When should Increments be shipped?
A. When it makes sense
All Increments should be potentially releasable (shippable), but we don’t have to release all of
them. It depends on the project environment and the customer, and the Product Owner is
supposed to make the decision.
Which of the following is the best way a Scrum Master can increase the team productivity?
D. Facilitating meetings and removing impediments
Facilitation (as requested or needed), removing impediments and solving problems, training,
coaching, consulting, and convincing people to do the right thing are the things we expect from the
Scrum Master. S/he is not supposed to block the team’s selforganization by giving developers
orders, or deciding for them, and s/he is not supposed to do other people’s jobs (e.g. ordering the
items instead of letting the Product Owner do so).
How should multiple teams be composed for a single project?
B. Developers themselves will decide on how to form the teams
Developers should be selforganized and it’s their responsibility to form the teams.
Besides the initial formation, the developers might also decide to shift among teams at the
beginning of each Sprint.
Note: Scrum.org has recently published the Nexus Guide, which is a framework for scaled Scrum.
However, the questions in the real PSM I exam are not adjusted yet, and some answers might not
be 100% compatible with the Nexus Guide. For now, you need to answer the questions in your
real exam the way they are explained here.
The Sprint Review is:
C. An opportunity for inspection and adaptation
All four events inside the Sprint are opportunities for inspection and adaptation: Sprint Planning,
Daily Scrums, Sprint Review, Sprint Retrospective
During the Sprint Review, the Development Team demonstrates the Increment and the Product
Owner presents the performance information.
When should the Sprint Retrospective be held?
D. Each Sprint
All events are necessary and are held every Sprint; including the Sprint Retrospective, which is
the last event inside each Sprint.
Which of the following best describes Scrum?
A. A framework for the development of complex products
Scrum is adaptive instead of predictive. It’s a framework rather than a methodology or body of
knowledge. It’s mainly about project delivery rather than project management. It’s empirical (based
on experience) rather than theoretical. It’s suitable for the development of complex products in
When should a Sprint Goal be created?
C. In the Sprint Planning meeting
The Sprint Goal is created during the Sprint Planning meeting by the whole Scrum Team.
Which two of the following are true about the Scrum Master role?
B. Helps those outside the team interact with the Scrum Team
C. It’s a management position
The Scrum Master does not manage people, but, manages the process. That’s why it’s considered
a management role by Scrum.org.
The role can be parttime.
The Development Team is selforganized; it’s the responsibility of the developers to handle the
assignments and measures the performance of the Sprints.
It is the Product Owner’s responsibility to identify what has been done before the Sprint Review.
Items in the Product Backlog are usually larger than items in the Sprint Backlogs.
This is how it works:
a. Items of different sizes are added to the Product Backlog.
b. Items are sorted based on their business value.
c. Then we check the items on the top of the Product Backlog, and if they are large, we’ll break
them down into smaller items. We leave the large items on the bottom of the Product Backlog
as they are for now.
d. The business values will be estimated again, and the Product Backlog sorted based on them.
Based on this explanation, the items on the top of the Product Backlog would be, statistically
speaking, smaller than the average. Since the items in the Sprint Backlog come from the top of the
Product Backlog, we can say that “the items in the Sprint Backlog are usually smaller than the
average item in the Product Backlog”.
Remember that we sort the Product Backlog items based only on their business value. The
difference in size happens naturally, and is not a basis for sorting.
Scrum does not have a role called “project manager”.
Scrum doesn’t have a project manager role. The project management activities are distributed
among the three Scrum roles.
Each Sprint Backlog item is owned by one, or a pair of developers.
The Developers share the ownership of the items and tasks in the Sprint Backlog.
Tasks are assigned to the Developers (by themselves), but they all stay accountable (own the
Items are not assigned to Developers, as each item consists of multiple tasks that need varying
1. Items are not owned by individuals or pairs
2. Items are not assigned to individuals or pairs
3. Tasks are not owned by individuals or pairs
4. Tasks are indeed assigned to individuals or pairs
Which statement best describes the Sprint Backlog?
