Immune System: Exam 2

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Immune System Quizzes & Trivia

Exam 2 -- Quiz 2


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

    • A.

      Carbohydrate structure

    • B.

      Three binding sites per antibody monomer

    • C.

      Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

    • D.

      Incapable of being transferred from one person to another

    Correct Answer
    C. Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
    Explanation
    Antibodies are composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains. This means that they are made up of two different types of protein chains, which are the heavy chains and the light chains. These chains come together to form the structure of the antibody. The heavy chains are larger and provide stability, while the light chains are smaller and help with antigen recognition. This composition allows antibodies to have specific binding sites that can recognize and bind to antigens, which is important for their role in the immune response.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

    • A.

      Exposure to an antigen

    • B.

      Booster shot of vaccine

    • C.

      Infusion of weakened viruses

    • D.

      Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

    Correct Answer
    D. Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
    Explanation
    Passive immunity refers to the transfer of pre-formed antibodies from one individual to another, providing immediate but temporary protection against a specific pathogen. In this case, the passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus is associated with passive immunity. These antibodies are transferred through the placenta and provide the newborn with temporary protection against various infections until their own immune system develops fully. This process is crucial for the health and well-being of the newborn during the early stages of life.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

    • A.

      Helper

    • B.

      Regulatory

    • C.

      Antigenic

    • D.

      Cytotoxic

    Correct Answer
    C. Antigenic
    Explanation
    Antigenic is not a type of T cell. T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a key role in the immune response. The different types of T cells include helper T cells, regulatory T cells, and cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells assist in coordinating the immune response, regulatory T cells help maintain immune tolerance, and cytotoxic T cells are responsible for killing infected cells. However, antigenic is not a recognized type of T cell.

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  • 4. 

    B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ____________________________.

    • A.

      Bone marrow

    • B.

      Spleen

    • C.

      Lymph nodes

    • D.

      Thymus

    Correct Answer
    A. Bone marrow
    Explanation
    B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They are responsible for producing antibodies that help to neutralize pathogens. The development of immunocompetence refers to the process by which B lymphocytes acquire the ability to recognize specific antigens and mount an immune response against them. This process occurs in the bone marrow, where B cells undergo maturation and selection to ensure that they can effectively respond to a wide range of pathogens. Therefore, the correct answer is bone marrow.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

    • A.

      Sets the stage for repair processes

    • B.

      Replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

    • C.

      Disposes of cellular debris and pathogens

    • D.

      Prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
    Explanation
    The inflammatory response is a protective mechanism of the body that is triggered in response to injury or infection. It involves various processes such as vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, recruitment of immune cells, and release of inflammatory mediators. These processes aim to eliminate the injurious agent, prevent its spread to nearby tissues, dispose of cellular debris and pathogens, and set the stage for repair processes. However, the replacement of injured tissues with connective tissue is not a direct function of the inflammatory response. This process is more closely associated with the subsequent phase of tissue repair, which occurs after the inflammatory response has subsided.

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  • 6. 

    The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by __________________________.

    • A.

      Production of complement and interferon

    • B.

      Vasodilation

    • C.

      Vasoconstriction

    • D.

      Phagocyte mobilization

    Correct Answer
    B. Vasodilation
    Explanation
    The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by vasodilation. Inflammation is the body's response to injury or infection, and it involves the release of chemical mediators that cause blood vessels to dilate, allowing increased blood flow to the affected area. This increased blood flow brings more immune cells and nutrients to the site of inflammation, resulting in redness and heat. Vasodilation helps to facilitate the immune response and promote healing.

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  • 7. 

    The antibody molecule is held together by ____________________ bonds.

    • A.

      Hydrogen

    • B.

      Amino acid

    • C.

      Sodium

    • D.

      Disulfide

    Correct Answer
    D. Disulfide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is disulfide. Disulfide bonds are covalent bonds formed between two sulfur atoms in the amino acid cysteine. These bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure of antibody molecules by connecting different regions of the molecule. The disulfide bonds help maintain the integrity and shape of the antibody, allowing it to effectively recognize and bind to specific antigens.

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  • 8. 

    In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

    • A.

