Gu 729 (Advanced Theories Of Personality) First Term Exam

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Gu 729  (Advanced Theories Of Personality) First Term Exam - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Does our personality ‘change’?

    • A.

      ​​​​​​Yes, basically; the dynamics of our personhood is a characterization of such change

    • B.

      ​​​​No, practically; that which we are has been predisposed to be such and the dynamics of our personality is just a manifestation of how our blueprints apply in the environment

    • C.

      ​​​​​​Various theories view personality development differently; hence, personality may be or may not be changeable

    • D.

      ​​​​​​The idea of “change”, for all its worth, cannot be theoretically and conceptually be applied to human personality

    Correct Answer
    C. ​​​​​​Various theories view personality development differently; hence, personality may be or may not be changeable
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that personality development can be viewed differently based on various theories, indicating that there is no definitive answer to whether our personality can change or not. Some theories may argue that personality is fixed and predetermined, while others may suggest that it can be influenced and changed over time. Therefore, the answer implies that the changeability of personality is subjective and can vary depending on different perspectives and theories.

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  • 2. 

    Psychodynamic theories are very good in explaining which aspect of our personality? 

    • A.

      Childhood experiences

    • B.

      Intrapsychic processing

    • C.

      Internal conflicts

    • D.

      Occult forces

    Correct Answer
    B. Intrapsychic processing
    Explanation
    Psychodynamic theories are very good in explaining intrapsychic processing. These theories focus on the unconscious mind and how it influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. They emphasize the role of childhood experiences, internal conflicts, and the influence of the unconscious in shaping our personality. Intrapsychic processing refers to the internal mental processes, such as defense mechanisms, that occur within an individual's mind. Psychodynamic theories provide insights into these processes and help explain how they contribute to our personality development.

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  • 3. 

    In Adler’s notion, style of life is determined by:

    • A.

      Our creative power

    • B.

      Our social relationships during early childhood

    • C.

      Our social interest

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Our social relationships during early childhood
    Explanation
    In Adler's notion, style of life is determined by our social relationships during early childhood. This means that the way we interact and form relationships with others during our early years greatly influences our overall style of life. These early social experiences shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, which in turn impact how we navigate and perceive the world as we grow older. Our social relationships during early childhood play a significant role in shaping our overall style of life.

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  • 4. 

    Freud's psychoanalysis rests on which two cornerstones?

    • A.

      Sex and aggression

    • B.

      Sex and hunger

    • C.

      Security and safety

    • D.

      Security and sex

    Correct Answer
    A. Sex and aggression
    Explanation
    Freud's psychoanalysis is based on the understanding that human behavior is driven by unconscious desires and conflicts. These desires are primarily related to sex and aggression. Freud believed that sexual and aggressive impulses are fundamental aspects of human nature and play a crucial role in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Therefore, sex and aggression are considered the two cornerstones of Freud's psychoanalytic theory.

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  • 5. 

    Freud saw himself primarily as a

    • A.

      Psychologist.

    • B.

      Scientist.

    • C.

      Philosopher.

    • D.

      General practitioner.

    Correct Answer
    B. Scientist.
    Explanation
    Freud saw himself primarily as a scientist because he developed and applied scientific methods to understand and explain human behavior and the workings of the mind. He conducted extensive research, collected data, and formulated theories based on empirical evidence. Freud's psychoanalytic approach, which emphasized the role of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences in shaping personality, was rooted in scientific inquiry. He sought to establish psychology as a legitimate scientific discipline by employing rigorous methods and conducting experiments to support his theories. Freud's scientific approach set him apart from philosophers and general practitioners, who typically rely on different methodologies and perspectives.

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  • 6. 

    Freud's lifelong optimism and self-confidence may have stemmed from

    • A.

      Being his mother's favorite child.

    • B.

      His father's outstanding business success

    • C.

       the death of his younger brother.

    • D.

      The presence of much older half-brothers.

