Criminology Theories Exam Quiz

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Criminology Theories Exam Quiz - Quiz

Embark on a fascinating exploration of the mind and motivations behind criminal behavior with our Criminology Theories Exam Quiz. This comprehensive quiz delves into a broad spectrum of theories prevalent in the field of criminology, from classical to biological, sociological to psychological. The questions will test your knowledge on various aspects like the origins of criminal behavior, societal and individual factors influencing crime, and the application of these theories in real-world scenarios. Whether you're a criminology student revising for an exam, a professional seeking to refresh your understanding, or simply a curious learner, this quiz is designed to engage and Read morechallenge you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Criminology is the scientific study of:

    • A.

      The making of laws

    • B.

      The breaking of laws

    • C.

      Society’s reaction to the breaking of laws

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Criminology is the scientific study of all aspects related to crime and law. It encompasses the making of laws, which involves understanding the process and factors that shape legal systems. It also focuses on the breaking of laws, seeking to understand the causes, motivations, and patterns of criminal behavior. Additionally, criminology examines society's reaction to the breaking of laws, including the criminal justice system, law enforcement, and public perception. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of these" because criminology covers the study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws, and society's reaction to the breaking of laws.

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  • 2. 

    The conflict model of law assumes that:

    • A.

      Certain acts are deemed so threatening to the society’s survival that they are designated crimes.

    • B.

      The criminal law expresses the values of the ruling class within a society.

    • C.

      Members of a society, by and large, agree on what is right.

    • D.

      Society is a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.

    Correct Answer
    B. The criminal law expresses the values of the ruling class within a society.
    Explanation
    The conflict model of law assumes that the criminal law expresses the values of the ruling class within a society. This means that the laws are created and enforced to maintain the power and interests of the dominant group in society. According to this perspective, the criminal justice system is not impartial, but rather serves the interests of the ruling class by criminalizing behaviors that threaten their power and privilege. This view suggests that the criminal justice system may be biased and unfair, as it disproportionately targets marginalized groups and protects the interests of the ruling class.

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  • 3. 

    Conflict theorists view society as a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Conflict theorists do not view society as a stable entity where laws are created for the general good. Instead, they believe that society is characterized by social inequality and power struggles between different groups. According to conflict theory, laws are created and enforced by the dominant group in order to maintain their power and control over the marginalized groups. Therefore, conflict theorists would argue that laws are not necessarily created for the general good, but rather to serve the interests of those in power.

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  • 4. 

    Crime has become globalized.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Crime has become globalized because of advancements in technology and communication, which have made it easier for criminals to operate across borders. Criminal networks can now coordinate their activities on a global scale, exploiting loopholes in international law enforcement and taking advantage of different legal systems. This globalization of crime has led to an increase in transnational organized crime, cybercrime, and illicit trade, posing significant challenges for law enforcement agencies worldwide.

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  • 5. 

    What are some of the limitations of self-report surveys?

    • A.

      They represent a wide range of criminal acts.

    • B.

      Respondents may not tell the truth.

    • C.

      The samples are never biased.

    • D.

      The information they yield applies to individuals of many age ranges

    Correct Answer
    B. Respondents may not tell the truth.
    Explanation
    Self-report surveys have limitations, one of which is that respondents may not always tell the truth. This can occur due to various reasons such as social desirability bias, fear of repercussions, or simply not remembering the accurate information. As a result, the data collected from self-report surveys may not always reflect the true behaviors or attitudes of the respondents. Therefore, it is important to consider this limitation when analyzing the results of such surveys.

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  • 6. 

    The life-course perspective argues that

    • A.

      Factors that lead to the onset of offending do not vary.

    • B.

      The number and type of offenses committed do not vary.

    • C.

      The frequency of offending may go down for most offenders, but some chronic offenders commit the same amount of crime over time.

    • D.

      The factors that lead to resistance from offending do not vary.

    Correct Answer
    C. The frequency of offending may go down for most offenders, but some chronic offenders commit the same amount of crime over time.
    Explanation
    The life-course perspective argues that while the frequency of offending may decrease for most individuals as they age, there are some chronic offenders who continue to commit the same amount of crime over time. This perspective recognizes that not all individuals follow the same trajectory when it comes to their involvement in criminal behavior. While some individuals may desist from crime as they mature and experience life events such as marriage, employment, or parenthood, others may continue to engage in criminal activities consistently throughout their lives.

