Practice Quiz: Phlebotomy Chapter 3 - Part I

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Practice Quiz: Phlebotomy Chapter 3 - Part I - Quiz

Are you still revising for the phlebotomy exam/Below is part one of the practice quiz on chapter 3. A continuous review of chapters as you cover them is perfect for keeping your knowledge fresh. Being that this is a continuation to the series of quizzes, do ensure you keep an eye out for part II of the questions on chapter 3.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of the blood vessels.

    Explanation
    Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured using two values - systolic pressure (when the heart contracts) and diastolic pressure (when the heart relaxes). Blood pressure is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and can be affected by various factors such as age, lifestyle, and underlying medical conditions. Monitoring blood pressure regularly is crucial to identify and manage any abnormalities or risks associated with high or low blood pressure.

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  • 2. 

    Refers to the arterial pressure of th systemic circulation:

    Explanation
    Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped around the body by the heart. It is a measure of the pressure within the systemic circulation, which includes all the arteries and veins that supply blood to the organs and tissues. Blood pressure is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and can be influenced by various factors such as age, lifestyle, and underlying medical conditions. Monitoring and maintaining a healthy blood pressure is crucial for overall well-being.

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  • 3. 

    during each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between systolic maximum pressure and _______________________ minimum pressure.

    Explanation
    During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between systolic maximum pressure and diastolic pressure, which is the minimum pressure.

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  • 4. 

    what is the maximum blood pressure?

  • 5. 

    Due to the pumping of the heart and resistance to flow of the blood vessels, blood pressure ________________ as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries. 

    Explanation
    As the blood moves away from the heart through arteries, the pumping of the heart and the resistance to flow in the blood vessels cause a decrease in blood pressure. This is because the heart's pumping action becomes less forceful as the blood travels further from the heart, and the resistance in the blood vessels hinders the flow of blood, resulting in a decrease in blood pressure.

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  • 6. 

    Blood pressure drops most rapidly along the small _____________ and __________ and continually decreases as blood moves through the capillaries and back through the veins to the heart.

    Explanation
    As blood moves away from the heart, it passes through arteries and arterioles, which are the small blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the body's tissues. These vessels have thicker and more muscular walls compared to veins, allowing them to withstand the high pressure generated by the heart's pumping action. As blood flows through the capillaries, the smallest blood vessels, the pressure gradually decreases. Finally, the blood returns to the heart through the veins, where the pressure is the lowest. Therefore, the correct answer is arteries and arterioles.

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  • 7. 

    _____________in veins, Gravity and pumping from contracting of skeletal muscles can also influence blood pressure at different places in the bo.

    Explanation
    Valves in veins play a crucial role in maintaining blood pressure. These valves prevent the backflow of blood and ensure that it flows in one direction towards the heart. Gravity also affects blood pressure as it causes blood to pool in the lower extremities, increasing pressure in those veins. On the other hand, the contraction of skeletal muscles during movement helps to squeeze the veins and push blood towards the heart, aiding in maintaining blood pressure throughout the body. Therefore, valves, along with gravity and muscle contractions, collectively influence blood pressure at different locations in the body.

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  • 8. 

    Blood pressure measurement usually refers to the ___________________ that is measured on the inside of an elbow (at the brachial artery). 

    Explanation
    Blood pressure measurement usually refers to the systemic arterial pressure that is measured on the inside of an elbow (at the brachial artery). Systemic arterial pressure refers to the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped by the heart. This measurement is commonly taken using a blood pressure cuff and a sphygmomanometer to determine both the systolic (maximum) and diastolic (minimum) pressures.

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  • 9. 

    ________ is the higher number of BP. 

    Explanation
    Systolic blood pressure (BP) refers to the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pushes blood into the circulation. In comparison, diastolic BP is the minimum pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. Since systolic BP represents the maximum pressure, it is always higher than diastolic BP. Therefore, in this context, systolic is the higher number of BP.

