Geology Ch. 8 Test

43 Questions

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

Basically Geology is the wide study of solid earth, the rocks and how they change over time. This quiz is for those Geology enthusiasts who want to test and advance their knowledge on the subject. All the best.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism? 
    • A. 

      Hornfels

    • B. 

      Schist

    • C. 

      Slate

    • D. 

      Phyllite

  • 2. 
    What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks? 
    • A. 

      Micas

    • B. 

      Feldspars

    • C. 

      Carbonates

    • D. 

      Quartz

  • 3. 
    What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?  
    • A. 

      Calcite grains grow larger and increase in size

    • B. 

      Clays crystallize to micas, forming a highly foliated, mica-rich rock

    • C. 

      Limestone grains react to form quartz and feldspars

    • D. 

      Calcite grains are dissolved away leaving only marble crystals

  • 4. 
    Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine-sized mica and other mineral grains, typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage? 
    • A. 

      Schist

    • B. 

      Hornfels

    • C. 

      Quartzite

    • D. 

      Slate

  • 5. 
    Tektites originate in what metamorphic environment? 
    • A. 

      Low pressure and high temperature associated with volcanism

    • B. 

      High temperatures associated with meteorite impacts

    • C. 

      Very high pressures and temperatures associated with deep subduction

    • D. 

      High temperatures and shearing stresses in an oceanic-crust transform fault

  • 6. 
    Which one of the following is not likely to be genetically associated with impact of an asteroid or large meteorite? 
    • A. 

      Tektites

    • B. 

      Blueschists

    • C. 

      Coesite

    • D. 

      Impact crater

  • 7. 
    Which of the following statements concerning slate is not true?   
    • A. 

      Has abundant, coarse-grained mica

    • B. 

      Forms from shales and mudstones

    • C. 

      Rock cleavage is common

    • D. 

      Sedimentary features may be visible

  • 8. 
    ________ is a strong, parallel alignment of coarse mica flakes and/or of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock. 
    • A. 

      Rock cleavage

    • B. 

      Foliation

    • C. 

      Stress streaking

    • D. 

      Marbleizing

  • 9. 
    ________ is a nonfoliated rock formed by contact metamorphism of a shale or mudstone. 
    • A. 

      Schist

    • B. 

      Marble

    • C. 

      Gneiss

    • D. 

      Hornfels

  • 10. 
    Which of the following would exhibit sheared and mechanically fragmented rocks? 
    • A. 

      Fault movements at shallow depths

    • B. 

      Intense compression in a deep-seated, regional metamorphic zone

    • C. 

      Heating of shales and mudstones near a pluton

    • D. 

      Regional metamorphism of pyroclastic volcanic rocks

  • 11. 
    Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism?  
    • A. 

      Pressures are very high, the rock is deeply buried, and temperatures are raised by the Earth's internal heat.

    • B. 

      Pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body.

    • C. 

      Heat is generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faults.

    • D. 

      Depths are fairly shallow, but temperatures and pressures are so high that the rocks begin to partially melt.

  • 12. 
    ________ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone. 
    • A. 

      Migmatite

    • B. 

      Amphibolite

    • C. 

      Marble

    • D. 

      Quartzite

  • 13. 
    What foliated, metamorphic rock is texturally intermediate between slate and schist? 
    • A. 

      Fault breccia

    • B. 

      Phyllite

    • C. 

      Quartzite

    • D. 

      Gneiss

  • 14. 
    ________ is characterized by the segregation of light- and dark-colored minerals into thin layers or bands. 
    • A. 

      Garnet hornfels

    • B. 

      Granitic gneiss

    • C. 

      Slate

    • D. 

      Quartzite

  • 15. 
    What type of foliation results from the parallel alignment of abundant, coarse-grained, mica flakes in a metamorphic rock? 
    • A. 

      Schistosity

    • B. 

      Gneissic banding

    • C. 

      Slaty cleavage

    • D. 

      Phyllitic structure

  • 16. 
    Which of the following metamorphic rocks could be used to neutralize acidic mine waters? 
    • A. 

      Granite gneiss

    • B. 

      Quartzite

    • C. 

      Slate

    • D. 

      Marble

  • 17. 
    Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism? 
    • A. 

      Phyllite, slate, schist

    • B. 

      Schist, slate, phyllite

    • C. 

      Slate, phyllite, schist

    • D. 

      Slate, schist, phyllite

  • 18. 
    ________ is typically formed by metamorphism of a sandstone. 
    • A. 

