Psych Study Guide: Chapter 16

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Cultural competence is a therapist’s understanding of, and attention to, ________.

    • A.

      Issues related to being a female therapist treating a male client

    • B.

      Issues related to whether the client is considered normal or deviant

    • C.

      Race, culture, and ethnicity in providing treatment

    • D.

      Treating everyone the same regardless of cultural background

    Correct Answer
    C. Race, culture, and ethnicity in providing treatment
    Explanation
    Cultural competence refers to a therapist's understanding and attention to race, culture, and ethnicity in providing treatment. This means that the therapist acknowledges and respects the diversity of their clients' backgrounds and incorporates this knowledge into their therapeutic approach. By being culturally competent, therapists can better understand their clients' unique experiences and tailor their treatment to meet their specific needs, ensuring a more effective and inclusive therapeutic process.

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  • 2. 

    Repeated drug use and/or alcohol use after a period of improvement from substance abuse is called ________.

    • A.

      Addiction 

    • B.

      Comorbidity

    • C.

      Relapse

    • D.

      Reversion

    Correct Answer
    C. Relapse
    Explanation
    Relapse refers to the recurrence of drug or alcohol use after a period of abstinence or improvement from substance abuse. It is a common occurrence in addiction and can happen due to various factors such as triggers, stress, or underlying psychological issues. Relapse is considered a setback in recovery and often requires additional support and intervention to regain sobriety.

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  • 3. 

    Addiction is often viewed by AA as a(an) ________ disease

    • A.

      Chronic

    • B.

      Fleeting

    • C.

      Imaginary

    • D.

      Simple

    Correct Answer
    A. Chronic
    Explanation
    Addiction is often viewed by AA as a chronic disease because it is characterized by long-lasting and recurring patterns of substance abuse or compulsive behaviors. The term "chronic" suggests that addiction is a condition that persists over time and requires ongoing management and treatment. This perspective aligns with the understanding that addiction is a complex and multifaceted condition that cannot be easily cured or resolved. Instead, individuals with addiction must learn to manage their symptoms and make ongoing efforts to maintain their recovery.

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  • 4. 

    What kind of family therapy involves the therapist guiding the therapy session and developing treatment plans for each family member’s specific problem?

    • A.

      Comorbid

    • B.

      Relative

    • C.

      Strategic

    • D.

      Structural

    Correct Answer
    C. Strategic
    Explanation
    Strategic family therapy involves the therapist taking an active role in guiding the therapy session and developing treatment plans for each family member's specific problem. This approach focuses on identifying and changing patterns of communication and behavior within the family system. The therapist strategically intervenes to disrupt dysfunctional patterns and promote healthier interactions among family members.

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  • 5. 

    During the therapist’s first meeting with the client, called ________, the therapist gathers specific information to address the client’s immediate needs.

    • A.

      Admission

    • B.

      Analysis

    • C.

      Counseling

    • D.

      Intake

    Correct Answer
    D. Intake
    Explanation
    During the therapist's first meeting with the client, called intake, the therapist gathers specific information to address the client's immediate needs. This initial session allows the therapist to collect relevant information about the client's background, history, current concerns, and goals. The information obtained during intake helps the therapist to assess the client's needs and determine an appropriate treatment plan. It is an essential step in the therapeutic process as it provides crucial information to guide the therapist in providing effective support and intervention.

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  • 6. 

    Which treatment modality involves 5–10 people with the same issue or concern meeting together with a trained clinician?

    • A.

      Couple therapy

    • B.

      Group therapy

    • C.

      Strategic family therapy

    • D.

      Structural family therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Group therapy
    Explanation
    Group therapy involves 5-10 people with the same issue or concern meeting together with a trained clinician. In this setting, participants have the opportunity to share their experiences, offer support, and learn from one another. The trained clinician facilitates the group process, ensuring a safe and supportive environment. This modality is often used to address a wide range of mental health concerns, including depression, anxiety, addiction, and interpersonal difficulties. Group therapy can provide a sense of belonging, validation, and interpersonal growth through the shared experiences of group members.

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  • 7. 

    Which type of therapy focuses on helping relatives to focus on changing disruptive patterns of communication and improving the ways in which members relate to each other?

    • A.

      Group therapy

    • B.

      Marital therapy

    • C.

      Couples therapy

    • D.