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  • 10. 

    __________is the lower number in blood pressure.

    Explanation
    Diastolic blood pressure is the lower number in a blood pressure reading. It represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. This number is important because it indicates the pressure on the arteries when they are relaxed, which is a key factor in determining overall cardiovascular health. A high diastolic blood pressure reading can indicate an increased risk of heart disease, while a normal or low reading is generally considered healthier.

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  • 11. 

    this is the blood pressure at the time when the heart is contracting, specifically the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.

    Explanation
    Systolic blood pressure refers to the maximum arterial pressure during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart. It represents the force exerted on the arterial walls when the heart is pumping blood into the arteries. This measurement is important in evaluating the efficiency of the heart's pumping function and can help diagnose conditions such as hypertension.

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  • 12. 

    This is the blood pressure at the time when the heart is in relaxation and dilatation expansion period, specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles when they fill with blood.

    Explanation
    Diastolic blood pressure refers to the minimum arterial pressure during the relaxation and expansion period of the heart, specifically when the ventricles are filling with blood. It is the measurement taken when the heart is at rest between beats.

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  • 13. 

    also known as heart rate, is the rhythmical expansion of the arteries due to contractions of the heart, and is recorded as beats per minute, BPM. 

  • 14. 

    ____________ can be used to determine a person's overall level of health in general, a lower pulse rate is better.

    Explanation
    Pulse can be used to determine a person's overall level of health in general. A lower pulse rate is considered better because it indicates that the heart is functioning efficiently and effectively. A lower pulse rate usually signifies good cardiovascular health and fitness. It suggests that the heart does not have to work as hard to pump blood throughout the body. Therefore, a lower pulse rate is generally seen as a positive indicator of overall health.

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  • 15. 

    A condition called ________________ (where the heart rate drops below 60 BPM ) can be dangerous.

    Explanation
    Bradycardia is a condition characterized by a heart rate that drops below 60 beats per minute (BPM). This condition can be dangerous because it may lead to insufficient blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. When the heart beats too slowly, it may not be able to pump enough oxygen-rich blood to meet the body's needs. This can result in symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, fatigue, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can even cause cardiac arrest, a life-threatening condition where the heart stops beating altogether. Therefore, it is important to monitor and treat bradycardia to prevent complications and ensure proper heart function.

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  • 16. 

    Normal pulse rates for a newborn is: 

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rate for a newborn is 120-160 beats per minute (BPM). This range is considered normal for a healthy newborn baby. The pulse rate indicates the number of times the heart beats in a minute, and it is an important measure of a baby's overall health and well-being. A pulse rate within this range suggests that the baby's heart is functioning properly and delivering enough oxygen and nutrients to the body.

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  • 17. 

    Normal pulse rates for 1-12-month-old:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rate for 1-12-month-old infants is between 80-140 beats per minute (BPM). This range indicates a healthy heart rate for babies within this age group. It is important to monitor the pulse rate of infants regularly as any significant deviation from this range may indicate an underlying health issue that requires medical attention.

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  • 18. 

    Normal pulse rates for 1-2 years:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rates for 1-2 year olds range from 80 to 130 beats per minute (BPM). This means that a healthy child within this age group can have a pulse rate anywhere between 80 and 130 BPM. It is important to monitor the pulse rate of young children as it can indicate their overall health and well-being.

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  • 19. 

    Normal pulse rates for 2-6 years old:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rates for 2-6 years old children range from 75 to 120 beats per minute (BPM). This means that a healthy child within this age group should have a resting heart rate between 75 and 120 beats per minute. It is important to monitor the pulse rate as it can indicate the overall health and cardiovascular fitness of a child. If the pulse rate falls outside of this range, it may be a sign of an underlying health condition that needs further evaluation.

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  • 20. 