    Correct Answer
    A. Being his mother's favorite child.
    Explanation
    Freud's lifelong optimism and self-confidence may have stemmed from being his mother's favorite child. This suggests that the love and attention he received from his mother could have contributed to his positive outlook on life and belief in himself. Being favored by his mother may have instilled a sense of worthiness and confidence in Freud, leading to his optimistic attitude throughout his life.

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  • 7. 

    Since early in his adolescence, Freud had a strong desire to

    • A.

      Live in the United States.

    • B.

      Win fame by making a great discovery.

    • C.

      Treat the poor and destitute of Vienna.

    • D.

      Practice medicine.

    Correct Answer
    B. Win fame by making a great discovery.
    Explanation
    Freud's strong desire to live in the United States suggests that he wanted to achieve something significant or gain recognition in his field. This aligns with the idea of wanting to win fame by making a great discovery, as it implies that Freud sought to make a groundbreaking contribution to his field of study.

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  • 8. 

    Freud's free association technique evolved from

    • A.

      Charcot's hypnotic technique.

    • B.

      His use of cocaine.

    • C.

      Breuer's cathartic method.

    • D.

      The periodicity theory of Wilhelm Fliess.

    Correct Answer
    C. Breuer's cathartic method.
    Explanation
    Freud's free association technique evolved from Breuer's cathartic method. Breuer's cathartic method involved patients recalling and reliving traumatic experiences to release emotional tension. Freud modified this method by encouraging patients to freely associate their thoughts and feelings, without censorship or judgment, in order to uncover unconscious conflicts and desires. This allowed for a deeper exploration of the patient's psyche and paved the way for Freud's development of psychoanalysis.

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  • 9. 

    Freud abandoned his                theory in 1897, the year after his father died.

    • A.

      Seduction

    • B.

      Oedipal

    • C.

      Childhood sexuality

    • D.

      Dream

    Correct Answer
    A. Seduction
    Explanation
    Freud abandoned his seduction theory in 1897, the year after his father died. This suggests that the death of his father had a significant impact on Freud's thinking and led him to reject his previous theory.

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  • 10. 

    Hysteria is a term used to describe

    • A.

      Psychosis.

    • B.

      A variety of symptoms such as paralysis and disturbances of sight and speech.

    • C.

      A general release of emotional tension.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A variety of symptoms such as paralysis and disturbances of sight and speech.
    Explanation
    Hysteria is a term used to describe a variety of symptoms such as paralysis and disturbances of sight and speech. This term is often used to refer to a condition where individuals experience physical symptoms without any underlying medical cause. These symptoms can include loss of sensation or movement in certain parts of the body, as well as problems with vision and speech. This explanation aligns with the commonly understood definition of hysteria and accurately reflects the symptoms associated with it.

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  • 11. 

    Breuer found that Anna O.’s condition improved when she openly expressed her feelings. He referred to this phenomenon as

    • A.

      Hysteria.

    • B.

      Transference.

    • C.

      Catharsis.

    • D.

      Counter transference

    Correct Answer
    C. Catharsis.
    Explanation
    Breuer found that Anna O.'s condition improved when she openly expressed her feelings. This phenomenon is referred to as catharsis. Catharsis is a psychological concept that suggests that the release of repressed emotions and experiences can lead to emotional relief and healing. In Anna O.'s case, openly expressing her feelings helped her to alleviate her symptoms of hysteria. Transference refers to the patient's transfer of emotions and feelings onto the therapist, while countertransference refers to the therapist's emotional response towards the patient.

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  • 12. 

    The phenomenon where an analyst forms an emotional attachment to a patient is called

    • A.

      Catharsis.

    • B.

      Transference.

    • C.

      Countertransference.

    • D.

      Cathexis.

