Ch14 Ears, Nose, Mouth, And Throat

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Ch14 Ears, Nose, Mouth, And Throat - Quiz

The Ears, Nose, Mouth and Throat are prone to infections that are mostly caused by the other. How well do you know these four delicate spots and are you ready to be a perfect ENT doctor? Take up this review questions for chapter 14 and find out. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The external portion of the ear

    • A.

      Auricle or pinna

    • B.

      Helix

    • C.

      Tragus

    • D.

      Lobule

    Correct Answer
    A. Auricle or pinna
    Explanation
    The external portion of the ear is known as the auricle or pinna. It is the visible part of the ear that is composed of cartilage and covered by skin. The auricle helps to collect sound waves and direct them into the ear canal. It also plays a role in localizing the source of sound. The term "pinna" is often used interchangeably with "auricle" to refer to this external part of the ear.

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  • 2. 

    The external large rim of the auricle of the ear

    • A.

      Cerumen

    • B.

      Helix

    • C.

      Tragus

    • D.

      Lobule

    Correct Answer
    B. Helix
    Explanation
    The helix is the external large rim of the auricle of the ear. It is a curved ridge that runs along the outer edge of the ear. The helix helps to shape and support the structure of the ear, and it also plays a role in directing sound into the ear canal. It is made up of cartilage and is covered by skin. The helix is an important anatomical feature of the ear and is involved in the overall function of hearing.

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  • 3. 

    A small projection on the external ear that is positioned in front of the external audiotory canal

    • A.

      Cerumen

    • B.

      Helix

    • C.

      Tragus

    • D.

      Lobule

    Correct Answer
    C. Tragus
    Explanation
    The tragus is a small projection on the external ear that is positioned in front of the external auditory canal. It is a small, fleshy prominence that helps to protect the ear canal and enhance sound localization. It also plays a role in directing sound waves into the ear. The other options, cerumen, helix, and lobule, do not accurately describe this specific anatomical feature.

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  • 4. 

    A small flap of flesh at the inferior end of the auricle of the ear

    • A.

      Cerumen

    • B.

      Helix

    • C.

      Tragus

    • D.

      Lobule

    Correct Answer
    D. Lobule
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lobule. A lobule is a small flap of flesh located at the inferior end of the auricle of the ear. It is a distinct anatomical feature that helps to shape the external ear. The other options, cerumen, helix, and tragus, do not accurately describe this specific flap of flesh.

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  • 5. 

    Also called the eardrum, this membrane separates the external ear and middle ear

    • A.

      Tympanic membrane

    • B.

      Ossicles

    • C.

      Eustachian tube

    • D.

      Cochlea

    Correct Answer
    A. Tympanic membrane
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the tympanic membrane. This membrane, also known as the eardrum, is located between the external ear and the middle ear. It plays a crucial role in transmitting sound vibrations from the external ear to the middle ear. When sound waves enter the ear canal, they cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, which in turn sets the ossicles (tiny bones in the middle ear) into motion. This vibration is then transmitted to the inner ear, specifically the cochlea, where it is converted into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain as sound.

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  • 6. 

    Bones of the middle ear: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes

    • A.

      Tympanic membrane

    • B.

      Ossicles

    • C.

      Eustachian tube

    • D.

      Cochlea

    Correct Answer
    B. Ossicles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "ossicles" because the question is asking about the bones of the middle ear, and the malleus, incus, and stapes are the three small bones that make up the ossicles. These bones are important for transmitting sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.

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  • 7. 

    The bony and cartilaginous auditory tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx. This helps to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

    • A.

      Tympanic membrane

    • B.

      Ossicles

    • C.

      Eustachian tube

    • D.

      Cochlea

    Correct Answer
    C. Eustachian tube
    Explanation
    The eustachian tube is the correct answer because it is the bony and cartilaginous auditory tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx. This tube helps to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane, which is the eardrum. The ossicles are the three small bones in the middle ear that transmit sound vibrations to the inner ear. The cochlea is the spiral-shaped structure in the inner ear that is responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain.

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  • 8. 

    A spiraling chamber in the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing

    • A.

      Tympanic membrane

    • B.

      Ossicles

    • C.

      Eustachian tube

    • D.