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  • 7. 

    Males traditionally commit more of which of the following crimes than females?

    • A.

      Prostitution

    • B.

      Shoplifting

    • C.

      Welfare fraud

    • D.

      Aggravated assault

    Correct Answer
    D. Aggravated assault
    Explanation
    Males traditionally commit more aggravated assault than females. This can be attributed to various factors such as societal norms, cultural expectations, and biological differences. Men are often socialized to be more aggressive and assertive, which may contribute to higher rates of violent crimes like aggravated assault. Additionally, testosterone levels in males are generally higher, which can also influence aggressive behavior. However, it is important to note that these are general trends and individual differences exist within each gender.

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  • 8. 

    The classical school of criminology is based on the assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the classical school of criminology believes that individuals make rational choices and weigh the potential consequences before committing a crime. This perspective suggests that people are motivated by their own self-interest and will engage in criminal behavior if they believe the benefits outweigh the risks. This assumption forms the basis for classical criminological theories and approaches to understanding and preventing crime.

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  • 9. 

    In the United States, explanations of criminal behavior have been dominated by what type of theories?  

    • A.

      Psychological

    • B.

      Biological

    • C.

      Sociological

    • D.

      philosophical

    Correct Answer
    C. Sociological
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sociological. In the United States, explanations of criminal behavior have been primarily influenced by sociological theories. These theories focus on social factors such as poverty, inequality, and socialization processes that contribute to criminal behavior. Sociological explanations emphasize the impact of social structures, institutions, and cultural norms on individuals' engagement in criminal activities. This perspective highlights the importance of understanding the broader social context in which crime occurs, rather than solely focusing on individual psychological or biological factors.

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  • 10. 

    Freud proposed that the __________ acts as a moral code or conscience.  

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      ego

    • C.

      Supraego

    • D.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    D. Superego
    Explanation
    Freud proposed that the superego acts as a moral code or conscience. The superego is one of the three components of the human psyche, according to Freud's psychoanalytic theory. It represents the internalized values, norms, and moral standards that individuals acquire through socialization and upbringing. The superego operates based on the principle of morality and strives for perfection, often leading to feelings of guilt or shame when one's actions do not align with societal or personal ideals. It serves as a counterbalance to the id's instinctual desires and the ego's rational decision-making processes.

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  • 11. 

    According to studies of twins:    

    • A.

      There is no evidence that genetic factors explain criminality.

    • B.

      There is some support for the hypothesis that some genetic influences increase the risk of criminality.

    • C.

      There is a strong causal relationship between genetics and crime.

    • D.

      There has not been enough research comparing monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins to make any conclusions.

    Correct Answer
    B. There is some support for the hypothesis that some genetic influences increase the risk of criminality.
    Explanation
    Studies of twins have provided some support for the hypothesis that certain genetic influences can increase the risk of criminality. This suggests that genetic factors may play a role in determining criminal behavior. However, it is important to note that this does not imply a strong causal relationship between genetics and crime. Additionally, the answer indicates that there is some evidence for genetic influences, but it does not claim that genetic factors are the sole explanation for criminality.

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  • 12. 

    Social learning theory maintains that delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological processes as any other behavior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer is that social learning theory suggests that delinquent behavior is acquired through the same psychological processes as any other behavior. This means that individuals learn delinquent behavior by observing and imitating others, as well as through reinforcement and punishment. According to this theory, delinquent behavior is not inherent, but rather learned through social interactions and environmental influences.

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  • 13. 

    Cultural deviance theorists argue that:  

    • A.

      Crime is most likely to occur among the lower social classes.

    • B.

      American society is made up of various groups and subgroups, each with its own standards of right and wrong.

    • C.

      People learn to commit crime as a result of contact with antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns.

    • D.

      Crime is the result of social disorganization.

    Correct Answer
    B. American society is made up of various groups and subgroups, each with its own standards of right and wrong.
    Explanation
    Cultural deviance theorists argue that crime is most likely to occur among the lower social classes due to the influence of antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns that individuals learn through their interactions with different groups and subgroups in American society. These groups and subgroups have their own standards of right and wrong, which may deviate from the dominant cultural norms. This cultural diversity and the exposure to deviant values contribute to the higher occurrence of crime in lower social classes.