      Complement

    • B.

      Antibody

    • C.

      Antigen

    • D.

      Interferon

    Correct Answer
    C. Antigen
    Explanation
    In clonal selection of B cells, antigens are responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned. Antigens are molecules that can elicit an immune response and bind specifically to B cell receptors. When a B cell encounters an antigen that matches its receptor, it becomes activated and undergoes clonal expansion, producing identical copies of itself called clones. These clones are then able to produce antibodies that specifically recognize and neutralize the antigen, leading to an effective immune response. Therefore, antigens play a crucial role in determining which B cells will be selected for cloning.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

    • A.

      NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens

    • B.

      NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells

    • C.

      NK cells are a type of neutrophil

    • D.

      NK cells are present in the blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow

    Correct Answer
    C. NK cells are a type of neutrophil
    Explanation
    The given statement that "NK cells are a type of neutrophil" is false or incorrect. NK cells, also known as natural killer cells, are a distinct type of lymphocyte and not a type of neutrophil. Neutrophils are a different type of white blood cell involved in the innate immune response.

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  • 10. 

    The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________________________.

    • A.

      Margination

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Chemotaxis

    • D.

      Diapedesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemotaxis
    Explanation
    Chemotaxis is the process by which neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site. During inflammation, certain molecules known as chemotactic factors are released from the site of injury or infection. These chemotactic factors act as chemical signals, guiding the white blood cells towards the site of inflammation. Once the white blood cells reach the inflammatory site, they can then carry out their immune functions, such as phagocytosis, to help eliminate pathogens and promote healing. Margination refers to the process of white blood cells sticking to the blood vessel walls, while phagocytosis is the engulfment and digestion of pathogens by white blood cells. Diapedesis is the process of white blood cells squeezing through blood vessel walls to enter the surrounding tissues.

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  • 11. 

    Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ____________________.

    • A.

      Antibodies

    • B.

      Reagins

    • C.

      Ions

    • D.

      Haptens

    Correct Answer
    D. Haptens
    Explanation
    Haptens are small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances. This means that when haptens bind with self-proteins, they create substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. Antibodies, on the other hand, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to antigens. Reagins and ions are not related to the process of binding with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

    • A.

      Ingestion, adherence, chemotaxis, digestion, killing

    • B.

      Chemotaxis, ingestion, digestion, adherence, killing

    • C.

      Adherence, digestion, killing, ingestion, chemotaxis

    • D.

      Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

    Correct Answer
    D. Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and digest foreign particles or microorganisms. Chemotaxis refers to the movement of cells towards a chemical signal, in this case, towards the site of infection. Adherence is the attachment of the phagocyte to the foreign particle. Ingestion is the engulfment of the particle by the phagocyte. Digestion involves the breakdown of the ingested particle by enzymes within the phagocyte. Killing refers to the destruction of the ingested particle. Therefore, the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis is chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, and killing.

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  • 13. 

    The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________________.

    • A.

      Cytotoxic cells

    • B.

      Regulatory cells

    • C.

      Helper cells

    • D.

      Plasma cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytotoxic cells
    Explanation
    Cytotoxic cells are a type of T cells that have the ability to directly attack and kill other cells. These cells play a crucial role in the immune response by identifying and destroying infected or abnormal cells in the body. Unlike regulatory cells, which help regulate the immune response, or helper cells, which assist in coordinating the immune response, cytotoxic cells have the specific function of eliminating harmful cells. Plasma cells, on the other hand, are a type of B cells that produce antibodies to fight against pathogens.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

    • A.

      Intracellular pathogens that reside within host cells

    • B.

      Pathogens in the CNS

    • C.

      Foreign tissue transplants

    • D.

      Some cancer cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Pathogens in the CNS
    Explanation
    The central nervous system (CNS) is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which prevents the entry of immune cells and molecules. This barrier limits the effectiveness of cell-mediated immunity in responding to pathogens in the CNS. Therefore, pathogens in the CNS do not elicit a strong cell-mediated immune response.

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  • 15. 

    ____________________________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

    • A.

      B cells

    • B.

      Eosinophils

    • C.