      Cochlea

    Correct Answer
    D. Cochlea
    Explanation
    The cochlea is a spiraling chamber in the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing. It is responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. The other options listed, such as the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and eustachian tube, are all structures involved in the process of hearing, but they do not specifically contain the receptors for hearing like the cochlea does.

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  • 9. 

    Mucous-lined, air-filled cavities that surround the nasal cavity and perform the same air-processing functions of filtration, moistening, and warming

    • A.

      Paranasal sinuses

    • B.

      Uvula

    • C.

      Palate

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    A. Paranasal sinuses
    Explanation
    Paranasal sinuses are mucous-lined, air-filled cavities that surround the nasal cavity. They are responsible for performing air-processing functions such as filtration, moistening, and warming. These sinuses help to reduce the weight of the skull, improve the resonance of the voice, and provide protection to the nasal cavity.

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  • 10. 

    A fleshy pendulum that hangs from the edge of the soft palate in the back of the mouth. The uvula moves with swallowing, breathing, and phonation

    • A.

      Paranasal sinuses

    • B.

      Uvula

    • C.

      Palate

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    B. Uvula
    Explanation
    The correct answer is uvula. The uvula is a fleshy pendulum that hangs from the edge of the soft palate in the back of the mouth. It moves with swallowing, breathing, and phonation.

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  • 11. 

    The anterior portion of the roof of the mouth formed by bones

    • A.

      Paranasal sinuses

    • B.

      Uvula

    • C.

      Palate

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    C. Palate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "palate." The palate refers to the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth that is formed by bones. It separates the oral and nasal cavities and plays a crucial role in speech and swallowing. The palate also helps to direct airflow during breathing and prevents food and liquid from entering the nasal passages.

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  • 12. 

    High-frequency hearing loss that occurs over time. Often associated with aging

    • A.

      Paranasal sinuses

    • B.

      Uvula

    • C.

      Palate

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    D. Presbycusis
    Explanation
    Presbycusis is the correct answer because it is a type of high-frequency hearing loss that occurs gradually over time, often associated with aging. The other options, paranasal sinuses, uvula, and palate, are not related to hearing loss.

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  • 13. 

    Swimmer's ear, infection of the outer ear or ear canal

    • A.

      Otitis externa

    • B.

      Mastoiditis

    • C.

      Air conduction (AC)

    • D.

      Bone conduction (BC)

    Correct Answer
    A. Otitis externa
    Explanation
    Otitis externa is the correct answer because it refers to an infection of the outer ear or ear canal, commonly known as swimmer's ear. This condition is caused by bacteria or fungi entering the ear canal, often due to water exposure or damage to the skin lining the ear canal. Symptoms of otitis externa include ear pain, itching, redness, and swelling. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as mastoiditis, which is an infection of the mastoid bone located behind the ear. Air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) are unrelated terms in audiology and not relevant to the given question.

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  • 14. 

    Inflammation of the mastoid that may occur secondary to a middle ear or a throat infection

    • A.

      Otitis externa

    • B.

      Mastoiditis

    • C.

      Air conduction (AC)

    • D.

      Bone conduction (BC)

    Correct Answer
    B. Mastoiditis
    Explanation
    Mastoiditis is the correct answer because it refers to the inflammation of the mastoid, which can occur as a result of an infection in the middle ear or throat. This condition typically causes pain, swelling, and redness behind the ear, and may also lead to fever and drainage from the ear. Prompt medical treatment is necessary to prevent complications such as hearing loss or the spread of infection to surrounding areas. Otitis externa, on the other hand, refers to inflammation of the outer ear canal, while air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) are terms related to hearing tests.

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  • 15. 

    The transmission of sound through the tympanic membrane to the cochlea and auditory nerve

    • A.

      Otitis externa

    • B.

      Mastoiditis

    • C.

      Air conduction (AC)

    • D.

      Bone conduction (BC)

    Correct Answer
    C. Air conduction (AC)
    Explanation
    Air conduction (AC) is the correct answer because it refers to the transmission of sound through the tympanic membrane to the cochlea and auditory nerve. AC occurs when sound waves travel through the external ear canal and cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate. These vibrations are then transmitted through the middle ear bones (ossicles) to the cochlea, where they are converted into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. This is the normal pathway for sound transmission in the ear.