    Normal pulse rates for 6-12 years old:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rates for 6-12-year-olds range from 75 to 110 beats per minute (BPM). This means that a healthy child within this age group should have a resting heart rate between 75 and 110 beats per minute. A pulse rate below or above this range may indicate an abnormality or underlying health condition. It is important to monitor the pulse rate regularly to ensure the child's cardiovascular health is in check.

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  • 21. 

    Normal pulse rates for 13 years and older:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rate for individuals aged 13 years and older is typically between 60 and 100 beats per minute (BPM). This range indicates a healthy heart rate, with variations depending on factors such as age, fitness level, and overall health. A pulse rate below 60 BPM may suggest bradycardia, while a rate above 100 BPM may indicate tachycardia. Monitoring pulse rate is essential in assessing cardiovascular health and can help identify any abnormalities or potential medical conditions.

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  • 22. 

    Normal pulse rates for Adult Athletes:

    Explanation
    The normal pulse rates for adult athletes range from 40 to 60 beats per minute (BPM). This means that when an adult athlete is at rest, their heart typically beats between 40 and 60 times in one minute. This lower pulse rate is a result of regular exercise and increased cardiovascular fitness. Athletes who have a lower resting heart rate often have a more efficient heart that can pump blood more effectively.

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  • 23. 

    Abnormal or irregular heart rates can be caused by: 

    Explanation
    Abnormal or irregular heart rates can be caused by various factors such as anxiety, stress, caffeine, nicotine, medications, overactive thyroid, exercise, hyperventilation, fever, diet pills, cocaine, low oxygen levels in the bloodstream, and heart valve disease. These factors can disrupt the normal electrical signals in the heart, leading to irregular heart rhythms. Additionally, substances like caffeine, nicotine, and cocaine can stimulate the heart and cause it to beat faster or irregularly. Medications, such as certain types of antidepressants or heart medications, can also affect heart rate. Conditions like an overactive thyroid or heart valve disease can also contribute to abnormal heart rates.

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  • 24. 

    blood cells are also called:

    Explanation
    Blood cells are commonly referred to as hematocytes. This term is derived from the Greek words "haima" meaning blood and "kutos" meaning cell. Hematocytes include various types of cells found in the blood, such as red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). These cells play crucial roles in oxygen transport, immune response, and blood clotting, respectively. Therefore, hematocytes is the correct term for blood cells.

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  • 25. 

    As blood is removed from the body, the blood clots and the fluid portion are also called:

    Explanation
    When blood is removed from the body, it undergoes a process called coagulation, where it forms clots. The clots are made up of solid components like platelets and fibrin, while the fluid portion of the blood that remains after the removal of the clots is called serum. Serum contains various substances such as electrolytes, hormones, antibodies, and proteins, but it does not contain clotting factors. It is commonly used in medical tests and diagnostics to analyze the levels of different substances present in the blood.

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  • 26. 

    Blood circulates through the: 

    Explanation
    Blood circulates through a network of blood vessels that includes arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to various parts of the body. Arterioles are smaller branches of arteries that regulate blood flow and control blood pressure. Capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with tissues. Venules collect blood from capillaries and merge to form veins. Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This entire network allows for the transportation of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

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  • 27. 

    Blood is made in the: 

    Explanation
    Blood is made in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones. It is responsible for producing various components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets are involved in blood clotting. The bone marrow contains stem cells that can differentiate into different types of blood cells, ensuring a constant supply of new blood cells to maintain proper functioning of the body.

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  • 28. 

    Bone marrow is the __________material in the center of the bones.

    Explanation
    Bone marrow is the soft material in the center of the bones. It is responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It also contains stem cells that can differentiate into various types of blood cells. The softness of the bone marrow allows it to be easily accessible for medical procedures such as bone marrow aspiration or transplantation.

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  • 29. 

    Bone marrow produces about _________% of blood cells.

