Musculoskeletal Practice MCQs: Jan-APR 08 c. Rhodes Phd

24 Questions | Total Attempts: 1208

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Musculoskeletal Practice MCQs: Jan-APR 08	c. Rhodes Phd

.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What time point in gestation would a neural crest cell differentiate into a flat skull bone?
    • A. 

      During epiblast cell ingression

    • B. 

      In the second trimester

    • C. 

      During the fetal period

    • D. 

      Immediately following cleavage

    • E. 

      During embryogenesis

  • 2. 
    Bones that develop from the structure labeled ‘A’ below form by intramembranous ossification.  True or false?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    The bones of the chordal chondrocranium develop by
    • A. 

      Both endochondral & membranous ossification

    • B. 

      Only endochondral ossification

    • C. 

      Only membranous ossification

    • D. 

      By direct ossification of mesenchyme

    • E. 

      By ossification of neural crest cells

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is NOT a component of the developing limb?
    • A. 

      Mesenchyme

    • B. 

      Apical ectodermal ridge

    • C. 

      Neural crest cells

    • D. 

      Hyaline cartilage

    • E. 

      Ectoderm

  • 5. 
    The diaphyseal plate is a growth plate where chondrocytes proliferate to elongate the growing bone.  True or false?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Syndactyly is
    • A. 

      A malformation of the hand or foot resulting in shortened digits

    • B. 

      A malformation of the hand or foot resulting in fusion of two or more digits.

    • C. 

      A malformation of the hand or foot resulting in extra digits.

    • D. 

      A malformation of the hand or foot resulting in the absence of the long bones of the limb

    • E. 

      A malformation of the hand or foot resulting in a lobster-claw deformity

  • 7. 
    The zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) is a cluster of cells located in the developing limb bud.  Which limb axis is the ZPA responsible for patterning?
    • A. 

      Anteroposterior

    • B. 

      Sagital

    • C. 

      Dorsoventral

    • D. 

      Proximodistal

    • E. 

      Transverse

  • 8. 
    Scoliosis is a congenital anomaly that results in a reduced number of cervical vertebrae.  True or false?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    A newborn infant presents with an abdominal wall defect which was caused by a failure of mesenchymal cells to migrate beneath the surface ectoderm during development.  Where would these mesenchymal cells migrate from?
    • A. 

      Paraxial mesoderm

    • B. 

      Lateral plate mesoderm

    • C. 

      Somatic mesoderm

    • D. 

      Splanchnic mesoderm

    • E. 

      Neural crest cells

  • 10. 
    Which myogenic region will give rise to the external intercostal muscles?
    • A. 

      Dorsomedial lip (DML)

    • B. 

      Sclerotome

    • C. 

      Dermomyotome

    • D. 

      Ventrolateral lip (VLL)

    • E. 

      Intermediate mesoderm

  • 11. 
    Which of the following statements about vertebrae is correct?
    • A. 

      Each vertebrae develops from a single somite

    • B. 

      The nucleus pulposus forms from the sclerotome

    • C. 

      Vertebrae form from the dermatome portion of each somite

    • D. 

      Each vertebral myotome bridges two vertebrae to permit spinal movement

    • E. 

      Vertebrae are patterned by Pax genes

  • 12. 
    Which of the following gives rise to the muscle system?
    • A. 

      Ectoderm

    • B. 

      Intraembryonic mesoderm

    • C. 

      Endoderm

    • D. 

      Extraembryonic mesoderm

    • E. 

      Hypoblast cells

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is derived from the hypaxial divisions of the myotomes?
    • A. 

      Scalenes, prevertebral, geniohyoid, and infrahyoid muscles

    • B. 

      Flexor muscles of the trunk

    • C. 

      Quadratus lumborum

    • D. 

      Pelvic diaphragm

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    Trunk musculature arises from mesoderm derived from which region of the somite?
    • A. 

      None, trunk muscles are not derived from paraxial mesoderm

    • B. 

      Sclerotome

    • C. 

      Dermatome

    • D. 

      Myotome

    • E. 

      All regions of the somite

  • 15. 
    The limb musculature is derived from
    • A. 

      Splanchnic mesoderm

    • B. 

      Somatic mesoderm

    • C. 

      Somitic mesoderm

    • D. 

      Sclerotome

    • E. 

      Endoderm

  • 16. 
    Limb buds are first perceptible during the ________________ of development.
    • A. 

      Third week

    • B. 

      Fourth week

    • C. 

      Fifth week

    • D. 

      Sixth week

    • E. 

      Seventh week

  • 17. 
    The limb skeleton consists of cartilage during week ________ of development.
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      6

    • D. 

      9

    • E. 

      12

  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements regarding limb rotation is CORRECT?
    • A. 

      The upper limb rotates almost 90 degrees in a medial direction

    • B. 

      Limb rotation is necessary for correct muscle positioning

    • C. 

      The lower limb rotates 90 degrees in a lateral direction

    • D. 

      The upper limb rotates before the lower limb

    • E. 

      Limb rotation does not affect limb innervation

  • 19. 
    The notochord degenerates along its length, specifically in segments where which of the following form?
    • A. 

      Ribs

    • B. 

      Vertebral bodies

    • C. 

      Intervertebral segments

    • D. 

      Dermis

    • E. 

      Intersegmental nerves

  • 20. 
    Which of the following gives rise to bones of the face?
    • A. 

      Chondrocranium

    • B. 

      Membranous neurocranium

    • C. 

      Viscerocranium

    • D. 

      Pre-chordal chondrocranium

    • E. 

      Cartilaginous neurocranium

  • 21. 
    What is craniosynostosis?
    • A. 

      Premature fusion of the anterior fontanelle

    • B. 

      Premature fusion of the posterior fontanelle

    • C. 

      Premature fusion of one or more fibrous sutures

    • D. 

      Fusion of the meninges to the fibrous sutures

    • E. 

      An evagination of the meninges through an opening in the one or more fibrous sutures

  • 22. 
    Which of the following statements regarding the molecular regulation of limb development is CORRECT?
    • A. 

      The AER is responsible for regulating patterning across the thumb to the pinky

    • B. 

      The progress zone contains differentiated, amitotic cells

    • C. 

      Fingers and toes are the first limb structures to form

    • D. 

      The ZPA produces SHH which diffuses to form a concentration gradient

    • E. 

      The limbs are the only structures devoid of Hox gene expression

  • 23. 
    With regard to the fetal skull, what is ‘molding’?
    • A. 

      An adaptation on the skull bones to the birth canal which allows the skull bones to overlap during birth

    • B. 

      The progressive shaping of the flat bones of the skull throughout gestation

    • C. 

      The molecular interaction between the skull bones and the brain to help shape the skull

    • D. 

      The fusing together of the three sections of the fetal skull; the chondrocranium, the viscerocranium and the membranous neurocranium

    • E. 

      The growth of paranasal air-sinuses and maturation of the skull bones to make the skull more proportioned

  • 24. 
    Thalidomide is used today as one of many treatments for AIDS patients.  Why is this a concern for women of child bearing age?
    • A. 

      Thalidomide can also cause sterility

    • B. 

      Thalidomide is a potent teratogen linked to severe facial malformations

    • C. 

      Thalidomide should not be taken during the fetal period for risk of intra-uterine growth retardation

    • D. 

      Thalidomide should not be taken during the critical period of limb development because it can cause severe limb defects

    • E. 

      Thalidomide increases the risk of an ectopic pregnancy

Back to Top Back to top