    Correct Answer
    C. Countertransference.
    Explanation
    Countertransference refers to the phenomenon where an analyst develops emotional reactions or attachments towards a patient. It occurs when the analyst's own unresolved feelings, experiences, or personal issues are unconsciously projected onto the patient. This can impact the therapist's ability to provide objective and unbiased treatment. Catharsis, on the other hand, refers to the release of emotions or emotional tension. Transference is when a patient redirects feelings or emotions towards the analyst. Cathexis refers to the investment of emotional energy in an object or person.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following did Freud call the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis?

    • A.

      Hypnosis

    • B.

      Free association

    • C.

      Hand pressure

    • D.

      Chimney sweeping

    Correct Answer
    B. Free association
    Explanation
    Freud called free association the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis. Free association refers to the technique where patients are encouraged to freely express their thoughts, feelings, and memories without censorship or judgment. This method allows the unconscious mind to reveal hidden conflicts and desires, providing insights into the patient's psyche. It is considered a cornerstone of psychoanalysis as it helps uncover repressed or unconscious material, leading to a better understanding of the patient's mental and emotional state.

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  • 14. 

    The major tool that Freud used in his self-analysis was

    • A.

      The interpretation of his own dreams.

    • B.

      Looking at pictures of Anna O.

    • C.

      Self-hypnosis.

    • D.

      Free association

    Correct Answer
    A. The interpretation of his own dreams.
    Explanation
    Freud used the interpretation of his own dreams as a major tool in his self-analysis. Dreams were believed to be a window into the unconscious mind, and by analyzing his own dreams, Freud aimed to gain insight into his own thoughts, desires, and conflicts. This process allowed him to uncover repressed memories and emotions, and ultimately develop his theories on psychoanalysis.

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  • 15. 

    Freud’s theory is           because it assumes that humans continually seek pleasure and avoid pain.

    • A.

      Deterministic

    • B.

      Hedonistic

    • C.

      Humanistic

    • D.

      Rationalistic

    Correct Answer
    B. Hedonistic
    Explanation
    Freud's theory is described as hedonistic because it assumes that humans are driven by a constant desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. This means that our actions and behaviors are motivated by seeking out pleasurable experiences and avoiding anything that causes discomfort or pain. Freud believed that this pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain is a fundamental aspect of human nature and plays a significant role in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and behavior.

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  • 16. 

    A bodily deficiency of some type is the           of an instinct.

    • A.

       source

    • B.

      Aim

    • C.

      Object

    • D.

      Impetus

    Correct Answer
    A.  source
    Explanation
    An instinct is driven or motivated by a bodily deficiency of some type. In other words, the lack or shortage of something in the body triggers an instinctual response. This response is instinctive and automatic, as it is a natural reaction to fulfill the deficiency and restore balance or equilibrium in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "source," as it represents the origin or cause of the instinct.

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  • 17. 

    The psychic energy associated with the life instincts is called

    • A.

      Libido.

    • B.

      Impetus.

    • C.

      Eros.

    • D.

      Thanatos.

    Correct Answer
    A. Libido.
    Explanation
    The psychic energy associated with the life instincts is called libido. Libido is a concept introduced by Sigmund Freud to describe the energy generated by the sexual drive or the life instincts. It is the energy that fuels our desires, passions, and motivations. Libido is not limited to sexual energy but encompasses a broader sense of life force and vitality. It is a fundamental concept in psychoanalysis and plays a crucial role in understanding human behavior and motivation.

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  • 18. 

    Freud referred to the life instincts collectively as

    • A.

      Thanatos.

    • B.

      Eros.

    • C.

      Impetus.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Eros.
    Explanation
    Freud referred to the life instincts collectively as "eros." Eros represents the life instinct, which encompasses all the basic drives necessary for survival and reproduction. It includes the desires for food, water, sex, and other bodily pleasures. Freud believed that eros drives individuals to seek pleasure and maintain their existence. This term is derived from Greek mythology, where Eros was the god of love and desire.

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  • 19. 

    The           consists of pure, unadulterated, instinctual energy.