      Basophils

    • D.

      Macrophages

    Correct Answer
    D. Macrophages
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in chronic infections. They are known to predominate at the sites of such infections due to their ability to phagocytose pathogens and present antigens to other immune cells. Macrophages also release various cytokines that help regulate the immune response and promote tissue repair. Their presence at the sites of chronic infections indicates their importance in controlling and resolving these infections.

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  • 16. 

    Interferons _____________________________________.

    • A.

      Interfere with viral replication within cells

    • B.

      Are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold

    • C.

      Are virus-specific, so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus

    • D.

      Act by increasing the rate of cell division

    Correct Answer
    A. Interfere with viral replication within cells
    Explanation
    Interferons are proteins that are produced by cells in response to viral infection. They play a crucial role in the body's immune response by interfering with viral replication within cells. This means that they inhibit the ability of viruses to reproduce and spread within the body. By doing so, interferons help to limit the spread of viral infections and promote the body's ability to fight off the infection.

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  • 17. 

    ____________________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

    • A.

      The type of antigen

    • B.

      Our genes

    • C.

      Enzymes present at the time of the invasion

    • D.

      Memory cell production

    Correct Answer
    B. Our genes
    Explanation
    Our genes determine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist. This is because our genes encode the information needed to produce the receptors on immune cells that can recognize and bind to specific antigens. These receptors are known as antigen receptors and they are responsible for initiating the immune response against foreign substances. Therefore, our genes play a crucial role in determining the range of antigens that our immune system can effectively respond to.

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  • 18. 

    Regulatory T cells ___________________________________.

    • A.

      Are the most thoroughly understood T cells

    • B.

      May function in preventing autoimmune reactions

    • C.

      Release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells

    • D.

      Decrease their activity as antigenic stimulus decreases

    Correct Answer
    B. May function in preventing autoimmune reactions
    Explanation
    Regulatory T cells have been extensively studied and are the most thoroughly understood type of T cells. They play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune reactions, which occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the body. These cells release cytokines that enhance the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells, which are important in fighting off infections and eliminating abnormal cells. Additionally, regulatory T cells decrease their activity when the antigenic stimulus decreases, helping to maintain immune homeostasis.

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  • 19. 

    Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

    • A.

      Xenografts are between individuals of the same species.

    • B.

      Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals

    • C.

      Isografts are between identical twins

    • D.

      Allografts are between different species

    Correct Answer
    C. Isografts are between identical twins
    Explanation
    Isografts refer to tissue grafts that are transferred between genetically identical individuals, such as identical twins. This means that the donor and recipient have the same genetic makeup, minimizing the risk of rejection or immune response. This type of graft has a higher chance of success compared to other types of grafts, such as xenografts (between individuals of the same species), autografts (between two genetically identical individuals), and allografts (between different species).

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  • 20. 

    Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

    • A.

      Antigens can include proteins, nucleic acids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and certain large polysaccharides

    • B.

      Antigens exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity

    • C.

      Antigens only come from microbes

    • D.

      The parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants

    Correct Answer
    C. Antigens only come from microbes
    Explanation
    Antigens can come from various sources, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and certain large polysaccharides. They exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity, meaning they can stimulate an immune response and react with specific antibodies. The parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants. Therefore, the statement that antigens only come from microbes is incorrect. Antigens can come from both microbial and non-microbial sources.

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  • 21. 

    ________________________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

    • A.

      Interleukin 1 proteins

    • B.

      Interleukin 2 proteins

    • C.

      Cytokines

    • D.

      Perforins

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytokines
    Explanation
    Cytokines are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area. Cytokines act as chemical messengers, coordinating the immune response by stimulating the production and activation of various immune cells. They play a crucial role in inflammation and immune system regulation.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

    • A.

      Cilia

    • B.

      Gastric juice

    • C.

      Phagocytes

    • D.