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  • 16. 

    The transmission of sound through the bones of the skull to the cochlea and auditory nerve

    • A.

      Otitis externa

    • B.

      Mastoiditis

    • C.

      Air conduction (AC)

    • D.

      Bone conduction (BC)

    Correct Answer
    D. Bone conduction (BC)
    Explanation
    Bone conduction (BC) refers to the transmission of sound through the bones of the skull to the cochlea and auditory nerve. This means that sound vibrations bypass the outer and middle ear and directly stimulate the inner ear. Otitis externa and mastoiditis are both conditions affecting the outer ear and would not impact bone conduction. Air conduction (AC) refers to the transmission of sound through the air and the normal pathway of sound conduction through the ear. Therefore, the correct answer is bone conduction (BC).

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  • 17. 

    Smooth, pale, benign growths found along the turbinates of the nose

    • A.

      Nasal polyps

    • B.

      Cold sores

    • C.

      Fever blisters

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    A. Nasal polyps
    Explanation
    Smooth, pale, benign growths found along the turbinates of the nose are known as nasal polyps. Nasal polyps are noncancerous growths that develop in the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, facial pain, and reduced sense of smell. They are often associated with chronic inflammation and can be caused by conditions like allergies, asthma, or recurring infections. Treatment options for nasal polyps include medication to reduce inflammation, nasal sprays, or in some cases, surgical removal.

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  • 18. 

    Vesucykar that occurs on the lip or corner of the mouth. Caused by a herpes simplex virus

    • A.

      Nasal polyps

    • B.

      Cold sores

    • C.

      Fever blisters

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    B. Cold sores
    Explanation
    Cold sores, also known as vesucykar, are caused by the herpes simplex virus and typically occur on the lip or corner of the mouth. They are characterized by small, fluid-filled blisters that can be painful and may crust over. Nasal polyps are abnormal growths in the nasal cavity, presbycusis refers to age-related hearing loss, and fever blisters are another term for cold sores.

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  • 19. 

    Lesions or blisters on the lips may be caused by the herpes simplex virus

    • A.

      Nasal polyps

    • B.

      Cold sores

    • C.

      Fever blisters

    • D.

      Presbycusis

    Correct Answer
    C. Fever blisters
    Explanation
    Fever blisters, also known as cold sores, are caused by the herpes simplex virus. This virus can cause lesions or blisters to form on the lips. Nasal polyps are noncancerous growths that occur in the lining of the nose or sinuses. Presbycusis is age-related hearing loss. Therefore, the correct answer is fever blisters, as they are directly associated with the herpes simplex virus.

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  • 20. 

    A 2-years-old child is scheduled for removal of her tonsils and adenoids. On which areas of this client's throat will the surgery be done?

    • A.

      Nasopharynx and oropharynx

    • B.

      Oropharynx and palate

    • C.

      Oropharynx and laryngopharynx

    • D.

      Nasopharynx and laryngopharynx

    Correct Answer
    A. Nasopharynx and oropharynx
    Explanation
    Anatomy and Physiology Review, Throat

    The adenoids and openings of the eustachian tubes are located in the nasopharynx. The tonsils are located behind the pillars within the oropharynx on either side.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Comprehension
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 21. 

    While the examiner is inspecting the throat of a client with a tongue blade, the client begins to gag. What does this response indicate to the examiner?

    • A.

      The client has a functioning response.

    • B.

      The client is nauseated.

    • C.

      The client has nerve damage to the tongue.

    • D.

      The client has a malfunctioning response.

    Correct Answer
    A. The client has a functioning response.
    Explanation
    When the client begins to gag while the examiner is inspecting their throat with a tongue blade, it indicates that the client has a functioning response. Gagging is a protective reflex that occurs when the back of the throat is stimulated, such as by the presence of a foreign object. This reflex helps to prevent choking and aspiration of the object into the airway. Therefore, the client's gag reflex is working properly in this situation.

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  • 22. 

    During an otoscopic assessment, the nurse notes the presence of large amounts of cerumen in the client's external canal. The nurse knows:

    • A.

      Cerumen helps to lubricate and protect the ear.

    • B.

      Cerumen is needed to assist in the conduction of sound vibrations to the middle ear.

    • C.

      This indicates poor hygiene.