    • A.

      Superego

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Id

    • D.

      Ego-ideal

    Correct Answer
    C. Id
    Explanation
    The id represents the most basic and primitive part of the mind, operating on the pleasure principle and seeking immediate gratification of desires. It is driven by instinctual energy and lacks any moral or societal constraints. This aligns with the description provided in the question, making the id the correct answer.

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  • 20. 

    The           demands immediate gratification of bodily needs.

    • A.

       superego

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Id

    • D.

      Ego-ideal

    Correct Answer
    C. Id
    Explanation
    The id is the part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of basic needs and desires. It is driven by unconscious impulses and does not consider the consequences or morals of its actions. The id is focused on satisfying primal urges and seeking pleasure without any regard for social norms or consequences.

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  • 21. 

    Freud suggested that the images conjured up by the id in order to temporarily reduce the tension associated with a need were

    • A.

      Innate.

    • B.

      Products of an individual’s experiences.

    • C.

      Learned from one’s parents.

    • D.

      Always sexual in nature.

    Correct Answer
    A. Innate.
    Explanation
    Freud suggested that the images conjured up by the id to reduce tension associated with a need were innate. This means that these images are not learned or acquired through experiences or from one's parents. Instead, they are believed to be instinctual and present from birth. According to Freud, the id operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification of needs and desires, and these innate images serve as a way to temporarily satisfy those needs.

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  • 22. 

    The ego attempts to match the images of the id with objects and events in the real world. This process is called

    • A.

      The primary process.

    • B.

      Sublimation.

    • C.

      Identification.

    • D.

      Primary gratification.

    Correct Answer
    C. Identification.
    Explanation
    The ego's task is to find ways to satisfy the desires and impulses of the id in a socially acceptable manner. It does this by identifying with certain objects or events in the real world that can provide gratification. Through identification, the ego aligns itself with external sources that can fulfill the id's needs, allowing for a more realistic and appropriate expression of desires. This process helps to maintain a balance between the demands of the id and the constraints of reality.

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  • 23. 

    The           constantly strives for perfection.

    • A.

       id

    • B.

       ego

    • C.

       superego

    • D.

      Libido

    Correct Answer
    C.  superego
    Explanation
    The superego is a concept in psychoanalytic theory that represents the moral and ethical standards of an individual. It is the part of the psyche that strives for perfection and imposes societal norms and values on the ego. It acts as a conscience, guiding behavior and suppressing impulses that are deemed unacceptable.

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  • 24. 

    The ego must find objects or events that

    • A.

      Satisfy the needs of the id.

    • B.

      Cannot be attained by primary processes.

    • C.

      Do not violate the values of the superego.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The ego must find objects or events that satisfy the needs of the id refers to the ego's role in balancing the id's impulsive desires with reality. The ego seeks to find ways to fulfill the id's needs in a socially acceptable manner. Cannot be attained by primary processes indicates that the ego uses secondary processes, such as problem-solving and rational thinking, to achieve these goals. Do not violate the values of the superego highlights the ego's responsibility to consider moral and ethical standards when seeking satisfaction for the id. Therefore, all of the above options are correct explanations of the ego's role in finding objects or events that satisfy the needs of the id.

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  • 25. 

    According to Freud, the most overwhelming experience of anxiety humans have is when they are

    • A.

      Sexually aroused.

    • B.

      Out of money.

    • C.

      Separated from their mother at birth.

    • D.

      In danger.

    Correct Answer
    C. Separated from their mother at birth.
    Explanation
    Freud believed that the most overwhelming experience of anxiety for humans occurs when they are separated from their mother at birth. According to his theory of psychosexual development, the mother-child bond is crucial during the early stages of life, and any disruption in this bond can lead to feelings of anxiety and insecurity. Freud believed that this separation anxiety could have long-lasting effects on an individual's psychological well-being and could manifest in various ways throughout their life.