      Keratin

    Correct Answer
    C. Phagocytes
    Explanation
    Phagocytes are a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms. Phagocytes are a type of white blood cell that engulf and destroy foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, through a process called phagocytosis. They play a crucial role in the immune response by recognizing and eliminating harmful microorganisms in the body. Cilia are hair-like structures that help move mucus and trapped particles out of the respiratory tract, gastric juice is a part of the first line of defense in the stomach, and keratin is a protein that forms a protective layer on the skin and is not directly involved in the second line of defense against microorganisms.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

    • A.

      Contain many repeating chemical units

    • B.

      Small molecules

    • C.

      Reactivity with an antibody

    • D.

      Inhibit production of antibodies

    Correct Answer
    C. Reactivity with an antibody
    Explanation
    Reactivity with an antibody is characteristic of complete antigens. Antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Complete antigens have specific regions called epitopes that can bind to antibodies, initiating an immune response. This reactivity is essential for the antigen-antibody interaction, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and elimination of foreign substances. Antigens that do not react with antibodies are considered incomplete antigens or haptens.

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  • 24. 

    B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ____________________________.

    • A.

      Immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies

    • B.

      Reducing its size

    • C.

      Forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell

    • D.

      Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
    Explanation
    B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells. This is because B cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. When B cells encounter an antigen, they undergo a process called clonal expansion, where they divide and differentiate into two types of cells: plasma cells and memory cells. Plasma cells are responsible for immediately producing large amounts of antigen-specific antibodies, while memory cells are long-lived cells that "remember" the antigen and provide a faster and more robust response upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen.

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  • 25. 

    Graft rejection may be caused by _____________________.

    • A.

      Total body irradiation

    • B.

      Using a xenograft

    • C.

      Treatment with anti lymphocyte serum

    • D.

      Use of immunosuppressive drugs

    Correct Answer
    B. Using a xenograft
    Explanation
    Graft rejection occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it. Using a xenograft, which involves transplanting tissue or organs from a different species, can lead to graft rejection because the immune system recognizes the foreign tissue as non-self and mounts an immune response against it. This immune response can cause inflammation, tissue damage, and ultimately rejection of the xenograft.

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  • 26. 

    Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________________________.

    • A.

      T lymphocytes

    • B.

      Natural killer cells

    • C.

      B lymphocytes

    • D.

      Pinocytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Natural killer cells
    Explanation
    Natural killer cells are a type of immune cell that can recognize and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the activation of adaptive immunity. Unlike T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, which are part of the adaptive immune response, natural killer cells are part of the innate immune system and do not require prior exposure to specific antigens. They can directly recognize and eliminate abnormal cells through a process called natural cytotoxicity, making them an important component of the early defense against cancer and viral infections. Pinocytosis, on the other hand, is a process of cellular uptake and does not directly kill cancer cells or virus-infected cells.

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  • 27. 

    Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed _____________________.

    • A.

      Agglutination

    • B.

      Chemotaxis

    • C.

      Opsonization

    • D.

      Diapedesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Opsonization
    Explanation
    Opsonization is the process by which complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism, providing binding sites for macrophages and neutrophils. This coating enhances the recognition and phagocytosis of the organism by the immune cells.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

    • A.

      It is antigen-specific

    • B.

      It is specific for a given organ

    • C.

      It is systemic

    • D.

      It has memory

    Correct Answer
    B. It is specific for a given organ
    Explanation
    The adaptive immune system is not specific for a given organ. It is a systemic response that can target antigens throughout the body. This is because the adaptive immune system involves the activation of lymphocytes, such as T cells and B cells, which circulate in the blood and lymphatic system, allowing them to encounter and respond to antigens wherever they may be present in the body. This systemic nature of the adaptive immune system allows for a coordinated and widespread response to infections or other foreign substances.

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  • 29. 

    Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except _________________________.

    • A.

      Hepatitis

    • B.

      Juvenile diabetes

    • C.

      Rabies

    • D.

      Pregnancy

    Correct Answer
    B. Juvenile diabetes
    Explanation
    Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens. They are used for various diagnostic purposes, such as detecting specific antigens or markers in the body. In the context of the given options, monoclonal antibodies can be used for the diagnosis of hepatitis, rabies, and pregnancy. However, they are not typically used for the diagnosis of juvenile diabetes. This is because juvenile diabetes, also known as type 1 diabetes, is diagnosed through other methods such as blood glucose tests, HbA1c tests, and autoantibody tests.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

    • A.

