Qbb2023-test II - Jan 19

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| By JANUARYUG19
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JANUARYUG19
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 349
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 157

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Earth Science Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Comparisons between modern and ancient river systems should be carried out with care because continental environments have not changed dramatically through geological time as land plant and animal communities have evolved.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Comparisons between modern and ancient river systems should be carried out with care because continental environments have changed dramatically through geological time as land plant and animal communities have evolved. This means that the conditions and characteristics of ancient river systems may be significantly different from modern ones, making direct comparisons challenging. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 2. 

    In the transfer zone the streams are actively down cutting, removing bedrock from the valley floor and from the valley sides via downslope movement of material into the stream bed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because in the transfer zone, the streams are not actively down cutting and removing bedrock from the valley floor and sides. Instead, it is in the zone of deposition where streams deposit sediment and build up the valley floor and sides.

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  • 3. 

    Water flow in rivers and streams is normally confined to channels, which are depressions or scours in the land surface that contain the flow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because rivers and streams do indeed flow within channels, which are essentially grooves or depressions in the land surface that confine the water flow. This is a natural characteristic of rivers and streams, as they follow the path of least resistance and carve out channels over time. Without these channels, the water would not be contained and would spread out over the surrounding land, resulting in flooding and a loss of direction for the flow.

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  • 4. 

    An alluvial plain is a general term for a low-relief continental area where sediment is accumulating, which may include the floodplains of individual rivers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An alluvial plain refers to a low-lying area on land where sediments are being deposited. This deposition of sediment often occurs in floodplains of rivers. Therefore, it is correct to say that an alluvial plain is a general term for a low-relief continental area where sediment is accumulating, including the floodplains of individual rivers.

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  • 5. 

    When the water level is well below the level of the channel banks it is at high flow stage.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    When the water level is well below the level of the channel banks, it is not at high flow stage. High flow stage refers to a situation where the water level is significantly higher than the channel banks, indicating a large volume of water flowing through the channel. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 6. 

    The line of the shallowest part of the channel is called the thalweg.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the line of the deepest part of the channel is called the thalweg, not the shallowest part. The thalweg represents the path of maximum velocity and is often used for navigation and determining water flow patterns.

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  • 7. 

    A braided river contains mid-channel bars that are covered at bank-full flow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A braided river is a type of river that has multiple interconnected channels, separated by mid-channel bars. These mid-channel bars are formed by sediment deposition during periods of lower flow. During bank-full flow, when the river is at its highest level, these mid-channel bars are completely covered by water. Therefore, the statement that a braided river contains mid-channel bars that are covered at bank-full flow is true.

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  • 8. 

    Both braided and anastomosing river channels can’t be sinuous.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because both braided and anastomosing river channels can be sinuous. Sinuosity refers to the degree of curviness or meandering of a river channel. Braided channels are characterized by multiple interconnected channels that frequently split and rejoin, creating a complex and often sinuous pattern. Anastomosing channels also exhibit sinuosity as they consist of multiple interconnected channels that branch and rejoin, forming a network-like pattern. Therefore, both braided and anastomosing river channels can exhibit sinuosity.

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  • 9. 

    Flow is generally lowest between the bars and the coarsest material will be transported and deposited on the channel floor to form an accumulation of larger clasts, or coarse lag.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that flow is generally lowest between the bars, which implies that the coarsest material would be transported and deposited on the channel floor. However, this is incorrect. In reality, flow is generally highest between the bars, where the channel is deeper and the velocity of the water is faster. This faster flow would actually transport and deposit finer sediment on the channel floor, rather than coarse material. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 10. 

    Where the bedload is deposited as bars of sand or gravel in the channel the flow is divided to give the river a meandering form.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that when the bedload is deposited as bars of sand or gravel in the channel, it divides the flow and gives the river a meandering form. However, this statement is false. Meandering rivers are formed due to a combination of factors such as the nature of the underlying bedrock, the slope of the channel, and the flow rate of the river. The deposition of bedload as bars does not directly cause a river to meander.