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  • 26. 

                         anxiety is the fear that the impulses of the id will overwhelm the ego and cause the individual to do something for which he or she could be punished.

    • A.

      Moral

    • B.

      Neurotic

    • C.

      Reality

    • D.

      Environmental

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurotic
    Explanation
    Neurotic anxiety refers to the fear that the impulses of the id (the unconscious part of the mind driven by instinctual desires) will overpower the ego (the rational part of the mind) and lead the individual to engage in behaviors that could result in punishment. This type of anxiety is associated with neuroticism, which is characterized by excessive worry, insecurity, and emotional instability.

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  • 27. 

               is the most basic ego-defense mechanism because, for any of the other ego-defense mechanisms to occur, it must occur first.

    • A.

      Displacement

    • B.

      Rationalization

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Repression

    Correct Answer
    D. Repression
    Explanation
    Repression is considered the most basic ego-defense mechanism because it serves as the foundation for other defense mechanisms to occur. It involves pushing unwanted or threatening thoughts, memories, or emotions into the unconscious mind. By repressing these thoughts or feelings, individuals can avoid dealing with the discomfort they may bring. Other defense mechanisms, such as displacement, rationalization, and projection, rely on the initial act of repression to function effectively. Therefore, repression must occur first before any other defense mechanism can take place.

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  • 28. 

    According to Freud, anxiety-provoking id images can come from

    • A.

      Repressed experiences occurring in one’s lifetime.

    • B.

      The anxiety-provoking experiences of our ancestors.

    • C.

      Both A and B

    • D.

      Neither A nor B

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B
    Explanation
    Freud believed that anxiety-provoking id images can arise from repressed experiences in one's own lifetime as well as from the anxiety-provoking experiences of our ancestors. This means that not only can past traumatic events in our own lives cause anxiety, but also the unresolved traumas experienced by our ancestors can be passed down through generations and contribute to our anxiety. Therefore, both personal and ancestral experiences can contribute to anxiety according to Freud's theory.

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  • 29. 

    The term           is used to describe the tendency to increase personal feelings of worth by taking on characteristics of someone who is viewed as successful.

    • A.

      Displaced affection

    • B.

       projection

    • C.

      Sublimation

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    D. Identification
    Explanation
    Identification is the term used to describe the tendency to increase personal feelings of worth by taking on characteristics of someone who is viewed as successful. This means that individuals may try to emulate or imitate the behaviors, attitudes, or qualities of someone they admire or perceive as successful in order to boost their own self-esteem or sense of worth. This can involve adopting similar mannerisms, beliefs, or even aspirations as the person they identify with.

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  • 30. 

    Refusal to believe that a loved one has died exemplifies the ego defense of

    • A.

      Denial of reality.

    • B.

      Projection.

    • C.

      Undoing.

    • D.

      Reaction formation.

    Correct Answer
    A. Denial of reality.
    Explanation
    Refusal to believe that a loved one has died exemplifies the ego defense of denial of reality. Denial of reality is a defense mechanism where individuals refuse to accept or acknowledge a painful or distressing reality. In this case, the person is unable to accept the death of a loved one and may continue to act as if the person is still alive or deny the reality of their loss. This defense mechanism helps individuals temporarily avoid the emotional pain associated with the loss.

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  • 31. 

    The criminal who says, “The world is filled with crooks,” is probably exemplifying

    • A.

      Identification.

    • B.

      Sublimation.

    • C.

      Projection.

    • D.

      Reaction formation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Projection.
    Explanation
    The criminal who says, "The world is filled with crooks," is likely exemplifying projection. Projection is a defense mechanism where individuals attribute their own undesirable thoughts, feelings, or traits onto others. In this case, the criminal is projecting their own criminal tendencies onto the world, suggesting that others are also crooks. This allows the individual to avoid accepting their own guilt or responsibility for their actions by placing the blame on others.

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  • 32. 

