1.
A process of making the encrypted text readable again.
Correct Answer
A. Decryption
Explanation
Decryption is the process of converting encrypted text back into its original readable form. It involves using a decryption algorithm or a secret key to reverse the encryption process and retrieve the original message. Decryption is an essential component of secure communication systems, as it allows authorized individuals to access and understand the encrypted information.
2.
A small program that changes the way a computer operates.
Correct Answer
D. Virus
Explanation
A virus is a small program that can infect a computer and alter its normal operations. It can replicate itself and spread to other computers, causing damage to files, corrupting data, and disrupting the functioning of the system. Unlike worms, which can spread independently, viruses typically require human interaction to spread, such as opening an infected email attachment or downloading a malicious file. Trojans and bombs are also malicious programs, but they do not necessarily change the way a computer operates like a virus does.
3.
Ram chooses 7 and 11 as two prime numbers. He chooses 13 as the value of e. The ciphertext obtained using RSA algorithm is 26. What is the planintext?
Correct Answer
5
4.
Cryptanalysis is used __________
Correct Answer
A. To find some insecurity in a cryptographic scheme
Explanation
Cryptanalysis is the process of analyzing cryptographic systems in order to identify any weaknesses or vulnerabilities. It involves studying the algorithms, protocols, and implementations used in the cryptographic scheme to find potential flaws that could be exploited by attackers. By identifying these insecurities, cryptanalysts can help improve the security of the system and develop stronger cryptographic schemes.
5.
Which one of the following is a cryptographic protocol used to secure HTTP connection?
Correct Answer
B. Transport layer security (TLS)
Explanation
Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a cryptographic protocol used to secure HTTP connections. It provides authentication, confidentiality, and integrity for data transmitted over a network. TLS ensures that the communication between a client and a server is encrypted, preventing unauthorized access or tampering of data. It is commonly used in web browsers to establish secure connections for online transactions, sensitive data transfers, and secure communication between servers and clients.
6.
If end to end connection is done at a network or IP level, and if there are 10 hosts, then what is the number of keys required?
Correct Answer
45
Explanation
If end to end connection is done at a network or IP level, and there are 10 hosts, each host will need to have a unique key for communication. Since there are 10 hosts, the number of keys required will also be 10. Therefore, the answer of 45 is incorrect.
7.
. When a hash function is used to provide message authentication, the hash function value is called to as:
Correct Answer
Message Digest
Explanation
When a hash function is used for message authentication, it generates a fixed-size output called the message digest. This message digest is a unique representation of the input message. It is used to verify the integrity of the message, as even a small change in the message will result in a completely different message digest. Therefore, the correct term to refer to the hash function value used for message authentication is "Message Digest".
8.
Using Rabin cryptosystem with p=23 and q=7 Encrypt P=24 to find ciphertext. The Cipher text is
Correct Answer
93
Explanation
In the Rabin cryptosystem, the encryption process involves raising the plaintext message (P) to the power of 2 and then taking the remainder when divided by the product of two prime numbers (p and q). In this case, p=23 and q=7. So, to encrypt P=24, we calculate (24^2) mod (23*7) which results in 576 mod 161 = 93. Therefore, the ciphertext is 93.
9.
In the DES algorithm the round key is __________ bit and the Round Input is ____________bits.
Correct Answer
A. 48, 32
Explanation
In the DES algorithm, the round key is 48 bits long, which means it consists of 48 binary digits. The round input, on the other hand, is 32 bits long, meaning it consists of 32 binary digits.
10.
In tunnel mode, IPSec protects the ______
Correct Answer
C. Entire IP packet
Explanation
In tunnel mode, IPSec protects the entire IP packet. This means that not only the IP header or payload, but also the IP trailer (if present) are encrypted and authenticated. Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet within a new IP packet, adding an additional layer of security. This ensures that the entire packet, including all its components, is protected from unauthorized access or modification during transmission.
11.
Which component is included in IP security?
Correct Answer
D. All of the mentioned
Explanation
IP security includes all of the mentioned components, namely Authentication Header (AH), Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), and Internet Key Exchange (IKE). AH provides data integrity and authentication for IP packets, ESP provides confidentiality and integrity for IP packets, and IKE is used to establish and manage security associations between two IPsec peers. Therefore, all of these components are included in IP security.
12.
