The making of laws.
The breaking of laws.
Society’s reaction to the breaking of laws.
All of these
Certain acts are deemed so threatening to the society’s survival that they are designated crimes.
The criminal law expresses the values of the ruling class within a society.
Members of a society by and large agree on what is right.
Society is a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.
They represent a wide range of criminal acts.
Respondents may not tell the truth.
The samples are never biased.
The information they yield applies to individuals of many age ranges
Factors that lead to onset of offending do not vary.
The number and type of offenses committed do not vary.
The frequency of offending may go down for most offenders, but some chronic offenders commit the same amount of crime over time.
The factors that lead to desistance from offending do not vary.
Human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control.
individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.
All human actions are determined in accordance with the felicific calculus.
Anomie is a breakdown of social order, which causes people to commit crimes.
There is no evidence that genetic factors explain criminality.
There is some support for the hypothesis that some genetic influences increase the risk of criminality.
There is a strong causal relationship between genetics and crime.
There has not been enough research comparing monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins to make any conclusions.
Crime is most likely to occur among the lower social classes.
American society is made up of various groups and subgroups, each with its own standards of right and wrong.
People learn to commit crime as a result of contact with antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns.
Crime is the result of social disorganization.
Address negative emotions through coping strategies
Increase collective efficiency at the neighborhood level.
Increase legitimate economic opportunities in society
Reduce the role if economic factor in other social institutions such as the family