    Apologizing after committing an unacceptable act exemplifies which of the following defense mechanisms?

    • A.

      Intellectualization

    • B.

      Denial of reality

    • C.

       undoing

    • D.

      Reaction formation

    Correct Answer
    C.  undoing
    Explanation
    Undoing is a defense mechanism that involves trying to make up for or reverse a previously committed unacceptable act. Apologizing after committing such an act can be seen as an attempt to undo the harm caused and restore a sense of balance or harmony. It is a way of acknowledging the wrongdoing and expressing remorse in order to alleviate guilt or shame.

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  • 33. 

              involves repressing objectionable thoughts and expressing their opposites.

    • A.

      Reaction formation

    • B.

      Rationalization

    • C.

      Identification

    • D.

      Projection

    Correct Answer
    A. Reaction formation
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism where individuals repress their true feelings or thoughts and express the opposite. This can occur when someone is faced with unacceptable or socially inappropriate thoughts or desires, and they respond by behaving in a manner that is completely opposite to their true feelings. For example, someone who has strong feelings of anger towards a person may display excessive friendliness and kindness towards them as a way to hide their true emotions.

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  • 34. 

    Each psychosexual stage has a(n)          associated with it, which is the greatest source of stimulation and pleasure during that stage of development.

    • A.

      Anxiety point

    • B.

      Inferiority

    • C.

      Erogenous zone

    • D.

      Erroneous zone

    Correct Answer
    C. Erogenous zone
    Explanation
    During each psychosexual stage of development, there is a specific area of the body that becomes the primary source of stimulation and pleasure. This area is known as the erogenous zone. The stimulation and pleasure derived from the erogenous zone play a significant role in shaping a person's psychological and emotional development during that particular stage.

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  • 35. 

    In order to make a smooth transition from one psychosexual stage to the next, the child must not be

    • A.

      Undergratified.

    • B.

      Fixated.

    • C.

      Overgratified.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because in order to make a smooth transition from one psychosexual stage to the next, the child must not only avoid being undergratified or fixated, but also overgratified. Undergratification refers to not having their needs met adequately, while fixation refers to being stuck in a particular stage due to unresolved conflicts. Overgratification, on the other hand, can lead to an inability to move on to the next stage as the child becomes overly dependent on the pleasure associated with the current stage. Therefore, all three conditions must be avoided for a smooth transition.

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  • 36. 

    Freud believed that the phallic stage of development applied to both male and female children because

    • A.

      Genital stimulation was not a factor in the development of either gender before the age of five.

    • B.

      He believed the clitoris to be a small penis and therefore both genders possessed a phallus.

    • C.

       both genders were sexually attracted to their mothers.

    • D.

      He completely ignored the development of female children.

    Correct Answer
    B. He believed the clitoris to be a small penis and therefore both genders possessed a phallus.
    Explanation
    Freud believed that the phallic stage of development applied to both male and female children because he believed the clitoris to be a small penis and therefore both genders possessed a phallus. This suggests that Freud viewed the development of both genders as being influenced by the presence of a phallus, regardless of biological differences.

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  • 37. 

    According to Freud, adult sexual preferences are determined during the

    • A.

      Anal stage.

    • B.

      Oral stage.

    • C.

       phallic stage.

    • D.

      Genital stage.

    Correct Answer
    C.  phallic stage.
    Explanation
    According to Freud's psychosexual theory, the phallic stage occurs during the ages of 3 to 6 years. During this stage, children become aware of their own bodies and develop a strong attachment to their genitalia. They also develop unconscious sexual desires towards the opposite-sex parent and experience the Oedipus or Electra complex. Freud believed that unresolved conflicts during this stage could lead to adult sexual preferences and behaviors. Therefore, the correct answer is the phallic stage.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following, according to Freud, describes the healthy resolution of the Oedipus conflict for the male child?

    • A.

      He identifies with his father.

    • B.

      He identifies with his mother.