    Explanation
    Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found inside bones that is responsible for the production of blood cells. It contains stem cells that can differentiate into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These blood cells are essential for various bodily functions such as oxygen transport, immune response, and blood clotting. Since bone marrow is the primary site of blood cell production, it can be inferred that it produces approximately 95% of all blood cells in the body.

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  • 30. 

    The formation of blood cells begins in the bone marrow as ____________.

    Explanation
    Blood cells are formed in the bone marrow through a process called hematopoiesis. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into various types of cells, including blood cells. Therefore, stem cells are responsible for the formation of blood cells in the bone marrow.

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  • 31. 

    As stem cells mature they evolve into ____________.

    Explanation
    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. As they mature, stem cells undergo a process called cell differentiation, where they evolve into different cell types to fulfill specific functions in the body. In this case, stem cells mature into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are all crucial components of the blood. Red blood cells transport oxygen, white blood cells play a role in the immune system, and platelets are involved in blood clotting.

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  • 32. 

    in the human body, there are three different types of blood cells ________, _________, ________.

    Explanation
    In the human body, there are three different types of blood cells: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues. White blood cells play a crucial role in the immune system, defending the body against infections and diseases. Platelets are essential for blood clotting, preventing excessive bleeding when there is an injury. These three types of blood cells work together to maintain the proper functioning of the body's circulatory system.

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  • 33. 

    the three types of blood cells make up ________% of blood tissue.

    Explanation
    The three types of blood cells, namely red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, collectively make up 45% of blood tissue. These cells play vital roles in maintaining overall health and functioning of the body. Red blood cells carry oxygen to various tissues, white blood cells help in fighting infections, and platelets aid in blood clotting. The remaining percentage of blood tissue is composed of plasma, which carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

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  • 34. 

    plasma liquid makes up remaining ________% of blood tissue.

    Explanation
    Plasma, the liquid component of blood, makes up about 55% of the blood's total volume. The remaining portion consists of blood cells and other components. Thus, plasma liquid makes up the remaining 55% of blood tissue.

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  • 35. 

    Blood has a pH level, which is the measurement of ________.

    Explanation
    The pH level of blood is a measurement of its hydrogen ion concentration. pH is a scale that ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being considered neutral. A pH below 7 indicates acidity, while a pH above 7 indicates alkalinity. The hydrogen ion concentration determines the acidity or alkalinity of a substance, and in the case of blood, it is an important factor in maintaining the body's overall pH balance.

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  • 36. 

    in the average adult, blood makes up _____% of the body weight.

    Explanation
    Blood makes up approximately 8% of the average adult's body weight. This is because the human body contains an average of 4-6 liters of blood, which accounts for a small percentage of the total body weight. Blood performs vital functions such as transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones, as well as removing waste products from the body. While the exact percentage may vary slightly among individuals, 8% is a generally accepted estimate for the proportion of body weight attributed to blood.

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  • 37. 

    The blood volume in an average adult is about ____________.

    Explanation
    The blood volume in an average adult is about 5 liters. This is the approximate amount of blood circulating in the body of a typical adult. It is important to have a sufficient blood volume to ensure proper oxygen and nutrient delivery to the body's tissues and organs. Any significant decrease or increase in blood volume can have serious health consequences.

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  • 38. 

    The higher the pH above _________, the more alkaline blood is.

    Explanation
    The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH value above 7 indicates alkalinity. In this question, the correct answer is 7.45, which is slightly above 7. This means that the blood is slightly alkaline. The higher the pH above 7.45, the more alkaline the blood becomes.

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  • 39. 

    The lower the pH ______________, the more acidic blood is

    Explanation
    The lower the pH value, the more acidic the blood is. A pH value of 7.35 indicates that the blood is slightly acidic. A lower pH value, such as 7.0 or lower, would indicate a more acidic condition.

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  • 40. 

    The pH blood is regulated and stays within ___________ to __________ and therefore somewhat alkaline.