      Family therapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Family therapy
    Explanation
    Family therapy focuses on helping relatives to focus on changing disruptive patterns of communication and improving the ways in which members relate to each other. This type of therapy involves working with the entire family unit to address conflicts, improve communication, and build stronger relationships among family members. It aims to identify and address dysfunctional patterns within the family system, and to promote healthier and more effective ways of interacting with one another.

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  • 8. 

    Humanistic therapy is also called ________ therapy

    • A.

      Client-centered

    • B.

      Cognitive-behavioral

    • C.

      ECT

    • D.

      Personality-focused

    Correct Answer
    A. Client-centered
    Explanation
    Humanistic therapy is also called client-centered therapy because it emphasizes the importance of the client's subjective experience and their ability to make choices and take responsibility for their own growth and development. This approach focuses on creating a supportive and non-judgmental therapeutic environment where the therapist empathically understands and accepts the client's perspective. The goal is to empower the client to gain self-awareness, self-acceptance, and personal growth through self-exploration and self-actualization.

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  • 9. 

    Which term refers to the fact that the therapist cannot disclose private communications to any third party unless mandated or permitted by law to do so?

    • A.

      Confidentiality

    • B.

      Disclosure

    • C.

      Discretion

    • D.

      Privilege

    Correct Answer
    A. Confidentiality
    Explanation
    Confidentiality refers to the ethical obligation of a therapist to keep private communications between themselves and their clients confidential. This means that the therapist cannot disclose this information to any third party unless they are legally mandated or permitted to do so. This principle is essential in maintaining trust and privacy in the therapeutic relationship, allowing clients to feel safe and comfortable in sharing their personal information with their therapist.

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  • 10. 

    Aversive conditioning is a ________.

    • A.

      Classical conditioning therapeutic technique in which a client learns a new response to a stimulus that has previously elicited an undesirable behavior.

    • B.

      Counterconditioning technique that pairs an unpleasant stimulant with an undesirable behavior

    • C.

      Form of psychotherapy that aims to change cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors.

    • D.

      Therapeutic orientation that employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors.

    Correct Answer
    B. Counterconditioning technique that pairs an unpleasant stimulant with an undesirable behavior
    Explanation
    Aversive conditioning is a counterconditioning technique that pairs an unpleasant stimulant with an undesirable behavior. This technique aims to associate the undesirable behavior with an unpleasant consequence, thereby reducing the likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future. It is a form of behavior therapy that seeks to modify behavior by creating an aversion to the behavior through negative conditioning. By pairing the undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulant, the individual learns to avoid or stop engaging in the behavior to avoid the negative consequence.

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  • 11. 

    Which kind of therapy involves a therapeutic orientation that employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors?

    • A.

      Behavior

    • B.

      Biomedical

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Exposure

    Correct Answer
    A. Behavior
    Explanation
    Behavior therapy involves a therapeutic orientation that employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors. This type of therapy focuses on understanding and modifying specific behaviors, rather than exploring underlying causes or emotions. It is based on the belief that behaviors are learned and can be unlearned or replaced with more desirable ones through techniques such as reinforcement, punishment, and modeling. Behavior therapy is often used to treat various mental health conditions, including phobias, addictions, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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  • 12. 

    Exposure therapy is a ________ technique

    • A.

      Classical conditioning

    • B.

      Counterconditioning

    • C.

      Free association

    • D.

      Psychodynamic

    Correct Answer
    B. Counterconditioning
    Explanation
    Exposure therapy is a counterconditioning technique because it involves gradually exposing individuals to the feared or anxiety-provoking stimuli in a controlled and safe environment. By repeatedly exposing individuals to the feared stimuli while preventing the usual fear response, it aims to replace the fear response with a more positive or neutral response. This process helps individuals to learn new associations and reduce their anxiety or fear towards the stimuli.

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  • 13. 

    What is the goal of humanistic therapy?

    • A.

      Helping clients change undesirable behaviors

    • B.

      Helping people become more self-aware and accepting of themselves

    • C.

      Learning a new response to a stimulus

    • D.