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  • 11. 

    In a gravelly braided river the bar deposits will commonly consist of cross-stratified granules, pebbles or rarely cobbles in a single set.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In a gravelly braided river, the bar deposits will commonly consist of cross-stratified granules, pebbles, or rarely cobbles in multiple sets, not just a single set. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 12. 

    In plan view the thalweg in a river is not straight even if the channel banks are straight and parallel.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The thalweg in a river refers to the line connecting the deepest points of the river channel. In plan view, it is observed that the thalweg is not straight, even if the channel banks are straight and parallel. This is because the flow of water in a river is influenced by various factors such as the topography of the riverbed, the presence of obstacles, and the velocity of the water. These factors cause the thalweg to meander and follow a curved path, resulting in its deviation from a straight line. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 13. 

    The deposits of a meander bend have a characteristic profile of coarser material at the base, becoming progressively finer-grained up the inner bank.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the flow of water in a meander bend is faster on the outer bank and slower on the inner bank. As a result, the coarser sediment settles at the base of the inner bank due to the slower flow, while the finer-grained sediment is carried further up the inner bank by the faster flow. This creates a characteristic profile of coarser material at the base and progressively finer-grained sediment higher up on the inner bank of the meander bend.

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  • 14. 

    A point bar deposit will show a fining-up from coarser material at the base to finer at the top.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A point bar deposit is formed by the deposition of sediment on the inside bend of a meandering river. As the river flows around the bend, it loses velocity, causing the coarser sediment to settle first at the base of the deposit. As the sediment settles further away from the river channel, the velocity decreases even more, allowing finer sediment to settle on top of the coarser material. This process results in a fining-up sequence, with coarser material at the base and finer material at the top of the point bar deposit. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    Erosion occurs on the point bar on the inner side of a bend while deposition occurs on the opposite cut bank.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Erosion actually occurs on the cut bank, which is the outer side of a bend in a river. The strong current on the outer side of the bend causes the water to flow faster, leading to erosion of the bank. On the other hand, deposition occurs on the point bar, which is the inner side of the bend. The slower-moving water on the inner side allows sediment to be deposited, forming a point bar.

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  • 16. 

    Levees form when flood waters rapidly deposit sediment close to the bank and crevasse splays are created when the levee is breached.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because levees are formed when flood waters deposit sediment quickly near the riverbank. As the sediment accumulates, it creates a barrier or embankment that helps contain the floodwaters. When the water pressure becomes too high, the levee may breach or break, leading to the formation of crevasse splays. Crevasse splays occur when the water flows over or through the breached levee, spreading out and creating new channels or distributaries.

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  • 17. 

    Chute channels may be semi-permanent features of a point bar, but they are only active during low-stage flow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Chute channels are not semi-permanent features of a point bar, as they are only active during high-stage flow, not low-stage flow. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 18. 

    A channel is commonly filled with sand: in this case the form of a channel is picked out by steep banks on either side, but the fill of the channel is mainly sand.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement contradicts itself. It states that a channel is commonly filled with sand, but then says that the fill of the channel is mainly sand. This is a logical inconsistency. If the fill of the channel is mainly sand, then it is true that a channel is commonly filled with sand. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 19. 

    . Abandonment of the old river channel will leave it with sluggish water containing only suspended load as all the bedload is diverted into the new course.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because when a river channel is abandoned, the water flow becomes slow and stagnant. This causes the bedload, which consists of larger sediment particles, to be diverted into the new course of the river. As a result, the abandoned channel is left with only suspended load, which is made up of smaller particles that remain suspended in the water.

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  • 20. 

    Most of the sediment carried out onto the floodplain is suspended load that will be mainly clay- and silt sized debris but may include fine sand if the flow is rapid enough to carry sand in suspension.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement explains that most of the sediment carried onto the floodplain is suspended load, which consists of clay- and silt-sized debris. It also mentions that if the flow is rapid enough, it may also include fine sand. Therefore, the statement is true as it accurately describes the composition of the sediment carried onto the floodplain.