    • D.

      The client should clean his ears with cotton swabs.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cerumen helps to lubricate and protect the ear.
    Explanation
    Anatomy and Physiology Review, External Ear

    Cerumen helps to lubricate and protect the ear. It is not needed to assist in air conduction of sound vibrations to the middle ear. The presence and amount of cerumen is not related to hygiene practices. Cerumen removal with cotton swabs is not recommended.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Comprehension
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 23. 

    A client tells the nurse, aI have a headache and pressure right above my nose and eyes. My nose is stuffy too.a The nurse knows that these symptoms might indicate:

    • A.

      Infection or inflammation of the frontal sinuses

    • B.

      Infection or inflammation of the maxillary sinuses

    • C.

      Infection or inflammation of the columella

    • D.

      Infection or irritation of the interior turbinate

    Correct Answer
    A. Infection or inflammation of the frontal sinuses
    Explanation
    Anatomy and Physiology Review, Nasal Sinuses, Figure 14.5

    The paranasal sinuses are mucous-lined, air-filled cavities that surround the nasal cavity and perform the functions of filtration, moistening, and warming. They are named for the bones of the skill in which they are contained. The columella is the cartilaginous structure located between the nares. The inferior turbinate is the lowest bony projection within the nose and is covered with mucosa.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 24. 

    A 60-year-old client tells the nurse that he has noticed a decrease in his hearing. The nurse knows that the age-related changes of the ear that likely are contributing to the decrease in his hearing are the result of:

    • A.

      Increased cerumen in the external canal

    • B.

      The loss of low-frequency sounds; high-frequency sounds remain intact

    • C.

      Presbycusis

    • D.

      A thin tympanic membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Presbycusis
    Explanation
    Developmental Considerations, The Older Adult

    Presbycusis is the term given to the gradual hearing loss that occurs with aging. As individuals age, the individual develops a loss of high-frequency sounds first, then over time may develop a loss of low-frequency sounds as well. The tympanic membrane becomes paler and thicker with age.

    Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 25. 

    A client reports a family history of ear problems and hearing loss and is concerned about agoing deaf.a The most appropriate response by the nurse is:

    • A.

      "Don't worry, hearing loss is not hereditary."

    • B.

      "You will likely have hearing problems."

    • C.

      "What medications are you currently taking?"

    • D.

      "Hearing loss can be hereditary. Have you noticed any changes in your hearing?"

    Correct Answer
    D. "Hearing loss can be hereditary. Have you noticed any changes in your hearing?"
    Explanation
    Focused Interview Questions, General Questions

    Hearing loss can be hereditary. Telling the client that hearing loss is not hereditary or that they will likely have hearing problems are not true statements. Obtaining information about medications and specifically ototoxic medications is important, but is not specifically related to the client's statements at this time.

    Nursing Process Step: Implementation
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Category: Physiological Integrity

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  • 26. 

    The nurse is preparing to perform an assessment of the nasal cavity using a nasal speculum. The nurse considers which of the following to be normal findings?

    • A.

      Superior turbinate free of lesions

    • B.

      Deviation of the septum

    • C.

      Dark pink mucosa without discharge

    • D.

      The presence of epistaxis on anterior septum

    Correct Answer
    C. Dark pink mucosa without discharge
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Nose and Sinuses

    Normal nasal mucosa is dark pink and smooth without swelling, discharge, bleeding, or foreign bodies. The inferior and middle turbinates are visible. The superior turbinate and meatus are not visible for assessment. Deviation of the septum is not considered a normal finding. The presence of bleeding (epistaxis) is not a normal finding when assessing the internal nose.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following symptoms is the client diagnosed with dysphagia most likely to experience?

    • A.

      Gingivitis

    • B.

      A loss of sense of taste and smell

    • C.

      Difficulty in swallowing

    • D.

      A sore throat

    Correct Answer
    C. Difficulty in swallowing
    Explanation
    Focused Interview Questions, Mouth and Throat

    Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing and may be due to a neurologic or gastrointestinal problem, or it may be related to ill-fitting dentures or malocclusion. Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingivae (gums) and not associated with dysphagia. Loss of sense of taste and smell is not related to swallowing difficulties. A sore throat is called pharyngitis and is not related to difficulty in swallowing.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 28. 