      Treating a client's fear or anxiety

    Correct Answer
    B. Helping people become more self-aware and accepting of themselves
    Explanation
    The goal of humanistic therapy is to help individuals become more self-aware and accepting of themselves. This approach focuses on personal growth, self-actualization, and understanding one's own feelings and experiences. Through this therapy, clients are encouraged to explore their emotions, develop a positive self-concept, and embrace their true selves. The therapist provides a supportive and non-judgmental environment to facilitate self-discovery and promote self-acceptance. This approach aims to empower individuals to make positive changes in their lives and achieve personal fulfillment.

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  • 14. 

    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is used successfully in order to treat ______.

    • A.

      Schizophrenia

    • B.

      ADHD

    • C.

      Somatoform disorder

    • D.

      Depression

    Correct Answer
    D. Depression
    Explanation
    ECT is a medical procedure that involves sending electric currents through the brain to induce a controlled seizure. It is primarily used to treat severe depression that has not responded to other treatments such as medication or therapy. ECT has shown to be highly effective in improving symptoms of depression, including reducing suicidal thoughts and improving overall mood. It is not commonly used for treating schizophrenia, ADHD, or somatoform disorder.

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  • 15. 

    ECT stands for ________.

    • A.

      Easy classical treatment

    • B.

      Economy, cognition, tokens

    • C.

      Electroconvulsive therapy

    • D.

      Extra conditioning therapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Electroconvulsive therapy
    Explanation
    ECT stands for electroconvulsive therapy, which is a medical treatment used for severe mental illnesses such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. It involves passing electric currents through the brain to induce controlled seizures, which can help alleviate symptoms and improve mental health. ECT is typically used when other treatments have failed or when there is a need for rapid and effective intervention. It is administered under anesthesia and is considered safe and effective when performed by trained professionals.

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  • 16. 

    Who developed client-centered therapy?

    • A.

      Abraham Maslow

    • B.

      Carl Rogers

    • C.

      Dorothea Dix

    • D.

      Philippe Pinel

    Correct Answer
    B. Carl Rogers
    Explanation
    Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy. He believed in the importance of creating a supportive and non-judgmental environment for clients, where they can freely express themselves and explore their thoughts and feelings. Rogers emphasized the therapist's empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness as key factors in facilitating the client's growth and self-actualization. This approach focuses on the client's subjective experience and their own capacity for personal growth and change.

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  • 17. 

    In medieval times, abnormal behaviors were viewed as a sign that a person was ________.

    • A.

      A prophet

    • B.

      About to die

    • C.

      In need of counseling

    • D.

      Possessed by demons

    Correct Answer
    D. Possessed by demons
    Explanation
    In medieval times, abnormal behaviors were viewed as a sign that a person was possessed by demons. This belief was rooted in the religious and superstitious beliefs of the time, where any deviation from normal behavior was often attributed to supernatural forces. People believed that demons could enter a person's body and cause them to act in strange or abnormal ways. As a result, those who displayed abnormal behaviors were often seen as being under the influence of evil spirits and were treated accordingly, with exorcisms and other religious rituals.

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  • 18. 

    Who developed psychoanalysis?

    • A.

      Carl Jung

    • B.

      Carl Rogers

    • C.

      Dorothea Dix

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    D. Sigmund Freud
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis. He was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud's theories and techniques have had a significant impact on the field of psychology and have greatly influenced our understanding of the human mind and behavior.

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  • 19. 

    Regarding traditional psychoanalysis, which of the following statements is least true?

    • A.

      A major technique in psychoanalysis is dream analysis

    • B.

      Freud believed that the ability to understand transference is essential to a client’s success in psychoanalysis

    • C.

      Freud’s felt that the ego would never try to block or repress unacceptable urges or painful conflicts during free association.

    • D.

      Patients are instructed to lay down on a couch

    Correct Answer
    C. Freud’s felt that the ego would never try to block or repress unacceptable urges or painful conflicts during free association.
    Explanation
    Freud believed that the ego would never try to block or repress unacceptable urges or painful conflicts during free association. This statement is least true because Freud actually believed that the ego does try to block or repress unacceptable urges or painful conflicts during free association. In psychoanalysis, free association is a technique where patients are encouraged to freely express their thoughts and feelings without censorship. Freud believed that through this process, unconscious thoughts and conflicts could be revealed and worked through. Therefore, the statement contradicts Freud's beliefs and understanding of the ego's role in free association.

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  • 20. 

    ________ were the first institutions created for the specific purpose of housing people with psychological disorders.

    • A.

      Asylums

    • B.