    • C.

      He becomes hostile toward his father.

    • D.

      He becomes hostile toward his mother.

    Correct Answer
    A. He identifies with his father.
    Explanation
    Freud believed that the healthy resolution of the Oedipus conflict for the male child involves identifying with his father. This means that the child internalizes his father's values, beliefs, and behaviors, and develops a sense of masculinity and morality. By identifying with his father, the child is able to resolve his unconscious desire for his mother and establish a healthy and appropriate relationship with both parents. This resolution is seen as crucial for the child's psychosexual development and overall psychological well-being.

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  • 39. 

    According to Freud, the female Oedipal complex is partially resolved when

    • A.

      Her desire for her father generalizes to other men.

    • B.

      She identifies with her mother.

    • C.

      She begins to play with dolls.

    • D.

      She represses all sexual desires.

    Correct Answer
    A. Her desire for her father generalizes to other men.
    Explanation
    Freud proposed that during the female Oedipal complex, a girl's desire for her father is resolved by transferring that desire onto other men. This is known as the process of generalization. The girl identifies with her mother as a way to resolve her feelings towards her father. Playing with dolls is not directly related to the resolution of the Oedipal complex. Repressing all sexual desires is not a typical outcome of the complex either.

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  • 40. 

    When we recall a dream, we describe its           or what it appears to be.

    • A.

      Synthesis

    • B.

      Latent content

    • C.

      Manifest content

    • D.

      Dream work

    Correct Answer
    C. Manifest content
    Explanation
    Manifest content refers to the actual events, characters, and objects that we remember and describe when recalling a dream. It is what appears to be happening in the dream, the literal content that we can consciously recall. This is in contrast to latent content, which represents the hidden, symbolic meaning and unconscious desires behind the manifest content. Dream work refers to the process by which the unconscious mind transforms latent content into manifest content, while synthesis is not related to dream recall or interpretation.

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  • 41. 

    It was disagreement concerning the nature of the           that made Freud and Jung part company.

    • A.

      Psyche

    • B.

      Soul

    • C.

      Complexes

    • D.

      Libido

    Correct Answer
    D. Libido
    Explanation
    Freud and Jung parted ways due to a disagreement about the nature of libido. Libido refers to the psychic and emotional energy associated with instinctual biological drives. Freud believed that libido was primarily sexual in nature, while Jung had a broader definition of libido, encompassing all forms of psychic energy. This fundamental difference in their understanding of libido led to their separation.

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  • 42. 

    The amount of energy in a system is essentially fixed, and if it is removed from one part of a system, it will surface in another. This statement describes the principle of

    • A.

      Equivalence.

    • B.

      Entropy.

    • C.

      Opposites.

    • D.

      Thermodynamics.

    Correct Answer
    A. Equivalence.
    Explanation
    The principle of equivalence states that the total amount of energy in a system remains constant. If energy is removed from one part of the system, it will appear in another part. This principle is a fundamental concept in physics and is particularly important in the study of thermodynamics, which deals with the transfer and conversion of energy.

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  • 43. 

     The           consists of material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten or was not originally vivid enough to make a conscious impression.

    • A.

      Shadow

    • B.

       ego

    • C.

      Collective unconscious

    • D.

      Personal unconscious

    Correct Answer
    D. Personal unconscious
    Explanation
    The personal unconscious refers to the part of the mind that contains repressed or forgotten memories, as well as experiences that were not vivid enough to make a conscious impression. This means that it includes material that was once conscious but has been pushed into the unconscious. The other options, such as the shadow, ego, and collective unconscious, do not specifically encompass this idea of repressed or forgotten material.

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  • 44. 

    The           was Jung’s most mystical and controversial concept.

    • A.

      Personal unconscious

    • B.

      Collective unconscious

    • C.

      Principle of entropy

    • D.