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  • 21. 

    If avulsion is frequent, there is less time for lateral migration to occur and the architecture will be characterized by broad channel deposits.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If avulsion is frequent, it means that the river channels are constantly shifting and changing course. This would result in less time for lateral migration to occur, which is the natural process of a river gradually shifting its position within its floodplain. As a result, the architecture of the river system would be characterized by narrow and confined channel deposits, rather than broad ones. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 22. 

    Lateral migration is slowed down if the river banks are not stable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If the river banks are not stable, lateral migration is actually accelerated, not slowed down. Unstable river banks are prone to erosion and collapse, which can cause the river channel to shift and change course more rapidly. This can lead to faster lateral migration as the river seeks a new path, causing potential damage to nearby infrastructure and ecosystems. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 23. 

    Alluvial fans form where there is a distinct break in topography between the high ground of the drainage basin and the flatter sedimentary basin floor. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Alluvial fans are formed when there is a significant difference in elevation between the high ground of a drainage basin and the flatter sedimentary basin floor. This creates a break in topography that allows sediment-laden water to flow down from the high ground and deposit the sediments in a fan-shaped pattern. Therefore, the statement that alluvial fans form where there is a distinct break in topography between the high ground of the drainage basin and the flatter sedimentary basin floor is true.

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  • 24. 

    The fan apex is the lowest, most proximal point adjacent to the feeder canyon from which the fan form radiates.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false. The fan apex is actually the highest, most distal point adjacent to the feeder canyon from which the fan form radiates.

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  • 25. 

    Bay  head delta: Is the zone where fluvial processes are dominant. As the river flow enters the central lagoon it decelerates and sediment is deposited.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. The Bay head delta refers to the area where fluvial processes, or processes related to the flow of a river, are dominant. As the river flow enters the central lagoon, it slows down and deposits sediment. This deposition of sediment is a characteristic feature of a delta. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 26. 

    A lagoon is a body of salt water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed barrier beach, sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because a lagoon is indeed a body of salt water that is separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed barrier beach, sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature. This separation creates a distinct and often calm water environment within the lagoon, which is different from the open and deeper sea.

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  • 27. 

    Coasts are the areas of interface between the land and the sea, and the coastal environment can comprise a variety of zones, including coastal plains, beaches, barriers and lagoons.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement accurately describes the nature of coasts as the areas where land and sea meet. It also mentions that the coastal environment can consist of different zones such as coastal plains, beaches, barriers, and lagoons. Therefore, the statement is true as it provides a correct understanding of the coastal environment.

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  • 28. 

    Erosional coastlines typically have relatively gentle gradients where a lot of the wave energy is reflected back into the sea from the shoreline (a reflective coast, both bedrock and loose material may be removed from the coast and redistributed by wave, tide and current processes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Erosional coastlines typically have steep gradients where wave energy is not reflected back into the sea but rather erodes the coastline, removing both bedrock and loose material. This erosion is caused by the intense wave action and can lead to the formation of cliffs, sea stacks, and other erosional landforms. Therefore, the statement that erosional coastlines have gentle gradients and reflect wave energy back into the sea is false.

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  • 29. 

    A storm ridge may be build up at the top of the foreshore as gravelly clasts are washed onto the beach, its a distinctive feature of sandy beaches.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A storm ridge is not a distinctive feature of sandy beaches. It is actually a feature of shingle beaches, where gravelly clasts are washed onto the beach and build up at the top of the foreshore. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 30. 

    Beach dunes ridges are the aeolian deposits formed of sand reworked from the beach.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Beach dunes ridges are formed by the process of aeolian deposition, which involves the movement and reworking of sand by wind. The sand is sourced from the beach and then transported and deposited to form dunes. Therefore, the statement "Beach dunes ridges are the aeolian deposits formed of sand reworked from the beach" is true.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 19, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    JANUARYUG19
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