      Churches

    • C.

      Clinics

    • D.

      Hospitals

    Correct Answer
    A. Asylums
    Explanation
    Asylums were the first institutions created for the specific purpose of housing people with psychological disorders. These institutions were established to provide care and treatment for individuals who were deemed mentally ill or insane. Asylums were often large, isolated facilities where people with mental illnesses were confined and treated. They were seen as a solution to the growing societal concern over how to manage and care for individuals with psychological disorders. However, over time, asylums became associated with neglect, abuse, and overcrowding, leading to significant reforms in mental health care.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following best describes the effects of deinstitutionalization? Deinstitutionalization has been ____.

    • A.

      A resounding success, since almost all mental patients have now been happily reintegrated into the community.

    • B.

      An unequivocal failure, since mental patients have not been helped at all.

    • C.

      Predominantly a failure, since most psychiatric patients continue living in asylums.

    • D.

      A mix of success and failure, since many people have become homeless

    Correct Answer
    D. A mix of success and failure, since many people have become homeless
    Explanation
    Deinstitutionalization has resulted in a mix of success and failure because while it has successfully reintegrated many mental patients into the community, it has also led to a significant number of individuals becoming homeless. This suggests that while some patients have benefited from deinstitutionalization, there is still a significant portion of the population that has not been adequately supported and has ended up without stable housing.

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  • 22. 

    Who led the reform efforts for mental health care in the United States?

    • A.

      Carl Rogers

    • B.

      Dorothea Dix

    • C.

      Philippe Pinel

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    B. Dorothea Dix
    Explanation
    Dorothea Dix led the reform efforts for mental health care in the United States. She was a social reformer and advocate for the mentally ill, who fought for the establishment of mental asylums and improved conditions for those suffering from mental illnesses. Dix's efforts led to significant changes in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, and she played a crucial role in shaping mental health care policies in the United States.

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  • 23. 

    The idea behind ________ therapy is that how you think determines how you feel and act.

    • A.

      Cognitive 

    • B.

      Cognitive-behavioral

    • C.

      Behavior

    • D.

      Client-centered

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive 
    Explanation
    Cognitive therapy is based on the belief that one's thoughts have a direct impact on their emotions and behavior. It focuses on identifying and changing negative or distorted thought patterns in order to improve emotional well-being and promote positive behavior. By addressing and challenging negative thoughts, individuals can learn to reframe their thinking and develop healthier cognitive patterns, leading to improved emotional and behavioral outcomes.

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  • 24. 

    Albert Ellis is associated with ______ therapy.

    • A.

      Rational-Emotive

    • B.

      Psychoanalytic

    • C.

      Psychotropic

    • D.

      Behavioral

    Correct Answer
    A. Rational-Emotive
    Explanation
    Albert Ellis is associated with Rational-Emotive therapy. This therapy was developed by Ellis in the 1950s and is a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. It focuses on identifying and challenging irrational beliefs and replacing them with rational and healthy thoughts. Ellis believed that our thoughts and beliefs greatly influence our emotions and behaviors, and by changing our thinking patterns, we can improve our mental well-being. Rational-Emotive therapy is known for its active and directive approach in helping individuals change their irrational thinking and develop more adaptive coping strategies.

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  • 25. 

    Deinstitutionalization refers to the ________.

    • A.

      Decriminalization of patients

    • B.

      Medicalization of patients

    • C.

      Process of closing large asylums

    • D.

      Treatment of those on parole and probation

    Correct Answer
    C. Process of closing large asylums
    Explanation
    Deinstitutionalization refers to the process of closing large asylums. This means that individuals who were previously residing in these institutions are being transitioned out and provided with alternative forms of care and support in the community. This shift in approach aims to promote integration, independence, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental health conditions.

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  • 26. 

    In the free association technique of psychoanalysis, the ________.

    • A.

      Client engages in self-reflection prior to the session to decide what to discuss

    • B.

      Client keeps a dream diary to guide therapy sessions

    • C.

      Client says whatever comes to mind at the moment

    • D.

      Therapist hypnotizes the client

    Correct Answer
    C. Client says whatever comes to mind at the moment
    Explanation
    In the free association technique of psychoanalysis, the client is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind at the moment. This technique aims to uncover unconscious thoughts and emotions by allowing the client to express themselves freely without censorship or judgment. By doing so, the therapist can gain insight into the client's underlying conflicts and help them gain a deeper understanding of their thoughts and feelings. This process can lead to increased self-awareness and promote emotional healing.