      Shadow

    Correct Answer
    B. Collective unconscious
    Explanation
    The collective unconscious was Jung's most mystical and controversial concept. It refers to the part of the unconscious mind that is shared by all human beings and contains archetypes and universal symbols. Jung believed that these shared patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are inherited and play a significant role in shaping an individual's personality and experiences. The concept of the collective unconscious is controversial because it cannot be directly observed or measured, making it difficult to prove or disprove its existence. However, it has had a significant influence on psychology and continues to be a topic of debate and exploration.

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  • 45. 

    A(n)           can be defined as an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience.

    • A.

      Complex

    • B.

      Archetype

    • C.

      Attitude

    • D.

      Transcendent function

    Correct Answer
    B. Archetype
    Explanation
    An archetype can be defined as an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience. Archetypes are universal symbols or patterns that are present in the collective unconscious of all individuals. They represent common themes and motifs that evoke strong emotional responses and are often found in myths, fairy tales, and dreams. These archetypes can influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, shaping our understanding of the world and ourselves.

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  • 46. 

    There is an archetype for

    • A.

      Whatever experiences are universal among humans.

    • B.

      All experiences that humans have.

    • C.

      Only positive experiences.

    • D.

      Only negative experiences.

    Correct Answer
    A. Whatever experiences are universal among humans.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "whatever experiences are universal among humans." This means that the archetype encompasses all experiences that are common and shared by all humans. It does not limit itself to only positive or negative experiences, but rather includes any experience that is universally experienced by humans.

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  • 47. 

    The           develops because of the need humans have to play a role in society.

    • A.

      Shadow

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Animus

    • D.

      Persona

    Correct Answer
    D. Persona
    Explanation
    The persona develops because of the need humans have to play a role in society. The persona refers to the social mask or facade that individuals present to the outside world. It is the image or identity that a person creates to conform to societal expectations and to be accepted by others. This concept was introduced by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, who believed that individuals develop a persona as a way to adapt and fit into social norms and expectations. The persona allows individuals to navigate social interactions and present themselves in a way that is deemed acceptable by society.

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  • 48. 

    According to Jung, the shadow

    • A.

      Should be denied expression.

    • B.

      Is the cause of all human maladjustment.

    • C.

      Is a source of vitality, spontaneity, and creativity.

    • D.

      Is what makes humans human.

    Correct Answer
    C. Is a source of vitality, spontaneity, and creativity.
    Explanation
    According to Jung, the shadow is a source of vitality, spontaneity, and creativity. The shadow represents the unconscious part of our personality that consists of repressed desires, instincts, and emotions. Jung believed that denying the expression of the shadow can lead to psychological issues and maladjustment. However, embracing and integrating the shadow can help individuals tap into their hidden potential, leading to a more vibrant and creative life.

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  • 49. 

    Jung called introversion and extroversion

    • A.

      Irrational.

    • B.

      Rational.

    • C.

      Attitudes.

    • D.

      Functions.

    Correct Answer
    C. Attitudes.
    Explanation
    Jung referred to introversion and extroversion as attitudes. This is because he believed that these two personality traits represent different attitudes towards the external world. Introverts tend to focus inwardly, drawing energy from their internal thoughts and feelings, while extroverts are more focused on the external world and gain energy from social interactions and external stimuli. By categorizing introversion and extroversion as attitudes, Jung emphasized that they are fundamental ways of relating to the world rather than just temporary states of behavior.

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  • 50. 

    The           have to do with how a person perceives the world and deals with information and experience.

    • A.

      Attitudes

    • B.

      Functions of thought

    • C.

      Levels of thought

    • D.

      Archetypes

    Correct Answer
    B. Functions of thought
    Explanation
    The functions of thought refer to the cognitive processes and mental activities that individuals use to perceive and understand the world around them. These functions include processes such as perception, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making. They are essential for processing information and experiences, and they vary from person to person based on their individual cognitive abilities and preferences.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 05, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 11, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Macmananggit
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