    The nurse is preparing to use the otoscope to visualize the auditory canal and tympanic membrane of an adult client. Which of the following is most appropriate?

    • A.

      Insert the otoscope into the inner two-thirds of the ear canal.

    • B.

      Pull the pinna up and back.

    • C.

      Ask the client to tilt the head toward the side to be examined.

    • D.

      Tell the client that the procedure will be slightly painful.

    Correct Answer
    B. Pull the pinna up and back.
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Ear

    The pinna should be pulled up and back in an adult client to straighten the canal and allow visualization of the tympanic membrane. The otoscope should not be inserted deep into the canal because the inner two-thirds of the ear canal is very sensitive. The client should tilt the head away from the side to be examined, toward the opposite shoulder. Insertion of the otoscope should not be painful.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 29. 

    The nurse notes dense, white patches on a client's tympanic membrane. What does this finding suggest?

    • A.

      An infection of the middle ear

    • B.

      Increased pressure in the middle ear

    • C.

      A blocked eustachian tube

    • D.

      Scars from prior infections

    Correct Answer
    D. Scars from prior infections
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Ear

    White patches on the tympanic membrane (TM) indicate scars from prior infections, perforations, or injuries. With an infection in the middle ear, the TM would be erythematous and bulging. Increased pressure in the middle ear would present as bulging of the TM. A blocked eustachian tube would cause the TM to retract into the middle ear.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 30. 

    During the Weber test, the sound lateralizes to the client's right ear. This finding suggests:

    • A.

      A normal finding for the Weber test.

    • B.

      The test should be repeated.

    • C.

      The client has nerve damage.

    • D.

      The client has a potential hearing loss.

    Correct Answer
    D. The client has a potential hearing loss.
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Ear

    Lateralization of the Weber test indicates that the client could have a hearing loss. The client could have either a conductive hearing loss or nerve damage with lateralization of the Weber test. The normal response is no lateralization-the client should hear the sound equally in both ears. If the client has poor conduction in one ear, the sound is heard better in the impaired ear because the sound is being conducted directly through the bone to the ear and the extraneous sounds in the environment are not picked up. There is no indication that the test should be repeated. The Rinne test should be performed if the results of the Weber test are abnormal.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 31. 

    The nurse is assessing the sinuses of a client. Which of the following is considered a normal finding?

    • A.

      No tenderness to palpation or percussion of the sinuses.

    • B.

      Mild swelling over the frontal sinuses.

    • C.

      With transillumination of the maxillary sinuses, there is no red glow present under the eyes.

    • D.

      Pink, moist mucous membranes with no lesions.

    Correct Answer
    A. No tenderness to palpation or percussion of the sinuses.
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Nose and Sinuses

    Normal findings of the frontal and maxillary sinuses are no tenderness to palpation or percussion. Swelling should not be present. With transillumination of the maxillary sinuses, a red glow should be present under the eyes. The mucous membranes of the sinuses are not directly visible and are unable to be assessed.

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 32. 

    When inspecting the mouth and throat of a client, the nurse considers which of the following to be normal findings? Select all that apply.

    • A.

      Symmetrical rise of the soft palate and uvula when the client says, "aah."

    • B.

      The tonsils are red with white exudates present.

    • C.

      Salivary ducts are moist without redness or swelling.

    • D.

      The dorsal surface of the tongue is moist with papillae.

    • E.

      Smooth, pink nodules on the lateral sides of the tongue.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Symmetrical rise of the soft palate and uvula when the client says, "aah."
    C. Salivary ducts are moist without redness or swelling.
    D. The dorsal surface of the tongue is moist with papillae.
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Mouth and Throat

    Symmetrical rise of the soft palate and uvula when the client says, "aah."
    -Normal findings of the tongue include symmetrical rise of the soft palate and uvula when the client says, "aah."

    The tonsils are red with white exudates present.
    -The tonsils should be pink without exudates.

    Salivary ducts are moist without redness or swelling.
    -Salivary ducts that are moist without redness or swelling are a normal finding.

    The dorsal surface of the tongue is moist with papillae.
    -The dorsal surface of the tongue should be well papillated and moist.

    Smooth, pink nodules on the lateral sides of the tongue.
    -The tongue should be free of lesions.