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  • 27. 

    Which group is play therapy often used to treat?

    • A.

      Children

    • B.

      Elderly

    • C.

      Men

    • D.

      Women

    Correct Answer
    A. Children
    Explanation
    Play therapy is often used to treat children. This therapeutic approach allows children to express themselves and work through their emotions and experiences through play. Play therapy utilizes toys, games, and other creative activities to help children communicate, build relationships, and develop problem-solving skills. It is particularly effective for children who may not have the verbal or cognitive abilities to express themselves through traditional talk therapy methods.

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  • 28. 

    Elena is attending mandatory therapy sessions. Her doctor just wants her to talk about her childhood. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this best exemplify?

    • A.

      Behavior therapy

    • B.

      Cognitive therapy

    • C.

      Humanistic therapy

    • D.

      Psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Psychodynamic psychotherapy
    Explanation
    This scenario best exemplifies psychodynamic psychotherapy because it focuses on exploring and understanding the unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from Elena's childhood. This approach aims to bring these unconscious thoughts and emotions to the conscious level, helping Elena gain insight into her past experiences and how they may be influencing her current thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The emphasis on childhood experiences aligns with the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

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  • 29. 

    Renzo’s therapist helps him learn to overcome his fear of dogs through several stages of relaxation techniques. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this best exemplify?

    • A.

      Aversive conditioning

    • B.

      Behavior therapy

    • C.

      Client-centered therapy

    • D.

      Psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavior therapy
    Explanation
    This scenario best exemplifies behavior therapy. Behavior therapy focuses on changing maladaptive behaviors through various techniques such as relaxation techniques, exposure therapy, and systematic desensitization. In this case, Renzo's therapist is helping him overcome his fear of dogs by using relaxation techniques, which is a common approach in behavior therapy.

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  • 30. 

    Behavior therapy focuses on ____.

    • A.

      Changing thoughts to correspond to behaviors

    • B.

      Helping clients achieve self-actualization

    • C.

      Changing maladaptive patterns of responding

    • D.

      Altering errors of thinking

    Correct Answer
    C. Changing maladaptive patterns of responding
    Explanation
    Behavior therapy focuses on changing maladaptive patterns of responding. This approach aims to identify and modify unhealthy or unhelpful behaviors that contribute to psychological distress or dysfunction. By targeting these maladaptive patterns, behavior therapy helps individuals develop more adaptive and functional behaviors, leading to improved mental well-being. This can involve techniques such as reinforcement, punishment, modeling, and systematic desensitization to bring about positive behavioral change.

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  • 31. 

    Which therapeutic process involves the use of toys?

    • A.

      ECT

    • B.

      Free association

    • C.

      Play therapy

    • D.

      Rogerian psychotherapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Play therapy
    Explanation
    Play therapy involves the use of toys as a therapeutic process. It is a form of therapy where children can express their thoughts, emotions, and experiences through play. By engaging in play, children can communicate and work through their difficulties in a safe and non-threatening environment. Play therapy allows the therapist to observe and understand the child's behavior, providing insights into their emotional and psychological well-being. This therapeutic approach is particularly effective for children who may have difficulty expressing themselves verbally.

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  • 32. 

    Rafael is in therapy, and one of his goals is to overcome his pessimistic attitude. His therapist helps him eliminate thought patterns that lead to distress. For example, he helps Rafael learn to not overgeneralize his likelihood of failing his sociology class based on doing poorly on his first exam. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

    • A.

      Cognitive therapy

    • B.

      Non-directive therapy

    • C.

      Play therapy

    • D.

      Psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive therapy
    Explanation
    This scenario exemplifies cognitive therapy because Rafael's therapist is helping him identify and challenge his negative thought patterns, specifically the tendency to overgeneralize and assume that doing poorly on one exam means he will fail the entire class. Cognitive therapy focuses on changing negative or distorted thinking patterns in order to improve emotional well-being and behavior.

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  • 33. 

    In order to overcome an eating disorder, Sevilla’s therapist works to change her cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors by helping her learn to identify such behaviors. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

    • A.

      Aversion therapy

    • B.

      Classical conditioning

    • C.