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  • 14. 

    Psychological theories seek to uncover the reasons for differences in crime rates in the social environment.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Psychological theories do not specifically focus on uncovering the reasons for differences in crime rates in the social environment. Instead, they primarily aim to understand and explain individual behavior and mental processes. While social factors may be considered in psychological theories, they are not the main focus. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 15. 

    Social control theories are based on the assumption that the motivation to commit a crime is a part of human nature.  As such, social control theorists seek to understand why people do not offend.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Social control theories are based on the assumption that the motivation to commit a crime is a part of human nature. These theories aim to understand why individuals do not engage in criminal activities. By examining the factors that prevent individuals from offending, social control theorists seek to explain how society maintains order and prevents crime. Therefore, the statement "True" is an accurate reflection of the explanation provided.

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  • 16. 

    When Messner and Rosenfeld refer to the "American Dream," they are referring to the American culture's relentless push toward:

    • A.

      Sexual success

    • B.

      Job success

    • C.

      Material success

    • D.

      Family success

    Correct Answer
    C. Material success
    Explanation
    Messner and Rosenfeld are referring to the American culture's relentless push toward material success. This means that in American culture, there is a strong emphasis on achieving wealth, possessions, and financial stability as a measure of success. The American Dream, as portrayed by Messner and Rosenfeld, revolves around the idea that hard work and determination can lead to economic prosperity and a better life. This notion of material success is deeply ingrained in American society and is often seen as a key aspect of achieving the American Dream.

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  • 17. 

    Criminologists tend to believe that the only real cause of crime is capitalism.

    • A.

      Marxist

    • B.

      Positivist

    • C.

      Atavism

    Correct Answer
    A. Marxist
    Explanation
    The given answer, Marxist, is the correct answer because it aligns with the statement that criminologists believe that the only real cause of crime is capitalism. Marxism is a socio-economic theory that focuses on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) and the proletariat (working class). According to Marxists, crime is a result of the inherent inequalities and exploitation within a capitalist society. They argue that capitalism creates conditions that lead individuals to engage in criminal behavior as a means of survival or resistance against oppressive systems. Therefore, the Marxist perspective supports the idea that capitalism is the main cause of crime.

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  • 18. 

    Victimology is a subfield of criminology that specializes in studying the victims of crime.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Victimology is indeed a subfield of criminology that focuses on studying the victims of crime. It examines the psychological, social, and physical effects that crime has on individuals and society as a whole. By understanding the experiences and needs of victims, victimologists aim to develop strategies to prevent and respond to crime more effectively. Therefore, the statement "Victimology is a subfield of criminology that specializes in studying the victims of crime" is true.

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  • 19. 

    According to the tenets of institutional anomie theory, which of the following would be useful a  policy goal?

    • A.

      Address negative emotions through coping strategies

    • B.

      Increase collective efficiency at the neighborhood level.

    • C.

      Increase legitimate economic opportunities in society

    • D.

      Reduce the role if economic factor in other social institutions such as the family

    Correct Answer
    D. Reduce the role if economic factor in other social institutions such as the family
    Explanation
    According to the institutional anomie theory, reducing the role of the economic factor in other social institutions such as the family would be a useful policy goal. This theory suggests that when the economy becomes the dominant institution in society, it can lead to an imbalance and strain on other social institutions. By reducing the influence of the economic factor in institutions like the family, it aims to restore a balance and promote social well-being.

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  • 20. 

    Shaw and McKay's social disorganzation theory is part of the Human Ecology theoretical tradition.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shaw and McKay's social disorganization theory is indeed part of the Human Ecology theoretical tradition. This theory suggests that the social and physical characteristics of a neighborhood can lead to high rates of crime and delinquency. It focuses on the idea that certain neighborhood factors, such as poverty, residential instability, and ethnic heterogeneity, can disrupt social bonds and weaken informal social controls, thus increasing the likelihood of criminal behavior. This theory aligns with the broader Human Ecology tradition, which examines the interactions between individuals and their physical and social environments.

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  • 21. 