      Allergic contact dermatitis

    • B.

      Cytotoxic hypersensitivity

    • C.

      Anaphylaxis

    • D.

      Immune complex hypersensitivity

    Correct Answer
    A. Allergic contact dermatitis
    Explanation
    Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction because it occurs hours to days after exposure to an allergen. In this type of reaction, the immune system recognizes the allergen as foreign and triggers an immune response, leading to inflammation and skin irritation. This delayed response is different from immediate hypersensitivity reactions like anaphylaxis, which occur within minutes of exposure to an allergen. Cytotoxic hypersensitivity involves the destruction of cells by antibodies, while immune complex hypersensitivity involves the formation of immune complexes that can cause tissue damage.

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  • 31. 

    Innate immune system defenses include ____________________.

    • A.

      Plasma cells

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      T cells

    • D.

      B cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Phagocytosis
    Explanation
    The innate immune system defenses include phagocytosis, which is the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy foreign particles or pathogens. This is an important mechanism for the innate immune system to recognize and eliminate potential threats to the body. Phagocytosis involves specialized cells such as macrophages and neutrophils that engulf and digest the foreign substances, helping to protect the body from infection and disease. Plasma cells, T cells, and B cells are components of the adaptive immune system, which responds to specific pathogens and develops immunity over time.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?

    • A.

      Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens

    • B.

      Haptens lack immunogenicity unless attached to protein carriers

    • C.

      MHC proteins are the cell's identity markers

    • D.

      Class I MHC molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens
    Explanation
    Class II MHC molecules are not limited to appearing only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and activated T cells. They are also found on other immune cells such as B cells and macrophages. These molecules are involved in presenting antigens to helper T cells, which then activate the immune response.

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  • 33. 

    Phagocyte mobilization involves ____________________________.

    • A.

      Diapedesis, during which cells line up against the capillary wall

    • B.

      Monocytes as the most active phagocyte

    • C.

      Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

    • D.

      Margination, which is the process of white cell movement through the walls of capillaries into injured tissues

    Correct Answer
    C. Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas. Phagocyte mobilization refers to the movement of phagocytes, which are cells that engulf and destroy pathogens, into areas of inflammation. Neutrophils and macrophages are the most active phagocytes in the immune system and they migrate to inflamed areas to eliminate pathogens and initiate the immune response. This process is crucial for the body's defense against infection and tissue damage.

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  • 34. 

    Fever __________________________.

    • A.

      Is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous

    • B.

      Causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication

    • C.

      Production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

    • D.

      Decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy

    Correct Answer
    C. Production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
    Explanation
    Fever is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is a result of production being regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting. This means that when the body detects the presence of an infection or illness, it releases certain chemicals that increase the body's temperature, which helps to fight off the infection. By raising the body's temperature, the immune system becomes more effective at killing off bacteria or viruses.

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  • 35. 

    Immunocompetence ______________________________.

    • A.

      Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

    • B.

      Prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader

    • C.

      Requires exposure to an antigen

    • D.

      Occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system

    Correct Answer
    A. Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
    Explanation
    Immunocompetence refers to the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it. This means that the cells of the immune system are capable of identifying and interacting with specific foreign substances, such as pathogens or toxins, by binding to their antigens. This recognition is crucial for the immune response, as it allows the immune system to mount a targeted defense against the invader. Immunocompetence is acquired through the development and maturation of immune cells, as well as exposure to antigens.

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  • 36. 

    Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."

    • A.

      The development of tolerance is specific to B cells only

    • B.

      Tolerance is developed during fetal life

    • C.

      Neutrophils capable of binding to self-antigens are chemically inactivated

    • D.

      Tolerance to self is due to the action of foreign antigens that inactivate the immune response to one's own tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Tolerance is developed during fetal life
    Explanation
    During fetal life, tolerance is developed as a mechanism to prevent immune attack on "self." This process involves the education of immune cells to recognize and tolerate the body's own antigens, preventing them from mounting an immune response against self-tissues. This is crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases.

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  • 37. 

    Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

    • A.

      The antibodies utilized in active immunity are acquired from another organism

    • B.

      A vaccination is an example of the introduction of passive immunity into the body

    • C.

      Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies

    • D.

      Immunological memory is established by passive immunization

    Correct Answer
    C. Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies
    Explanation
    Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies. This means that both active and passive immunity involve the production and use of antibodies to fight against pathogens. Active immunity occurs when the body's immune system is stimulated to produce its own antibodies in response to an infection or vaccination. Passive immunity, on the other hand, occurs when pre-formed antibodies are transferred to an individual, providing immediate but temporary protection. Both types of immunity rely on the use of antibodies to target and neutralize pathogens.

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  • 38. 

    Cytotoxic T cells ____________________________.

    • A.

      Function mainly to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations

    • B.

      Are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

    • C.

      Self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized

    • D.

      Require the double recognition signal of I MHC plus II MHC on the target cell in order to function

    Correct Answer
    B. Are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
    Explanation
    Cytotoxic T cells are a specific type of T cells that have the ability to directly attack and kill other cells. Unlike other T cells that mainly function to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations or self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized, cytotoxic T cells have the unique capability to directly eliminate infected or abnormal cells. They recognize and bind to specific antigens presented on the surface of target cells, leading to the release of cytotoxic molecules that induce cell death. Therefore, cytotoxic T cells play a crucial role in immune responses against viruses, intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells.

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  • 39. 

    Helper T cells _____________________________.

    • A.

      Often function to decrease the immune response

    • B.

      Release B7 proteins

    • C.

      Function in the adaptive immune system activation

    • D.

      Bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin

    Correct Answer
    C. Function in the adaptive immune system activation
    Explanation
    Helper T cells play a crucial role in the activation of the adaptive immune system. They recognize antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells and help stimulate the production of antibodies by B cells and the cytotoxic response of T cells. By releasing cytokines and other signaling molecules, helper T cells enhance the immune response and promote the elimination of pathogens. Therefore, they function in the activation of the adaptive immune system.

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  • 40. 

    Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

    • A.

      The most common form of immunodeficiency is graft-versus-host (GVH) disease

    • B.

      Hodgkin's disease is a hereditary immunodeficiency found in children

    • C.

      The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins

    • D.

      Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disease is an acquired condition

    Correct Answer
    C. The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins
    Explanation
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins. This virus is known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV attacks and destroys CD4 cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. As a result, the immune system becomes weakened, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. AIDS is not hereditary but is acquired through exposure to the virus, typically through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

    • A.

      They are adaptive immune responses to disease organisms

    • B.

      They include allergic contact dermatitis

    • C.

      They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils

    • D.

      They are also called type IV hypersensitivities

    Correct Answer
    C. They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils
    Explanation
    Immediate hypersensitivities involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils. This means that when a person with immediate hypersensitivity is exposed to an allergen, their immune system produces IgE antibodies specific to that allergen. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, causing the release of histamine. Histamine is responsible for the symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity, such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

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  • 42. 

    Delayed hypersensitivities _____________________.

    • A.

      Are mediated by B cells

    • B.

      Do not involve T cells

    • C.

      Include allergic contact dermatitis

    • D.

      Include anaphylactic shock, a systemic vasodilation that results in inadequate blood delivery to all tissues

    Correct Answer
    C. Include allergic contact dermatitis
    Explanation
    Delayed hypersensitivities include allergic contact dermatitis. This is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the immune system overreacts to a substance that comes into contact with the skin. It is characterized by redness, itching, and a rash at the site of contact. Unlike immediate hypersensitivity reactions, delayed hypersensitivities do not involve B cells and are instead mediated by T cells. Anaphylactic shock, on the other hand, is a type I hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by IgE antibodies and involves a rapid and severe systemic allergic reaction.

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  • 43. 

    Natural killed (NK) cells ____________________.

    • A.

      Are also called cytotoxic T cells

    • B.

      Are a type of phagocyte

    • C.

      Are cells of the adaptive immune system

    • D.