    Explanation
    The pH of blood is tightly regulated within a narrow range of 7.35-7.45. This range is important for maintaining the proper functioning of various biological processes in the body. A pH below 7.35 indicates acidosis, which can lead to various health issues, while a pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis. The body has mechanisms such as the respiratory and renal systems to maintain this pH balance by regulating the levels of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ions in the blood.

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  • 41. 

    What is the function of blood:

    Explanation
    Blood functions to carry materials such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products to the bodily tissues. It acts as a transportation system, delivering essential substances to cells throughout the body and removing waste products for excretion. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature, pH balance, and immune responses. Overall, the primary function of blood is to ensure the proper functioning and health of bodily tissues by providing essential materials and removing waste.

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  • 42. 

    what materials does blood carry to bodily tissues?

    Explanation
    Blood carries a variety of materials to bodily tissues. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions. Vitamins are essential for maintaining good health and supporting various bodily processes. Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration and energy production. Antibodies are part of the immune system and help fight against infections. Heat helps maintain body temperature. Electrolytes are minerals that help maintain fluid balance and support nerve and muscle function. Nourishment refers to nutrients and other substances needed for growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues.

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  • 43. 

    what is another function of blood?

    Explanation
    Blood serves as a transportation system in the body, allowing it to carry essential materials to different tissues and organs. One of its functions is to carry waste products, such as carbon dioxide, away from bodily tissues. This helps to maintain a healthy balance and remove toxins from the body. Additionally, blood also transports other waste materials generated by cells, ensuring their proper elimination.

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  • 44. 

    what are the most numerous blood cells in the body?

    Explanation
    Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the most numerous blood cells in the body. They are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and removing carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40-45% of the total blood volume and are produced in the bone marrow. They have a unique biconcave shape, which increases their surface area for efficient gas exchange. The high number of red blood cells ensures that oxygen is adequately transported throughout the body to support various physiological functions.

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  • 45. 

    what is the shape of red blood cells:

    Explanation
    Red blood cells have a unique shape that resembles a biconcave lens. This means that they are disc-shaped with a thinner center and thicker edges, giving them a concave appearance on both sides. This shape allows for increased surface area, flexibility, and efficient oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange within the body. The biconcave shape also enables the red blood cells to squeeze through narrow capillaries and transport oxygen to tissues effectively.

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  • 46. 

    do red blood cells contain a nucleus?

    Explanation
    Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus. They are unique among cells in the human body as they lack a nucleus and other organelles. This absence allows red blood cells to have more space to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. Without a nucleus, red blood cells have a biconcave shape, which increases their surface area for efficient gas exchange. The lack of a nucleus also means that red blood cells cannot divide or repair themselves, contributing to their limited lifespan of around 120 days.

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  • 47. 

    red blood cells are the body's major way of delivering ___________to the body tissue due to blood flow in the circulatory system.

    Explanation
    Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin that binds to oxygen molecules. As blood flows through the circulatory system, red blood cells release oxygen to the body tissues, ensuring that they receive an adequate supply of oxygen for cellular respiration and energy production. This process is crucial for the functioning of organs and tissues throughout the body.

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  • 48. 

    erthrocytes contain ______________, an iron containing pigment which gives red blood cells thri color.

    Explanation
    Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing pigment that gives them their red color. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Without hemoglobin, red blood cells would not be able to perform their vital function of oxygen transport, leading to severe health issues.

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  • 49. 

    Hemoglobin is able to bind to ___________.

    Explanation
    Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. It has a unique structure that allows it to bind to oxygen molecules. When oxygen is inhaled into the lungs, it binds to hemoglobin, forming a complex called oxyhemoglobin. This complex is then transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs where oxygen is released for use in cellular respiration. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen as hemoglobin specifically binds to oxygen molecules.

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  • 50. 

    red blood cells form in the bone marrow and have a life span of about _________ to _______ days.

    Explanation
    Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and have a lifespan of approximately 100-120 days.

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