    The social bond theory argues that individuals who have invested time and effort into legitimate endeavors have a stake in conformity, and will therefore be less likely to engage in crime.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The social bond theory suggests that individuals who have dedicated their time and effort to lawful activities develop a sense of attachment and commitment to society. This attachment acts as a deterrent to engaging in criminal behavior. Therefore, individuals who have invested in legitimate endeavors are less likely to commit crimes.

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  • 22. 

    The ____ perspective of criminology encompasses Marxism, conflict, and feminist theories.

    • A.

      Peacemaking

    • B.

      Critical

    • C.

      Alienation

    Correct Answer
    B. Critical
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "critical." The critical perspective of criminology incorporates theories such as Marxism, conflict, and feminism, which focus on analyzing the power dynamics and social inequalities that contribute to crime. This perspective challenges traditional explanations of crime and emphasizes the need for social change to address the root causes of criminal behavior.

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  • 23. 

    Victimology seeks to answer why some individuals, households, groups, and other entities are targeted and others are not.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Victimology is a field of study that aims to understand why certain individuals, households, groups, and entities become targets of crime or victimization while others do not. It explores various factors such as personal characteristics, social dynamics, and environmental factors that contribute to victimization. By examining these factors, victimologists can gain insights into the patterns and motivations behind victimization, which can help inform prevention strategies and support systems for victims. Therefore, the statement "Victimology seeks to answer why some individuals, households, groups, and other entities are targeted and others are not" is true.

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  • 24. 

    Conflict theory shares with labeling theory the idea that crime is a social construct with no intrinsic meaning.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Conflict theory and labeling theory both share the belief that crime is not an inherent characteristic of certain behaviors, but rather a social construct. They argue that the meaning and definition of crime are determined by society and those in power. Conflict theory focuses on how social inequalities and power imbalances contribute to the creation and enforcement of laws, while labeling theory emphasizes how individuals are labeled as criminals and the consequences of those labels. Both theories reject the notion that crime has an intrinsic meaning and instead view it as a product of social processes.

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  • 25. 

    Neutralization theory suggests that offenders have entirely different value systems than non-offenders.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because neutralization theory suggests that offenders have similar value systems to non-offenders. According to this theory, offenders use neutralization techniques to justify their deviant behavior by temporarily suspending their conventional values and beliefs. These techniques allow offenders to rationalize their actions and reduce guilt or shame associated with their behavior. Therefore, neutralization theory does not propose that offenders have entirely different value systems, but rather that they employ specific techniques to neutralize their deviance.

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  • 26. 

     The conflict perspective views criminal behavior, the law, and subsequent penalties as originating in the inequalities if power and resources existing in the social.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The conflict perspective suggests that criminal behavior, laws, and penalties are influenced by the unequal distribution of power and resources in society. This perspective argues that those who have less power and resources are more likely to engage in criminal behavior and face harsher penalties, while those with more power and resources are more likely to escape punishment. Therefore, the statement that the conflict perspective views criminal behavior, the law, and subsequent penalties as originating in the inequalities of power and resources is true.

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  • 27. 

     Rational choice theorists argue that punishment should be tailored to individual offenders in order to treat their underlying psychological issues.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rational choice theorists actually argue that punishment should be tailored to the crime committed, rather than the individual offender. They believe that punishment should be based on the severity of the offense and the potential deterrent effect it may have on others, rather than focusing on the psychological issues of the offender. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 28. 

     According to Cohen, lower-class youth desire approval and status, but because they cannot meet middle-class criteria, they become frustrated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Cohen, lower-class youth desire approval and status, but they become frustrated because they are unable to meet the criteria set by the middle-class. This suggests that lower-class youth aspire to gain social recognition and acceptance, but their inability to conform to middle-class standards leads to feelings of frustration.

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  • 29. 

     Social process theorists believe that if we wish to understand social behavior, we have to understand how individuals subjectively perceive their social reality.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Social process theorists believe that subjective perception plays a crucial role in understanding social behavior. They argue that individuals interpret and make sense of their social reality based on their own experiences, beliefs, and values. This perspective emphasizes the importance of understanding the subjective meanings that individuals attach to their social interactions and how these meanings shape their behavior. Therefore, the statement is true according to social process theorists.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following would be most likely to attribute violent offending to personality features, situations, and developmental experiences?

    • A.

      Evolutionary biologists

    • B.

      Neuroscientists

    • C.

      Psychologists

    • D.