      Cognitive-behavioral therapy

    • D.

      Free association

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
    Explanation
    This question is asking for the psychotherapeutic orientation that is exemplified by changing cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors through helping the individual learn to identify such behaviors. The correct answer is cognitive-behavioral therapy. This form of therapy focuses on the connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and aims to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their difficulties. By working on cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors, the therapist is using techniques commonly associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy.

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  • 34. 

    Harlow is eight years old. She sees Dr. Gardener every Friday at 11:00 a.m. Their sessions involve Dr. Gardener watching Harlow interact with stuffed animals and other toys. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

    • A.

      Cognitive-behavioral therapy

    • B.

      ECT

    • C.

      Play therapy

    • D.

      RET

    Correct Answer
    C. Play therapy
    Explanation
    This scenario exemplifies play therapy as a psychotherapeutic orientation. Play therapy is a form of therapy specifically designed for children, where they are encouraged to express their thoughts, feelings, and experiences through play. In this case, Harlow's sessions with Dr. Gardener involve her interacting with stuffed animals and toys, which is a common technique used in play therapy to help children communicate and process their emotions.

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  • 35. 

    Dr. Banner wants his clients to learn to articulate thoughts that keep them from achieving their goals. Therefore, Dr. Banner increases their self-awareness by focusing on their conscious thoughts. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation is he using?

    • A.

      A lobotomy

    • B.

      Resistance therapy

    • C.

      Free association

    • D.

      Humanistic therapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Humanistic therapy
    Explanation
    Dr. Banner is using humanistic therapy because he wants his clients to increase their self-awareness and learn to articulate thoughts that hinder their goal achievement. Humanistic therapy focuses on the individual's self-growth and self-actualization, emphasizing personal responsibility and self-awareness. This approach encourages clients to explore their conscious thoughts and feelings to gain insight into themselves and make positive changes in their lives.

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  • 36. 

    Jim wants to stop biting his nails, so he rubs a strong bitter paste under his nails to make his nails taste bad. What technique is Jim using to stop biting his nails?

    • A.

      Aversion therapy

    • B.

      Aversive conditioning

    • C.

      Experience conditioning

    • D.

      Exposure therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Aversive conditioning
    Explanation
    Jim is using aversive conditioning to stop biting his nails. Aversive conditioning involves pairing a negative stimulus (the strong bitter paste) with a behavior (biting nails) in order to decrease the likelihood of that behavior occurring in the future. By making his nails taste bad, Jim is creating an unpleasant association with biting his nails, which will discourage him from continuing the behavior.

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  • 37. 

    On the advice of her therapist, Thora decides to treat her fear of heights by exposing herself to heights using a stimulus hierarchy. Which form of therapy is she using?

    • A.

      Aversion therapy

    • B.

      Free association

    • C.

      Play therapy

    • D.

      Systematic desensitization

    Correct Answer
    D. Systematic desensitization
    Explanation
    Thora is using systematic desensitization as a form of therapy. This therapy involves gradually exposing oneself to the feared stimulus, in this case heights, in a controlled and safe environment. By slowly increasing her exposure to heights, Thora aims to reduce her fear and anxiety over time. This technique is commonly used in treating phobias and anxiety disorders.

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  • 38. 

    Patients at Manderly Psychiatric Center are rewarded with chips when they engage in positive behaviors such as socializing with other patients. They can later exchange the chips for privileges, like extra TV time. This is an example of ________.u like?

    • A.

      Classical conditoning

    • B.

      Humanism

    • C.

      RET 

    • D.

      Token economy

    Correct Answer
    D. Token economy
    Explanation
    This scenario is an example of a token economy. In a token economy, individuals receive tokens or rewards for engaging in desired behaviors. These tokens can then be exchanged for privileges or desired items. In this case, the patients at Manderly Psychiatric Center receive chips as rewards for engaging in positive behaviors, and they can later exchange these chips for privileges like extra TV time. This system helps to reinforce and encourage positive behaviors in the patients.

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  • 39. 

    Client-centered, psychoanalysis, and cognitive therapies all have what in common?

    • A.

      Behavior cures

    • B.

      Talking cures

    • C.

      Repression cures

    • D.

