Pus or serum in the middle ear
Otosclerosis (decreased mobility of the ossicles)
Mastoid brain tumor
Presbycusis: gradual nerve degeneration
Frontal: frontal bone (over eyes)
Maxillary: maxillary bone (under eyes)
Sphenoid: under pituitary cavity
Ethmoid: between orbit
Frontal and sphenoid
Ethmoid and sphenoid
Ethmoid and maxillary
Maxillary and frontal
Tinnitus (ringing in ears)
Vertigo (spinning sensation)
Pink, moist, without redness
Red, dry, without cerumen
Without lesions, cerumen, and scales
Without redness, lesions, foreign bodies or swelling
2 o’clock in the right ear and 5 o’clock in the left ear.
5 o’clock in the right ear and 7 o’clock in the left ear.
1 o’clock in the right ear and 2 o’clock in the left ear.
3 o’clock in the right ear and 4 o’clock in the left ear.
Inflammation of the tympanic membrane
Swelling, redness, narrowing of ear canal
Retraction of the ear drum
Prescence of yellow fluid in the middle ear
Stand 3 feet behind the patient’s other ear and whisper a two-syllable word
Instruct the patient to occlude one ear with a finger.
Ask the patient to repeat the word or phrase.
Repeat the test with the other ear.
Place the stem of the fork firmly on the top of the head at the midline.
Ask the patient if the sound is heard centrally or toward one side.
Have the patient close their eyes.
Strike the tunes on the ulnar border of the palm to activate it.
Nothing, + means that there is nothing wrong
Air conduction and bone conduction
Smooth, round masses protruding form the middle meatus
Nasal mucosa pale red
Small amount of clear, watery discharge