      Sociologists

    Correct Answer
    C. Psychologists
    Explanation
    Psychologists would be most likely to attribute violent offending to personality features, situations, and developmental experiences. This is because psychologists study human behavior, including the factors that contribute to violent behavior. They analyze personality traits, individual experiences, and environmental influences to understand the root causes of violent offending. Evolutionary biologists focus more on the biological aspects of behavior, neuroscientists study the brain's role, and sociologists examine societal factors, but psychologists specifically investigate the psychological factors involved in violent offending.

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  • 31. 

    The theory that suggests people have free will to choose criminal or unlawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems is: 

    • A.

      Classical Theory

    • B.

      Conflict Theory

    • C.

      Bio-social theory

    • D.

      Marxist Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Classical Theory
    Explanation
    The classical theory suggests that individuals have the free will to choose criminal or unlawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems. This theory emphasizes that individuals are rational actors who weigh the costs and benefits before engaging in criminal behavior. It focuses on the idea of deterrence, where the threat of punishment is believed to deter individuals from committing crimes. This theory assumes that individuals have the capacity to make choices and are responsible for their actions, rather than being influenced solely by external factors or societal conflicts.

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  • 32. 

    Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as:

    • A.

      Victimologists

    • B.

      Behaviorists

    • C.

      Sociologists

    • D.

      Psychologists

    Correct Answer
    A. Victimologists
    Explanation
    Criminologists who focus on crime victims refer to themselves as victimologists. Victimologists study the experiences and effects of crime on individuals and communities, aiming to understand the causes and consequences of victimization. They analyze patterns of victimization, explore the impact of crime on victims' physical and psychological well-being, and develop strategies to prevent and respond to victimization. By specializing in the study of victims, victimologists contribute to the broader field of criminology and help inform policies and interventions aimed at supporting and protecting victims of crime.

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  • 33. 

    The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished is known as:

    • A.

      Hug a thug

    • B.

      Specific deterrence

    • C.

      Just punishment

    • D.

      Just desert

    Correct Answer
    D. Just desert
    Explanation
    Just desert is the philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. This concept is based on the idea that individuals should be held accountable for their actions and that punishment should be proportional to the harm caused. It emphasizes the importance of retribution and the idea that individuals should receive what they deserve as a consequence of their actions. This philosophy aims to ensure fairness and uphold the principles of justice in society.

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  • 34. 

    What does U.C.R. stand for?

    • A.

      Uniform crime data

    • B.

      Uniform crime reports

    • C.

      Uniform crime data bank

    • D.

      Uniform crime resource

    Correct Answer
    B. Uniform crime reports
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "uniform crime reports." U.C.R. stands for uniform crime reports, which refers to a system used by law enforcement agencies to collect and analyze crime data. This system provides standardized information on various crimes, including their frequency, location, and characteristics. The uniform crime reports are essential for tracking crime trends, developing crime prevention strategies, and allocating resources effectively.

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  • 35. 

    Is Crime defined as an act deemed as socially harmful or dangerous?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Crime is indeed defined as an act that is considered socially harmful or dangerous. It refers to any behavior that violates the laws and regulations established by a society. These acts are seen as harmful because they can cause physical or emotional harm to individuals, damage property, or disrupt the overall well-being and safety of a community. Therefore, the statement "Crime is defined as an act deemed as socially harmful or dangerous" is true.

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  • 36. 

    Crime Mapping shows ;

    • A.

      Crime arrest rates

    • B.

      Crimes in progress

    • C.

      Crime locations

    • D.

      Crime activity

    Correct Answer
    C. Crime locations
    Explanation
    Crime mapping is a tool that displays crime locations. It allows law enforcement agencies and the public to visualize and analyze patterns of criminal activity in a given area. By mapping crime locations, it becomes easier to identify high-crime areas, understand crime trends, and allocate resources effectively. This information can be used to develop strategies for crime prevention and improve public safety. By focusing on crime locations, law enforcement can target their efforts and work towards reducing crime rates in specific areas.

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  • 37. 

    Criminologists use ________ methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.

    • A.

      Economic

    • B.

      Scientific

    • C.

      Sociological

    • D.