      Sleeping cures

    Correct Answer
    B. Talking cures
    Explanation
    Client-centered, psychoanalysis, and cognitive therapies all have "talking cures" in common. These therapeutic approaches emphasize the importance of verbal communication between the therapist and the client as a means of understanding and resolving psychological issues. In client-centered therapy, the therapist provides a supportive and non-judgmental environment for the client to freely express their thoughts and feelings. Psychoanalysis focuses on exploring the unconscious mind through free association and interpretation of the client's dreams and fantasies. Cognitive therapy involves identifying and challenging negative thought patterns and beliefs through dialogue. In all these therapies, talking plays a central role in facilitating healing and personal growth.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following was not listed in the textbook as a barrier to mental health treatment?

    • A.

      Fears about treatment

    • B.

      Option 2

    • C.

      Language

    • D.

      Being a member of the ethnic majority

    Correct Answer
    D. Being a member of the ethnic majority
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Being a member of the ethnic majority." This is because the textbook listed fears about treatment and language as barriers to mental health treatment, but did not mention being a member of the ethnic majority as a barrier.

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  • 41. 

    What does research show regarding race and ethnic differences in those who receive mental health services?

    • A.

      Ethnic minorities tend to utilize mental health services less frequently than White, middle- class Americans

    • B.

      Ethnic minorities tend to utilize mental health services more frequently than White, middle- class Americans.

    • C.

      Ethnic minorities tend to utilize mental health services to the same extent as White, middle- class Americans.

    • D.

      Ethnically Asian minorities tend to utilize mental health services less frequently than ethnically Black minorities.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethnic minorities tend to utilize mental health services less frequently than White, middle- class Americans
    Explanation
    Research shows that ethnic minorities tend to utilize mental health services less frequently than White, middle-class Americans. This could be due to various factors such as cultural stigma, lack of access to healthcare, language barriers, and distrust in the healthcare system. These disparities highlight the need for targeted outreach and culturally sensitive mental health services to ensure that all individuals have equal access to the care they need.

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  • 42. 

    For Burt, who has claustrophobia, a small dark room creates a small amount of fear, a stairwell creates a bit more fear, and an elevator creates the most fear. Burt’s therapist induces deep relaxation and asks him to imagine a small dark room. Gradually, they will work up to having Burt imagine being in an elevator. What aspect of exposure therapy is this?

    • A.

      Dream analysis

    • B.

      Stimulus hierarchy

    • C.

      Virtual hierarchy

    • D.

      Virtual reality exposure

    Correct Answer
    B. Stimulus hierarchy
    Explanation
    This aspect of exposure therapy is called a stimulus hierarchy. In this case, Burt's therapist is gradually exposing him to increasingly fear-inducing situations, starting with a small dark room and working up to imagining being in an elevator. The therapist is systematically creating a hierarchy of stimuli that elicit fear, allowing Burt to gradually confront and overcome his fear of elevators.

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  • 43. 

    Jarl makes several minor mistakes during his conversational French class. Instead of thinking, “everyone makes mistakes sometimes,” he thinks, “I am so stupid.” What kind of cognitive distortion is this?

    • A.

      All-or-nothing thinking

    • B.

      Beating a dead horse

    • C.

      Jumping to conclusions

    • D.

      Overgneralization

    Correct Answer
    D. Overgneralization
    Explanation
    Jarl's cognitive distortion can be identified as overgeneralization. This is because he is making a broad and exaggerated conclusion about himself based on a few minor mistakes. Instead of recognizing that making mistakes is a normal part of learning, he is applying this negative belief to his overall intelligence, labeling himself as "stupid." This type of thinking involves taking one instance or event and applying it to all similar situations, leading to an overly negative self-perception.

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  • 44. 

    Susan admires her boss, Helga. One day Helga forgets her briefcase and Susan loses all admiration for Helga. Susan thinks that a boss is either always perfect or not worthy of admiration. What kind of cognitive distortion is this?

    • A.

      All-or-nothing thinking

    • B.

      Collapsing boundaries

    • C.

      Jumping to conclusions

    • D.

      Overgeneralization

    Correct Answer
    A. All-or-nothing thinking
    Explanation
    This cognitive distortion is called all-or-nothing thinking. Susan believes that her boss is either perfect or not worthy of admiration, without considering any middle ground or shades of gray. This type of thinking is characterized by extreme and rigid judgments, where things are seen as either completely good or completely bad, with no room for nuance or complexity.

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  • 45. 

