopamine levels, leading to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. This explains why Paraquat exposure can be harmful and potentially fatal for dopaminergic neurons.

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  • 35. 

    PD is common among people with:

    • A.

      Long term exposure to copper, lead, iron, or manganese

    • B.

      Long term exposure to hot springs

    • C.

      Long term exposure to sun

    • D.

      Long term exposure to cold

    • E.

      Long term exposure to coal

    Correct Answer
    A. Long term exposure to copper, lead, iron, or manganese
    Explanation
    PD, or Parkinson's disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the nervous system. The given answer suggests that long-term exposure to certain metals such as copper, lead, iron, or manganese can increase the risk of developing PD. This is because these metals have been found to accumulate in the brain and have toxic effects on the neurons. Therefore, individuals who have been exposed to these metals over a prolonged period may be more susceptible to developing PD.

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  • 36. 

    L-Dopa works to:

    • A.

      Encourage DA breakdown

    • B.

      Prevent DA breakdown

    • C.

      Inhibit DA production

    • D.

      Increase DA production

    Correct Answer
    D. Increase DA production
    Explanation
    L-Dopa is a precursor to dopamine (DA) and is converted into dopamine in the brain. Therefore, taking L-Dopa increases the production of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various brain functions such as movement, motivation, and reward. L-Dopa is commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a condition characterized by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. By increasing dopamine production, L-Dopa helps to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and improve motor function.

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  • 37. 

    L-Dopa degradation is blocked by:

    • A.

      MAO inhibitors

    • B.

      COMT inhibitors

    • C.

      Tricyclic antidepressants

    • D.

      SSRIs

    Correct Answer
    B. COMT inhibitors
    Explanation
    COMT inhibitors block the degradation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa is a precursor to dopamine and is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), but it is also degraded by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). By inhibiting COMT, the degradation of L-Dopa is prevented, allowing more of it to be converted to dopamine and increasing its effectiveness in treating Parkinson's disease.

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  • 38. 

    Selegeline works by:

    • A.

      Stimulating DA production

    • B.

      Inhibiting DA breakdown

    • C.

      Increasing REM sleep

    • D.

      Activating DA receptors directly

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibiting DA breakdown
    Explanation
    Selegeline works by inhibiting the breakdown of dopamine (DA). Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various brain functions, including movement, motivation, and reward. By inhibiting the breakdown of dopamine, selegeline helps to increase the levels of dopamine in the brain, leading to improved dopamine signaling and function. This can be beneficial in the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease, where there is a deficiency of dopamine.

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  • 39. 

    Amantadine works by:

    • A.

      Promoting DA production

    • B.

      Agonizing DA receptors directly

    • C.

      Promoting DA release

    • D.

      Blocking DA receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Promoting DA release
    Explanation
    Amantadine works by promoting the release of dopamine (DA). This means that it helps increase the amount of dopamine that is released in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various functions such as movement, motivation, and reward. By promoting the release of dopamine, amantadine can help improve symptoms associated with conditions like Parkinson's disease, where there is a deficiency of dopamine. It does not directly agonize or block dopamine receptors, nor does it promote dopamine production.

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  • 40. 

    L-Dopa is better than DA as a drug because:

    • A.

      It crosses the BBB

    • B.

      It doesn't cross the BBB

    • C.

      It works fast

    • D.

      It works for decades

    Correct Answer
    A. It crosses the BBB
    Explanation
    L-Dopa is better than DA as a drug because it crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier that prevents many substances from entering the brain. However, L-Dopa is able to cross this barrier, allowing it to reach the brain and be converted into dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate movement and mood. This ability to cross the BBB makes L-Dopa more effective in treating conditions such as Parkinson's disease, where there is a deficiency of dopamine in the brain.

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  • 41. 

    This turns L-dopa into DA

    • A.

      Vitamin C

    • B.

      Vitamin D

    • C.

      Vitamin B6

    • D.

      Vitamin B12

    • E.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitamin B6
    Explanation
    Vitamin B6 is the correct answer because it is involved in the conversion of L-dopa into dopamine (DA). L-dopa is a precursor molecule that is converted into dopamine in the brain. Vitamin B6 plays a crucial role as a cofactor in the enzyme responsible for this conversion, known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Therefore, a deficiency in vitamin B6 can impair the synthesis of dopamine, leading to neurological issues.

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  • 42. 

    Carbidopa:

    • A.

      Blocks decarboxylation of L-dopa

    • B.

      Blocks acetylation of L-dopa

    • C.

      Blocks COMT

    • D.

      Blocks L-dopa

    Correct Answer
    A. Blocks decarboxylation of L-dopa
    Explanation
    Carbidopa is a medication used in combination with L-dopa to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It works by blocking the enzyme decarboxylase, which is responsible for converting L-dopa into dopamine in the peripheral tissues. By blocking this enzyme, carbidopa increases the amount of L-dopa that reaches the brain, where it can be converted into dopamine. This helps to alleviate the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease.

