Tells the experimenter exactly how much of the native protein was produced
Changes the color of the flies' eyes
Must be from the same type of organism as the organism into which it is being transferred
Is designed to be easily detected and reflect the activity of the native gene
Change the functions of the native pergene
Cause the eyes to be white
Reflect transcriptional activity without interfering with functions
Alter the biological clock
Can be seen glowing outdoors at dusk
Produce the enzyme luciferase
Use their glow to attract mates
Are experimentally produced
Period gene promoter
Cell membranes form around each nucleus in the multi-nucleated embryonic cell mass at approximately 30—60 minutes.
Germ cells can incorporate DNA before differentiation, which begins when the embryo is approximately 30—60 minutes old.
Embryos older than 30—60 minutes will not incorporate the DNA and will dilute the number of successfully injected flies
All of the above.
When the injected fly embryo becomes an adult
In all the offspring of an injected embryo that has grown to adulthood
In only a few of the offspring of an injected embryo containing germ cells that have incorporated the injected DNA
None of the above.
fluid loss due to wound at injection site
injection of too much fluid, causing embryo to explode
embryo is too young to tolerate injection
Embryo becomes too dry
Inject a large volume of DNA solution.
Inject many embryos.
Inject into the outermost embryonic membrane.
Destroy all older embryos
You did not inject enough embryos.
You accidentally broke the glass needle and had to replace it with a new one in the micromanipulator. In the meantime, the embryos continued to develop, and all were more than 60 minutes old when you began the injections.
All your injections missed the germ cells in the posterior region of the embryos
All the above.
Red-eyed flies contaminate the experiment.
Progeny with red-eyes are the result of matings in which the germ cell from one parent contains the transgene
A mutation occurs that produces red eyes
Progeny with red eyes occur in flies raised in constant darkness
The same way that light is produced in fireflies.
The transgenic flies have eaten a substance that produces light
Transcription of the transgene results in production of luciferase, which acts on luciferin.
Turning on the room lights causes light to be produced by the flies.
Have more variability than that observed from data averaged from 20 flies
Show similar trends compared with data from whole flies
Dampen over time
All the above.
Oscillations in per-luc activity were no longer observed
Peak oscillations occurred at about the same time of day as was observed on days 1, 2, and 3
The trough was observed at the beginning of daytime
The oscillations in the fly wing reset to the new schedule (days 8,9,10), which was 6 hours later than the original schedule (days 1, 2, 3)