A hash function guarantees the integrity of a message. It guarantees that the message has not be
Correct Answer
C. Changed
Explanation
A hash function guarantees the integrity of a message by generating a unique hash value for the message. This hash value is like a digital fingerprint of the message, and any change in the message will result in a different hash value. Therefore, if the hash value of a message remains the same, it means that the message has not been changed. Hence, the correct answer is "Changed" because a hash function guarantees that the message has not been changed.
13.
The responsibility of certification authority for digital signature is to authenticate
Correct Answer
C. Public key of the user
Explanation
The responsibility of a certification authority for digital signatures is to authenticate the identity of the user. This is done by verifying the user's public key, which is a crucial component of the digital signature process. The public key is used to encrypt the digital signature, ensuring that it can only be decrypted by the corresponding private key held by the user. Therefore, the certification authority plays a vital role in ensuring the integrity and security of digital signatures by verifying and authenticating the user's public key.
14.
For a client-server authentication, the client requests from the KDC a ________ for access to a specific asset.
Correct Answer
Ticket
Explanation
In a client-server authentication, the client requests a ticket from the Key Distribution Center (KDC) in order to gain access to a specific asset. This ticket serves as a form of authorization and allows the client to prove its identity to the server. The KDC generates this ticket based on the client's credentials and the requested asset, ensuring that only authorized clients can access the asset.
15.
Message _______ means that the receiver is ensured that the message is coming from the intended sender, not an imposter.
Correct Answer
C. Authentication
Explanation
Authentication is the correct answer because it refers to the process of verifying the identity of a sender or a user. When a message is authenticated, it ensures that the receiver can trust that the message is indeed coming from the intended sender and not from someone pretending to be them. This helps in preventing impersonation or fraudulent activities.
16.
A digital certificate system
Correct Answer
A. Uses third-party CAs to validate a user's identity.
Explanation
A digital certificate system uses third-party CAs (Certificate Authorities) to validate a user's identity. These CAs are trusted entities that issue digital certificates, which are used to verify the authenticity and integrity of the user's identity. By relying on third-party CAs, the system ensures that the validation process is reliable and secure. Digital signatures and tokens are also used in some authentication systems, but in this case, the correct answer specifically mentions the use of third-party CAs.
17.
In case of public key cryptography, X adds a digital signature K to message M, encrypts < M, K >, and sends it to Y, where it is decrypted. Choose the correct sequences of keys is used for the operations?
Correct Answer
D. Encryption: X’s private key followed by Y’s public key; Decryption: Y’s private key followed by X’s public key
Explanation
The correct answer is Encryption: X's private key followed by Y's public key; Decryption: Y's private key followed by X's public key. In public key cryptography, the sender (X) uses their private key to encrypt the message and the recipient's (Y) public key to decrypt it. This ensures that only the intended recipient can decrypt and read the message, as they are the only ones with the corresponding private key.
18.
How many keys are required for two people to communicate via a cipher?
Correct Answer
C. One key for symmetric ciphers, two keys for asymmetric ciphers
Explanation
Symmetric ciphers use the same key for both encryption and decryption, so only one key is needed for two people to communicate using a symmetric cipher. On the other hand, asymmetric ciphers use a pair of keys, one for encryption and another for decryption. Therefore, two keys are required for two people to communicate via an asymmetric cipher.
19.
What will be the plain text corresponding to ciphered text “rmw ” if an affine cipher is used with key values as a=5, b=10?
Correct Answer
C. Srt
Explanation
The plain text corresponding to the ciphered text "rmw" can be found by using the formula P = (a^-1 * (C - b)) mod 26, where P is the plain text, a is the key value for a, b is the key value for b, C is the ciphered text, and mod 26 is used to wrap around the alphabet. In this case, a = 5 and b = 10. By substituting these values into the formula and calculating, the plain text "srt" is obtained.
20.
X=3mod7, X=3mod13, X=0mod12. The value of X is__________
Correct Answer
276
Explanation
The given equations indicate that X leaves a remainder of 3 when divided by 7 and 13, and a remainder of 0 when divided by 12. To find the value of X, we need to find the smallest number that satisfies all three conditions. The least common multiple of 7, 13, and 12 is 1092. Adding 1092 to 3 gives us 1095, which satisfies the first two conditions. However, 1095 leaves a remainder of 3 when divided by 12. Adding another 1092 gives us 2187, which satisfies all three conditions. Therefore, the value of X is 2187.