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  • 43. 

    Entacapone:

    • A.

      Was named after Al Capone

    • B.

      Blocks COMT

    • C.

      Blocks L-dopa

    • D.

      Blocks decarboxylation of L-dopa

    • E.

      Blocks deacetylation of L-dopa

    Correct Answer
    B. Blocks COMT
    Explanation
    Entacapone is a medication that blocks COMT, which stands for catechol-O-methyltransferase. COMT is an enzyme responsible for breaking down dopamine in the brain. By blocking COMT, entacapone increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is important for controlling movement and other functions. This can be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, as it helps to alleviate the symptoms associated with dopamine deficiency.

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  • 44. 

    L-Dopa works best:

    • A.

      Alone

    • B.

      With carbidopa

    • C.

      With dope (cannabinoids)

    Correct Answer
    B. With carbidopa
    Explanation
    L-Dopa works best with carbidopa because carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. It prevents the breakdown of L-Dopa in the peripheral tissues, allowing more of it to reach the brain where it is converted into dopamine. By inhibiting the breakdown of L-Dopa, carbidopa enhances its effectiveness and reduces the dosage required, thereby minimizing side effects. This combination therapy is commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to alleviate symptoms associated with dopamine deficiency in the brain.

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  • 45. 

    L-Dopa can lead to psychosis, which can be treated with:

    • A.

      Typical antipsychotics

    • B.

      Atypical antipsychotics

    • C.

      Haloperidol

    • D.

      Clozapine

    • E.

      Clonazepam

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Atypical antipsychotics
    D. Clozapine
    Explanation
    L-Dopa is a medication commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease. However, in some cases, it can lead to the development of psychosis, which is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, are often used to treat psychosis associated with L-Dopa therapy. These medications work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, helping to reduce symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine, in particular, is known to be effective for treating treatment-resistant psychosis and is often used when other antipsychotic medications have failed. Therefore, atypical antipsychotics like clozapine are the appropriate treatment options for psychosis caused by L-Dopa.

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  • 46. 

    Conventional antipsychotics ___ while nonselective MAOIs ____

    • A.

      Block dopamine receptors, promote vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Block dopamine receptors, promote vasodilation

    • C.

      Break down L-dopa, promote vasoconstriction

    • D.

      Break down L-dopa, promote vasodilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Block dopamine receptors, promote vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    Conventional antipsychotics block dopamine receptors, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis. However, they also have the side effect of promoting vasoconstriction, which means they cause the blood vessels to narrow. This can lead to increased blood pressure and reduced blood flow to certain areas of the body. On the other hand, nonselective MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) break down L-dopa, which is a precursor to dopamine. This can help to reduce the levels of dopamine in the brain. However, they do not have an effect on vasoconstriction or vasodilation.

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  • 47. 

    DA agonists:

    • A.

      Pramipexole

    • B.

      Bromocriptine

    • C.

      Need to be metabolized

    • D.

      Are metabolized in the periphery

    • E.

      Have no side effects

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pramipexole
    B. Bromocriptine
    Explanation
    Pramipexole and bromocriptine are examples of DA agonists. These drugs are metabolized in the periphery, meaning they undergo metabolism outside of the central nervous system. This is important because it affects their pharmacokinetics and how they are eliminated from the body. Additionally, it is worth noting that while these drugs may have side effects, the question does not provide any information about their side effect profile.

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  • 48. 

    Amantadine both ___ and ____

    • A.

      Blocks DA reuptake, blocks 5HT reuptake

    • B.

      Increases DA release, increases 5HT release

    • C.

      Increases DA release, blocks DA reuptake

    • D.

      Blocks DA reuptake, blocks DA breakdown

    Correct Answer
    C. Increases DA release, blocks DA reuptake
    Explanation
    Amantadine is a medication that has dual effects on dopamine (DA). It increases the release of dopamine, which means it enhances the amount of dopamine that is released into the synapse. At the same time, it also blocks the reuptake of dopamine, preventing its removal from the synapse. This combination of increasing dopamine release and blocking its reuptake leads to an overall increase in dopamine levels in the brain.

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  • 49. 

    Anticholinergics:

    • A.

      Enhance responses to L-dopa

    • B.

      Include amantadine

    • C.

      Include atropine

    • D.

      Include benztropine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Enhance responses to L-dopa
    C. Include atropine
    D. Include benztropine
    Explanation
    Anticholinergics are a class of drugs that can enhance the responses to L-dopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson's disease. This means that when anticholinergics are taken along with L-dopa, they can help to improve the effectiveness of the L-dopa medication. Atropine and benztropine are both examples of anticholinergic drugs, so they are included in the list of anticholinergics.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 02, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Icanhasfarm
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