      Can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

    Correct Answer
    D. Can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
    Explanation
    NK cells are a type of lymphocyte that can kill cancer cells before the immune system is fully activated. Unlike cytotoxic T cells, which are part of the adaptive immune system, NK cells do not require prior exposure to antigens to recognize and attack cancer cells. They are able to directly recognize and destroy cancer cells through various mechanisms, such as releasing toxic substances or inducing apoptosis. This early response by NK cells helps in the initial defense against cancer before the adaptive immune system mounts a specific immune response.

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  • 44. 

    Select the correct statement about antigens.

    • A.

      Only small antigens exhibit reactivity

    • B.

      "Self-Antigens" is another name for incomplete antigens

    • C.

      The largest type of antigen is called a hapten

    • D.

      One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

    Correct Answer
    D. One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
    Explanation
    Antigens are substances that can induce an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can have different regions called antigenic determinants, which are recognized by specific antibodies. Therefore, one antigen can have multiple antigenic determinants, and as a result, it can stimulate the production of more than one antibody. This allows the immune system to target different parts of the antigen and enhance its ability to fight against various pathogens.

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  • 45. 

    Clonal selection of B cells ___________________________.

    • A.

      Only occurs in the secondary immune response

    • B.

      Occurs during fetal development

    • C.

      Cannot occur in the presence of antigens

    • D.

      Results in the formation of plasma cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Results in the formation of plasma cells
    Explanation
    Clonal selection of B cells refers to the process by which B cells with specific receptors are selected and activated in response to antigens. This process leads to the proliferation and differentiation of these selected B cells into plasma cells, which are responsible for producing and secreting antibodies. Therefore, the correct answer is that clonal selection of B cells results in the formation of plasma cells.

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  • 46. 

    The primary immune response ______________________________.

    • A.

      Has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

    • B.

      Occurs when memory cells are stimulated

    • C.

      Occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response

    • D.

      Is another name for immunological memory

    Correct Answer
    A. Has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
    Explanation
    The primary immune response has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. This means that when the body is exposed to a new pathogen for the first time, it takes some time for the immune system to mount a response. During this lag period, B cells, which are a type of white blood cell, undergo proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells. These plasma cells then produce antibodies to fight against the pathogen. This lag period is necessary for the immune system to recognize and respond to the specific pathogen, and it is a characteristic of the primary immune response.

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  • 47. 

    Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

    • A.

      Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."

    • B.

      Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection

    • C.

      The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG

    • D.

      Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together

    Correct Answer
    B. Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection
    Explanation
    Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection. Complement fixation refers to the activation of the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to enhance the immune response. When antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens, they can activate the complement system, leading to the formation of a membrane attack complex that destroys the pathogens. This mechanism is crucial for eliminating pathogens and providing protection against infections.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

    • A.

      Helper T cell

    • B.

      APC

    • C.

      B cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Helper T cell
    Explanation
    The helper T cell is the most critical cell in immunity because it plays a central role in coordinating and regulating the immune response. It helps activate and direct other immune cells, such as B cells and cytotoxic T cells, to effectively eliminate pathogens. Additionally, helper T cells can release chemical signals called cytokines that stimulate the immune system and enhance its ability to fight infections. Without helper T cells, the immune response would be significantly impaired, making them crucial for an effective immune defense.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

    • A.

      Type II diabetes

    • B.

      Systemic lupus erythematosus

    • C.

      Glomerulonephritis

    • D.

      Multiple sclerosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Type II diabetes
    Explanation
    Type II diabetes is not an autoimmune disease because it is primarily caused by a combination of genetic factors, lifestyle choices, and insulin resistance. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body, but in the case of type II diabetes, the immune system is not directly involved in the development of the disease.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

    • A.

      Mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously present

    • B.

      Cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens

    • C.

      A second exposure to an allergen

    • D.

      Exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system

    Correct Answer
    C. A second exposure to an allergen
    Explanation
    A second exposure to an allergen is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. This can happen due to various mechanisms such as mutation followed by the appearance of new membrane proteins, cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens, and exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system. However, a second exposure to an allergen does not directly contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders. Allergies involve an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances, but they are not classified as autoimmune disorders.

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