    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Comprehension
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 33. 

    When performing an ear assessment, the nurse notes tenderness of the pinna and tragus to movement and the presence of drainage in the external canal. The nurse suspects which of the following?

    • A.

      Otitis media

    • B.

      Otitis externa

    • C.

      An inner ear infection

    • D.

      A negative Romberg's sign

    Correct Answer
    B. Otitis externa
    Explanation
    Techniques and Normal Findings, Ear

    Pain on movement of the pinna and tragus of the ear and drainage in the external canal suggests the presence of otitis externa (infection in the external ear canal). Otitis media is infection or inflammation of the middle ear, which would be seen using an otoscope. Inner ear infections are not visible or palpable. Romberg's test assesses equilibrium. The client stands with feet together, eyes closed for 20 seconds. The normal response is minimal swaying and is documented as "Romberg negative".

    Nursing Process Step: Assessment
    Cognitive Level: Analysis
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 34. 

    The mother of a young child tells the nurse that her her child has speech problems and was diagnosed with ankyloglossia. She states that she doesn't understand what this condition is. What can the nurse explain to the mother about this condition?

    • A.

      "Your child's tongue is slightly larger than normal and may be causing his speech problems."

    • B.

      "The aphthous ulcers your child has are related to this condition."

    • C.

      "Your child's nose bleed is caused by a perforated septum."

    • D.

      "The piece of tissue from the tip of the tongue to the floor of the mouth is shortened and is likely causing your child's speech difficulties."

    Correct Answer
    D. "The piece of tissue from the tip of the tongue to the floor of the mouth is shortened and is likely causing your child's speech difficulties."
    Explanation
    Abnormal Findings, Mouth and Throat

    Ankyloglossia is a fixation of the tip of the tongue to the floor of the mouth due to a shortened lingual frenulum. The condition is usually congenital and may be corrected with surgery. Enlargement of the tongue is not related to ankyloglossia. Aphthous ulcers (canker sores) are lesions on the oral mucosa and not associated with this condition. Nose bleeds (epistaxis) are also not related to ankyloglossia.

    Nursing Process Step: Implementation
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 35. 

    The nurse notes that a client has a smooth, red, shiny tongue with no lesions. Which of the following is the most appropriate in this situation?

    • A.

      Ask whether the client has a history of halitosis.

    • B.

      Ask the client to describe his diet.

    • C.

      Look in the client record for a history of leukoplakia.

    • D.

      Continue with assessment as this is a normal finding for the tongue.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ask the client to describe his diet.
    Explanation
    Abnormal Findings, Mouth and Throat

    A smooth tongue is a condition resulting from vitamin B and iron deficiency. The surface of the tongue is smooth and red with a shiny appearance. Halitosis is the presence of bad breath and not applicable in this situation. Leukoplakia is a whitish thickening of the mucous membrane in the mouth or tongue and is often a precancerous lesion. A smooth, shiny, red tongue is not a normal finding.

    Nursing Process Step: Implementation
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 36. 

    When performing a focused interview with a pregnant client, the nurse asks the client whether she has a afeeling of fullnessa in her ears. What is the rationale for asking this question?

    • A.

      Fullness in the ears is often associated with hypertension and preeclampsia.

    • B.

      It indicates the presence of otitis media.

    • C.

      It is a normal symptom during pregnancy due to increased vascularity.

    • D.

      It is often associated with hearing loss.

    Correct Answer
    C. It is a normal symptom during pregnancy due to increased vascularity.
    Explanation
    Focused Interview Questions; Questions For the Pregnant Female

    Changes in estrogen produce increased vascularity throughout body systems during pregnancy. The vascularity may cause a feeling of fullness or an aching in the ears. Humming in the ears during pregnancy may occur with hypertension associated with preeclampsia (a serious condition that can threaten maternal and fetal health). A feeling of fullness during pregnancy is a normal symptom and not related to otitis media (middle ear infection) or hearing loss.

    Nursing Process Step: Implementation
    Cognitive Level: Comprehension
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 37. 

    During the focused interview, the nurse asks the client whether she uses cotton-tipped applicators to clean her ears. What is the rationale for asking this question?

    • A.

      Use of cotton-tipped applicators is a good way to clean the external auditory canal.

    • B.