    Gene is talking with her wife, Mary. Mary starts crying, and Gene immediately assumes that Mary wants a divorce. What kind of cognitive distortion is this?

    • A.

      All-or-nothing thinking

    • B.

      Emotional crumbling

    • C.

      Jumping to conclusions

    • D.

      Overgeneralization

    Correct Answer
    C. Jumping to conclusions
    Explanation
    Jumping to conclusions is the cognitive distortion in this scenario. Gene immediately assumes that Mary wants a divorce based solely on the fact that she starts crying. This is an example of making assumptions without gathering enough evidence or considering alternative explanations. Gene is jumping to a conclusion without considering other possible reasons for Mary's behavior.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is least true regarding client-centered therapy?

    • A.

      Therapists are directive

    • B.

      Advice from therapists should not be given

    • C.

      The model is humanistic

    • D.

      Therapists use active listening (reflecting clients' feelings)

    Correct Answer
    A. Therapists are directive
    Explanation
    Client-centered therapy is a non-directive approach where therapists do not give advice or provide solutions to clients. Instead, they create a supportive and empathetic environment, actively listen to clients' feelings, and help them explore their own thoughts and emotions. The therapist's role is to facilitate the client's self-discovery and personal growth, rather than directing or guiding them towards a specific outcome. Therefore, the statement that therapists are directive is least true regarding client-centered therapy.

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  • 47. 

    Marlena tells her therapist that she often feels helpless and unable to accomplish her goals. Her therapist responds by acknowledging her feelings, restating what she has told him, and clarifying the feelings behind what Marlena is expressing. What aspect of client-centered therapy is this? like?

    • A.

      Active listening

    • B.

      Indirect empathy

    • C.

      Personal growth

    • D.

      Unconditional positive regard

    Correct Answer
    A. Active listening
    Explanation
    This aspect of client-centered therapy is active listening. The therapist acknowledges Marlena's feelings, restates what she has told him, and clarifies the feelings behind her expression. This demonstrates that the therapist is actively engaged in the conversation and is fully present, showing empathy and understanding towards Marlena's experiences. Active listening is a fundamental skill in client-centered therapy as it helps build trust, rapport, and a safe space for the client to explore their emotions and thoughts.

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  • 48. 

    Dr. Duncan is a therapist who works with men accused of domestic violence. Although it is difficult, she does her best to be non-judgmental during therapy sessions. Which aspect of client-centered therapy is this?

    • A.

      Active listening

    • B.

      Client focus

    • C.

      Transference

    • D.

      Unconditional positive regard

    Correct Answer
    D. Unconditional positive regard
    Explanation
    Dr. Duncan's commitment to being non-judgmental during therapy sessions aligns with the concept of unconditional positive regard in client-centered therapy. Unconditional positive regard refers to the therapist's acceptance and support of the client without any judgment or conditions. By practicing unconditional positive regard, Dr. Duncan creates a safe and non-threatening environment for her clients, allowing them to feel accepted and valued as they work through their issues related to domestic violence.

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  • 49. 

    ________ can increase the risk of obesity and diabetes as well as elevate cholesterol levels; they can also cause constipation, dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness, and dizziness.

    • A.

      Antidepressants

    • B.

      Atypical antipsychotics

    • C.

      Mood stabilizers

    • D.

      Stimulants

    Correct Answer
    B. Atypical antipsychotics
    Explanation
    Atypical antipsychotics can increase the risk of obesity and diabetes as well as elevate cholesterol levels. They can also cause constipation, dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness, and dizziness. This is because atypical antipsychotics can affect the body's metabolism and hormonal balance, leading to weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Additionally, they can have side effects on the digestive system, causing constipation, and on the nervous system, causing drowsiness and dizziness.

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  • 50. 

    The use of ________ can result in decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, stomachache, and headache.

    • A.

      Anti-anxiety agents

    • B.

      Antipsychotics

    • C.

      Atypical antipsychotics

    • D.

      Stimulants

    Correct Answer
    D. Stimulants
    Explanation
    Stimulants are substances that increase activity in the central nervous system, leading to increased alertness, attention, and energy. However, they can also have side effects such as decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, stomachache, and headache. These side effects are commonly associated with the use of stimulants and are a result of the increased activity and stimulation caused by these substances.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jun 28, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 03, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Sdumanovsky
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