      Psychological

    Correct Answer
    B. Scientific
    Explanation
    Criminologists use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. Scientific methods involve the use of systematic and objective approaches to collect and analyze data, conduct experiments, and develop theories. By employing scientific methods, criminologists can gather reliable and valid information about criminal behavior, identify patterns and trends, and develop evidence-based strategies for crime prevention and intervention. This allows for a rigorous and evidence-based understanding of criminal behavior, which is essential for effective policymaking and the development of crime control strategies.

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  • 38. 

    __________ is an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.

    • A.

      Sociology

    • B.

      Criminal Justice

    • C.

      Criminology

    • D.

      Psychology

    Correct Answer
    C. Criminology
    Explanation
    Criminology is the correct answer because it is the academic discipline that utilizes scientific methods to investigate and analyze criminal behavior. It focuses on understanding the nature, causes, extent, and control of crime in society. Criminologists study various aspects of criminal behavior, including its social, psychological, and environmental factors. They aim to develop theories and strategies to prevent and respond to crime effectively. Sociology, Criminal Justice, and Psychology are related fields, but they each have different focuses and methods of study.

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  • 39. 

    Criminologists collect and analyze crime data in order to:

    • A.

      measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior

    • B.

      Track changes in the crime rate

    • C.

      Measure the individual and social factors that may influence criminality

    • D.

      A,b and c

    Correct Answer
    D. A,b and c
    Explanation
    Criminologists collect and analyze crime data to measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior, track changes in the crime rate, and measure the individual and social factors that may influence criminality. By doing so, they can gain a better understanding of crime patterns, identify risk factors, and develop effective strategies for prevention and intervention.

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  • 40. 

    Most reported crimes occur during the warm summer months of July and August.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the majority of reported crimes happen during the summer months of July and August. This could be due to a variety of reasons such as increased social activities, more people being outdoors, longer daylight hours, and potentially higher levels of stress or frustration during this time. It is important to note that this statement refers to reported crimes, which may not necessarily reflect the actual occurrence of crimes.

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  • 41. 

    Social classes are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable things and who share attitudes, values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because social classes are indeed groups within a population that have similar access to desirable things, such as wealth, education, and opportunities. Members of a social class also tend to share similar attitudes, values, norms, and lifestyles, which further distinguishes them from other classes.

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  • 42. 

    _____ criminology zooms in on the political and economic structures of discrimination and exploitation as causes of crime and the reasons why some actions are classified as crime and others not.

    • A.

      Positivist

    • B.

      Classical

    • C.

      Feminist

    • D.

      Critical

    • E.

      Postmodernist

    Correct Answer
    D. Critical
    Explanation
    Critical criminology focuses on analyzing the political and economic structures that contribute to discrimination and exploitation, which are seen as underlying causes of crime. It also examines how certain actions are labeled as crimes while others are not. This perspective challenges traditional notions of crime and seeks to understand the social, economic, and political factors that shape criminal behavior and the criminal justice system.

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  • 43. 

    According to the _____ theory, gender and social-class differences in delinquency are linked to the structure of the family.

    • A.

      Power-oppression

    • B.

      Control

    • C.

      Power-control

    • D.

      Patriarchal

    • E.

      Marxist

    Correct Answer
    C. Power-control
    Explanation
    The power-control theory suggests that gender and social-class differences in delinquency are linked to the structure of the family. This theory argues that the level of control and power within the family influences the likelihood of delinquency. It suggests that families with higher levels of control and less gender inequality are less likely to have delinquent behavior, while families with lower levels of control and more gender inequality are more likely to have delinquent behavior. Therefore, the power-control theory provides an explanation for the relationship between family structure and delinquency.

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  • 44. 

    Select all of the options that correctly frame the Three Questions of Criminology:

    • A.

      What is the nature and extent of Crime?

    • B.

      What is Crime?

    • C.

      Why do people commit crimes?

    • D.

      Why do people NOT commit crimes?

    • E.

      What are the Policy Implications of a theory of crime?

    • F.

      How can we manage, control, or prevent crime?

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. What is the nature and extent of Crime?
    B. What is Crime?
    C. Why do people commit crimes?
    D. Why do people NOT commit crimes?
    E. What are the Policy Implications of a theory of crime?
    F. How can we manage, control, or prevent crime?
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes all of the options that correctly frame the Three Questions of Criminology. These questions involve understanding the nature and extent of crime, defining what constitutes a crime, exploring the reasons behind why people commit crimes, examining the factors that prevent individuals from engaging in criminal behavior, analyzing the policy implications of crime theories, and determining strategies for managing, controlling, or preventing crime.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following accurately describes Rational Choice Theory?