      Cotton-tipped applicators should be avoided since they can cause cerumen to become impacted.

    • C.

      Using commercial cerumen removal products is recommended instead of cotton-tipped applicators,

    • D.

      Long-term use of cotton-tipped applicators places the client at risk of developing a middle ear infection.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cotton-tipped applicators should be avoided since they can cause cerumen to become impacted.
    Explanation
    Use of cotton-tipped applicators to remove cerumen can cause trauma to the tympanic membrane and cause cerumen to become impacted. Ear canals should never be cleaned. Cerumen moves to the outside of the canal naturally. Commercial cerumen removal products should be used with the guidance of a health care provider. Use of cotton-tipped applicators does not predispose the individual to a middle ear infection.

    Nursing Process Step: Implementation
    Cognitive Level: Application
    Client Need: Physiological Integrity

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  • 38. 

    A bluish tinge to the tympanic membrane indicating the presence of blood in the middle ear. It is usually caused by head trauma.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    A. Hemotympanum
    Explanation
    Hemotympanum refers to a bluish tinge in the tympanic membrane, which is the eardrum, indicating the presence of blood in the middle ear. This condition is commonly caused by head trauma, such as a direct blow to the ear or a skull fracture. The blood accumulation in the middle ear can cause hearing loss, dizziness, and pain. Prompt medical attention is necessary to assess and treat the underlying cause of the hemotympanum and prevent further complications.

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  • 39. 

    Infection of the outer ear, often called "swimmer's ear". otitis externa causes redness and swelling of the auricle and ear canal. drainage is usually scanty.  it may be accompanied by itching, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    B. Otitis Externa
    Explanation
    Otitis externa is the correct answer because it matches the given description. Otitis externa refers to an infection of the outer ear, often known as "swimmer's ear." It causes redness and swelling of the auricle and ear canal, with usually scanty drainage. It may also be accompanied by itching, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes. Hemotympanum, otitis media, perforation of the tympanic membrane, scarred tympanic membrane, and tophi are not relevant to the given description.

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  • 40. 

    Infection of the middle ear producing a red, bulging eardrum; fever; and hearing loss.  the otoscopic examination reveals absent light reflex.  otitis media is more common in children, whose auditory tubes are wider, shorter, and more horizontal than those of adults, thus allowing easier access for infections ascending from the pharynx.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    C. Otitis Media
    Explanation
    Otitis media is the correct answer because the symptoms described in the question, such as a red, bulging eardrum, fever, and hearing loss, are consistent with an infection of the middle ear. The absence of the light reflex during otoscopic examination is also a common finding in otitis media. The explanation also mentions that otitis media is more common in children due to the anatomical differences in their auditory tubes, which makes it easier for infections to ascend from the pharynx.

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  • 41. 

    A rupturing of the eardrum due to trauma or infection. during otoscopic inpection, the perforation may be seen as a dark spot on the eardrum.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    D. Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane
    Explanation
    Perforation of the tympanic membrane refers to a rupture in the eardrum, which can occur due to trauma or infection. During otoscopic inspection, a perforation may be visible as a dark spot on the eardrum. This condition can cause hearing loss, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. Treatment options vary depending on the size and cause of the perforation, and may include observation, medication, or surgery.

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  • 42. 

    A condition in which the eardrum has white patches of scar tissue due to repeated ear infections.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    E. Scarred Tympanic Membrane
    Explanation
    Scarred Tympanic Membrane is the correct answer because it describes the condition of having white patches of scar tissue on the eardrum, which is caused by repeated ear infections. This condition can lead to hearing loss and other complications.

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  • 43. 

    Small white nodules on the helix or antihelix.  these nodules contain uric acis crystals and are a sign of gout.

    • A.

      Hemotympanum

    • B.

      Otitis Externa

    • C.

      Otitis Media

    • D.

      Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane

    • E.

      Scarred Tympanic Membrane

    • F.

      Tophi

    Correct Answer
    F. Tophi
    Explanation
    Tophi are small white nodules that form on the helix or antihelix of the ear. These nodules contain uric acid crystals and are a characteristic sign of gout. Gout is a type of arthritis that occurs when there is a buildup of uric acid in the body, leading to the formation of these nodules. Therefore, the presence of tophi in the ear is indicative of gout.