      Marble

    • B. 

      Slate

    • C. 

      Amphibolite

    • D. 

      Quartzite

  • 19. 
    Which of the following rocks would exhibit visible, textural evidence of having undergone some partial melting? 
    • A. 

      Fault breccia

    • B. 

      Migmatite

    • C. 

      Slate

    • D. 

      Foliated hornfels

  • 20. 
    What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism? 
    • A. 

      Deep burial and heat from the Earth's interior

    • B. 

      Heat from grinding and shearing on faults

    • C. 

      Heat from the spontaneous decomposition of micas and feldspars

    • D. 

      Heat from a nearby magma body

  • 21. 
    In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely? 
    • A. 

      At shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone

    • B. 

      At shallow depths along major transform faults in the continental crust

    • C. 

      At great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding

    • D. 

      At shallow depths beneath the seafloor where water pressures are immense

  • 22. 
    Graphite is identified in a particular schist. Which one of the following conclusions is justified? 
    • A. 

      The pre-metamorphic rock was a shale or mudstone containing organic matter.

    • B. 

      The rock also contains diamonds; both are crystalline forms of the element carbon.

    • C. 

      The schist formed from a quartz-rich, sedimentary limestone.

    • D. 

      The graphite lubricated shearing movements along a fault, causing a schist to form.

  • 23. 
    Amphibolite is a foliated metamorphic rock composed principally of hornblende and plagioclase. How does it form? 
    • A. 

      By contact metamorphism of sandstone along the contact with a granitic batholith

    • B. 

      By regional metamorphism of volcanic rocks such as andesite and basalt

    • C. 

      By gouging and crushing of limestone along a fault

    • D. 

      By the impact of an asteroid on interbedded sandstone and shale

  • 24. 
    What term describes the zone of contact metamorphism surrounding an intrusive magma body? 
    • A. 

      Aura

    • B. 

      Auricle

    • C. 

      Oracle

    • D. 

      Aureole

  • 25. 
    During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids? 
    • A. 

      Increase the pressures in deeply buried, regional-metamorphic zones

    • B. 

      Aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains

    • C. 

      Prevent partial melting so solid rocks can undergo very high temperature regional metamorphism

    • D. 

      Facilitate the formation of schistosity and gneissic banding in hornfels and slates

  • 26. 
    What two, metamorphic rocks are composed predominantly of single minerals? 
    • A. 

      Mica schist and granitic gneiss

    • B. 

      Fault breccia and graphitic schist

    • C. 

      Garnet schist and hornfels

    • D. 

      Marble and quartzite

  • 27. 
    A ________ forms at very high pressures but moderately low temperatures associated with subduction of oceanic crust and sediments. 
    • A. 

      Mylonite

    • B. 

      Migmatite

    • C. 

      Biotite marble

    • D. 

      Blueschist

  • 28. 
    Partial melting is an important process in the formation of migmatites. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Slate and schist are both derived by metamorphism of shales and mudstones. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    Hornfels are metamorphic rocks produced at great depths and high temperatures associated with regional metamorphism. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
    Calcite is the main mineral constituent of the sedimentary rock limestone and of the metamorphic rock marble. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Metamorphic rocks formed during episodes of mountain building typically show textural characteristics indicative of shearing stress and deformation. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    Amphibolites have gneissic textures and form by regional metamorphism of granites and rhyolites. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 34. 
    At high pressures and elevated temperatures of regional metamorphism, silicate rocks are more resistant to flowage and deformation than at low temperatures and pressures. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    Foliated metamorphic rocks are composed largely of equidimensional grains of minerals such as quartz and calcite. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    Rock cleavage or slaty cleavage in slates is largely a consequence of abundant, parallel-aligned, very fine-grained mica flakes in the rock. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Muscovite, biotite, and chlorite are common minerals found in phyllites and schists. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    The distinctive layers or bands of different minerals in gneisses may be complexly folded. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    Quartzites and metaconglomerates are formed along faults by intensive fracturing and fragmentation of conglomerate beds and quartz veins. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    High-grade, regional metamorphism produces significant and recognizable changes in the textures and mineral compositions of rocks. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 41. 
    Talc and graphite are very soft minerals found in some schists.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 42. 
    Three major factors involved in metamorphism are elevated temperature, elevated pressure, and the chemical action of hot fluids. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 43. 
    During metamorphism, most rock is composed of solid mineral grains, but small amounts of hot fluids or partial melting may facilitate the metamorphic process. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False