    • A.

      Criminals commit crimes because they are born that way and learn from their criminal friends and family members.

    • B.

      Crime is a result of a rational decision-making process in which a criminal will choose to commit a crime because the benefits outweigh the costs.

    • C.

      Those in power determine what crime is and who will be defined as a criminal.

    • D.

      Crime is a result of a rational decision-making process in which a criminal will choose to commit a crime because the costs outweigh the benefits.

    Correct Answer
    B. Crime is a result of a rational decision-making process in which a criminal will choose to commit a crime because the benefits outweigh the costs.
    Explanation
    Rational Choice Theory suggests that criminals engage in criminal behavior after weighing the costs and benefits. They make a rational decision based on the potential gains from committing a crime outweighing the potential costs or risks involved. This theory emphasizes that individuals are not born criminals, but rather engage in criminal activities as a result of a calculated decision-making process. It rejects the notion that criminal behavior is solely influenced by genetics or socialization.

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  • 46. 

    What is the most important implication of Rational Choice Theory? 

    • A.

      Restorative Justice

    • B.

      Social Programs targeting poverty.

    • C.

      Programs that increase a person's pro-social bonds.

    • D.

      Deterrence

    Correct Answer
    D. Deterrence
    Explanation
    The most important implication of Rational Choice Theory is deterrence. Rational Choice Theory suggests that individuals make decisions based on weighing the costs and benefits of their actions. Therefore, the theory implies that if the costs of committing a crime outweigh the benefits, individuals will be deterred from engaging in criminal behavior. This has significant implications for the criminal justice system, as it suggests that harsher punishments and increased certainty of punishment can effectively deter crime.

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  • 47. 

    The positivist school of criminology denotes that: ​​​

    • A.

      Human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control.

    • B.

      Individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.

    • C.

      All human actions are determined in accordance with the felicific calculus.

    • D.

      Anomie is a breakdown of social order, which causes people to commit crimes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control. The positivist school of criminology believes that factors such as genetics, social environment, and psychological influences play a significant role in shaping human behavior and leading individuals to commit crimes. This perspective emphasizes that individuals do not have complete autonomy over their actions, but rather are influenced by external forces that are beyond their control.

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  • 48. 

    With which theory is Restorative Justice associated?

    • A.

      Positivist Theory

    • B.

      Critical Criminology

    • C.

      Social Structure Theory

    • D.

      Social Process Theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Critical Criminology
    Explanation
    Restorative Justice is associated with Critical Criminology. Restorative Justice is a theory that focuses on repairing the harm caused by crime by involving the offender, victim, and community in the resolution process. Critical Criminology, on the other hand, examines the root causes of crime and advocates for social change to address these underlying issues. Restorative Justice aligns with the principles of Critical Criminology as it seeks to challenge traditional punitive approaches and instead emphasizes healing and rehabilitation.

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  • 49. 

    If you believe a theory accurately explains why someone committed a crime, then you should also be able to craft policies that control, manage, or prevent crime.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If a theory accurately explains why someone committed a crime, it implies that there is a deeper understanding of the underlying factors and motivations that lead to criminal behavior. With this understanding, it becomes possible to develop policies that address these root causes and effectively control, manage, or prevent crime. Therefore, if a theory is valid, it should be possible to create policies based on it.

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  • 50. 

    Personality Disorders, as outlined in the DSM, are most closely associated with which theory? 

    • A.

      Critical Criminology

    • B.

      Social Process Theory

    • C.

      Social Structure Theory

    • D.

      Positivist Theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Positivist Theory
    Explanation
    Personality Disorders, as outlined in the DSM, are most closely associated with the Positivist Theory. The Positivist Theory emphasizes the biological and psychological factors that contribute to the development of personality disorders. It suggests that these disorders are caused by abnormalities in brain structure or function, as well as genetic and environmental factors. This theory focuses on the scientific study of individuals with personality disorders and aims to understand the underlying causes and mechanisms of these disorders.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Dec 07, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 17, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Lorraine Pesante

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