Criminology Theories Exam

50 Questions | Total Attempts: 633

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  • 1. 
    SELECT ALL of the options that correctly frame the Three Questions of Criminology:
    • A. 

      What is the nature and extent of Crime?

    • B. 

      What is Crime?

    • C. 

      Why do people commit crime?

    • D. 

      Why do people NOT commit crime?

    • E. 

      What are the Policy Implications of a theory of crime?

    • F. 

      How then can we manage, control, or prevent crime?

  • 2. 
    Criminology is the scientific study of
    • A. 

      The making of laws.

    • B. 

      The breaking of laws.

    • C. 

      Society’s reaction to the breaking of laws.

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 3. 
    Which of the following accurately describes Rational Choice Theory?
    • A. 

      Criminals commit crime because they are born that way and learn from their criminal friends and family members.

    • B. 

      Crime is a result of a rational decision making process in which a criminal will choose to commit crime because the benefits outweigh the costs.

    • C. 

      Those in power determine what crime is and who will be defined as a criminal.

    • D. 

      Crime is a result of a rational decision making process in which a criminal will choose to commit crime because the costs outweigh the benefits.

  • 4. 
    The conflict model of law assumes that:
    • A. 

      Certain acts are deemed so threatening to the society’s survival that they are designated crimes.

    • B. 

      The criminal law expresses the values of the ruling class within a society.

    • C. 

      Members of a society by and large agree on what is right.

    • D. 

      Society is a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.

  • 5. 
    What is the most important implication of Rational Choice Theory? 
    • A. 

      Restorative Justice

    • B. 

      Social Programs targeting poverty.

    • C. 

      Programs that increase a person's pro-social bonds.

    • D. 

      Deterrence

  • 6. 
    •Conflict theorists view society as a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    •Crime has become globalized.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    •What are some of the limitations of self-report surveys?
    • A. 

      They represent a wide range of criminal acts.

    • B. 

      Respondents may not tell the truth.

    • C. 

      The samples are never biased.

    • D. 

      The information they yield applies to individuals of many age ranges

  • 9. 
    •The life-course perspective argues that
    • A. 

      Factors that lead to onset of offending do not vary.

    • B. 

      The number and type of offenses committed do not vary.

    • C. 

      The frequency of offending may go down for most offenders, but some chronic offenders commit the same amount of crime over time.

    • D. 

      The factors that lead to desistance from offending do not vary.

  • 10. 
    •Males traditionally commit more of which of the following crimes than females?
    • A. 

      Prostitution

    • B. 

      Shoplifting

    • C. 

      Welfare fraud

    • D. 

      Aggravated assault

  • 11. 
    •The positivist school of criminology posits that:  
    • A. 

      Human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control.

    • B. 

      individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.

    • C. 

      All human actions are determined in accordance with the felicific calculus.

    • D. 

      Anomie is a breakdown of social order, which causes people to commit crimes.

  • 12. 
    •The classical school of criminology is based on the assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    •In the United States, explanations of criminal behavior have been dominated by what type of theories?  
    • A. 

      Psychological

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Sociological

    • D. 

      philosophical

  • 14. 
    •Freud proposed that the __________ acts as a moral code or conscience.  
    • A. 

      Id

    • B. 

      ego

    • C. 

      Supraego

    • D. 

      Superego

  • 15. 
    •According to studies of twins;  
    • A. 

      There is no evidence that genetic factors explain criminality.

    • B. 

      There is some support for the hypothesis that some genetic influences increase the risk of criminality.

    • C. 

      There is a strong causal relationship between genetics and crime.

    • D. 

      There has not been enough research comparing monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins to make any conclusions.

  • 16. 
    •Social learning theory maintains that delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological processes as any other behavior.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    •Cultural deviance theorists argue that:  
    • A. 

      Crime is most likely to occur among the lower social classes.

    • B. 

      American society is made up of various groups and subgroups, each with its own standards of right and wrong.

    • C. 

      People learn to commit crime as a result of contact with antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns.

    • D. 

      Crime is the result of social disorganization.

  • 18. 
    •Psychological theories seek to uncover the reasons for differences in crime rates in the social environment.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Social control theories are based on the assumption that the motivation to commit crime is a part of human nature.  As such, social control theorists seek to understand why people do not offend.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    When Messner and Rosenfeld refer to the "American Dream," they are referring to the American culture's relentless push toward:
    • A. 

      Sexual success

    • B. 

      Job success

    • C. 

      Material success

    • D. 

      Family success

  • 21. 
    ____ Criminologists tend to believe that the only real cause of crime is capitalism
    • A. 

      Marxist

    • B. 

      Positivist

    • C. 

      Atavism

  • 22. 
    Victimology is a subfield of criminology that specializes in studying the victims of crime
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    1.  According to the tenets of institutional anomie theory, which of the following would be useful policy goal?
    • A. 

      Address negative emotions through coping strategies

    • B. 

      Increase collective efficiency at the neighborhood level.

    • C. 

      Increase legitimate economic opportunities in society

    • D. 

      Reduce the role if economic factor in other social institutions such as the family

  • 24. 
    Shaw and McKay's social disorganzation theory is part of the Human Ecology theoretical tradition.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    1.  Social bond theory argues that individuals who have invested time and effort into legitimate endeavors have a stake in conformity, and will therefore be less likely to engage in crime.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False