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  • 44. 

    A nosebleed. this may follow trauma, such as a blow to the nose, or it may accompany another alteration in health, such as rhinitis, hypertension, or a blood coagulation disorder.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    A. Epistaxis
    Explanation
    Epistaxis is the medical term for a nosebleed. It can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the nose, or it may be associated with other health conditions like rhinitis, hypertension, or a blood coagulation disorder. The answer provided correctly identifies epistaxis as the term for a nosebleed.

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  • 45. 

    A nasal inflamation usually due to a viral infection or allergy.  it is accompanied by a watery and often copious discharge, sneezing, and congestion (stuffy nose).  acute is caused by a virus, whereas allergic results from contact with allergens such as pollen and dust.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    B. Rhinitis
    Explanation
    Rhinitis is the correct answer because it matches the description provided. Rhinitis is a nasal inflammation that is commonly caused by a viral infection or allergy. It is characterized by symptoms such as watery and copious discharge, sneezing, and congestion. Acute rhinitis is caused by a virus, while allergic rhinitis is a result of contact with allergens like pollen and dust.

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  • 46. 

    Inflammation of the sinuses usuaaly following an upper respiratory infection.  it causes facial pain, inflammation, and discharge.  fever; chills; frontal headache; or a dull, pulsating pain in the cheeks or teeth may accompany sinusitis.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    C. Sinusitis
    Explanation
    Sinusitis is the correct answer because it matches the symptoms described in the question. Sinusitis is the inflammation of the sinuses, often occurring after an upper respiratory infection. It causes facial pain, inflammation, and discharge. The symptoms mentioned in the question, such as fever, chills, frontal headache, and pain in the cheeks or teeth, are commonly associated with sinusitis.

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  • 47. 

    A slight ingrowth of the lower nasal septum.  when viewed with a nasal speculum, one nasal cavity appears to have an outgrowth or shelf.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    D. Deviated Septum
    Explanation
    A deviated septum is a condition where the nasal septum, the wall of tissue that separates the nostrils, is shifted to one side. This can cause one nasal cavity to appear larger or have an outgrowth or shelf-like structure when viewed with a nasal speculum. A deviated septum can lead to symptoms such as difficulty breathing, nasal congestion, and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis). Therefore, a deviated septum is the most likely explanation for the given description.

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  • 48. 

    Pale, round, firm, onpainful overgrowth of nasal mucosa usually caused by chronic allergic rhinitis.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    E. Nasal Polyps
    Explanation
    Nasal polyps are a correct answer because they are described as a pale, round, firm, nonpainful overgrowth of nasal mucosa. They are commonly caused by chronic allergic rhinitis. Epistaxis, rhinitis, sinusitis, deviated septum, and perforated septum do not match the given description of nasal polyps.

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  • 49. 

    A hole in the septum caused by chronic infection, trauma, or sniffing cocaine. it can be detected by shining a penlight through the naris on the other side.

    • A.

      Epistaxis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Deviated Septum

    • E.

      Nasal Polyps

    • F.

      Perforated Septum

    Correct Answer
    F. Perforated Septum
    Explanation
    A perforated septum refers to a hole in the septum, which is the wall that separates the two nostrils. This condition can be caused by chronic infection, trauma, or the use of cocaine. One way to detect a perforated septum is by shining a penlight through the naris (nostril) on the other side. This allows light to pass through the hole and confirms the presence of a perforated septum.

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  • 50. 

    A fixation of the tip of the tongue to the floor of the mouth due to a shortened lingual frenulum. the condition is usually congenital and may be corrected surgically.

    • A.

      Ankyloglossia

    • B.

      Aphthous Ulcers

    • C.

      Black Hairy Tongue

    • D.

      Gingival Hyperplasia

    • E.

      Gingivitis

    • F.

      Tonsillitis

    • G.

      Smooth Tongue

    • H.

      Herpes Simplex

    • I.

      Carcinoma

    • J.

      Leukoplakia

    Correct Answer
    A. Ankyloglossia
    Explanation
    Ankyloglossia refers to a condition where the tip of the tongue is fixed to the floor of the mouth due to a shortened lingual frenulum. This condition is usually present from birth and can be corrected through surgical intervention.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 24, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Shinichiro
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