A. It’s the Development Team’s plan for the Sprint
The Sprint Backlog is created during the Sprint Planning. It includes the items selected from the
Product Backlog (by the Development Team), and the tasks created by decomposing the items
(by the Development Team). The Development Team keeps adding tasks during the Sprint, so, the
Sprint Backlog updates. It’s the Development Team’s plan for the current Sprint. This plan is not
If the Development Team cannot deliver some of the items, they will go back to the Product
Backlog at the end of the Sprint, and they will be ordered again; they do not go to the next Sprint
Each task is assigned to one developer or a pair of developers, but the ownership is still shared.
Items are not assigned or owned by specific developers; all of them share accountability
Which of the following best describes the Product Backlog?
A. It grows and change as more is learned about the project
The Product Backlog is a type of planning. However, we don’t create predictive, detailed upfront
plans in Agile environments: the Product Backlog is dynamic and never complete. It provides only
enough information for a selforganized team to find its own way. It’s always changing to enable adaptation.
There are no “tasks” in the Product Backlog; they belong to the Sprint Backlogs
Which is NOT a Development Team responsibility?
D. Selecting the Product Owner
It’s the Development Team’s responsibility to measure their productivity and performance during
the Sprint, find their way, plan, and optimize the work required for items and the Sprint Goal, and to
resolve their own conflicts. Remember that they are selforganized.
Who can replace Sprint Backlog items during the Sprint?
A. No one
Remember that there are two elements in the Sprint Backlog:
1. Items selected from the Product Backlog: we don’t change them after the Sprint Planning.
2. Tasks created by breaking down the items: they are always changing. Tasks are referred to
as “work” in the PSM I exam and Scrum Guide.
The tasks (aka work defined in the Sprint Backlog) are changing all the time. However, the Scrum
Guide is not clear about the items in the Sprint Backlog. Jeff Sutherland believes they shouldn’t change, and old writings from Ken Schwaber say that the items are frozen after the Sprint
Planning. The only exception is that when you’re done with all items, you will pick the next item
from the top of the Product Backlog.
What should the Product Owner do during the Sprint zero?
A. There’s no such thing as Sprint zero
There’s no such thing as Sprint zero. The first Sprint is called Sprint 1, and it’s exactly the same as
other Sprints: creates an Increment. The infrastructure and tools and requirements are prepared
gradually throughout the project.
When is a Sprint canceled?
B. When the Product Owner determines it makes no sense to finish it
Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel a Sprint. It is done when the Sprint doesn’t
make sense any more or the Sprint Goal has become obsolete.
What happens if the Development Team cannot complete its work by the end of the Sprint?
Nothing happens! The Development Team will deliver only the items that are 100% done based on
the Definition of Done.
The only things the Development Team may do, is inform the Product Owner, so that s/he can
revise the order of items if necessary and work with her/him to review and adjust the work
(“work” here refers to the “tasks”, not the “items”).
Who must do all the work required for Product Backlog items, to make sure they are potentially releasable?
A. The Development Team
The Development Team is crossfunctional and does the A to Z of each Product Backlog item.
They don’t need any external help.
The work of the Product Owner and the Scrum Master are different and they do not do anything
directly on the items.
The Definition of Done is used to… (Choose two answers).
A. Create a shared understanding of what has to be done for each item
C. Increase transparency
The Definition of Done explains everything we should do for all Product Backlog items, so
everyone will have the same understanding when the Development Team says something is done
(transparency). It also helps the team better understand what is expected from them for each item,
and therefore it is easier for them to plan the Sprint.
The work that should be done until the end of the Sprint to have all items developed depends both
on the Definition of Done, and the definition of items that have been selected from the Product
The purpose/objective of each Sprint is described in its Sprint Goal.
Which of the following can be delivered as the output of a Sprint?
C. An Increment of Done software
All Sprints are done to create Increments: a piece of working software which is potentially
shippable and “Done”, based on the Definition of Done (including all the tests). All items we deliver
are nontechnical and independent of each other.
All Increments should be potentially releasable
All Increments must be complete based on the Definition of Done, and be potentially
releasable/shippable. However, we don’t have to actually release all of them. It’s up to the Product
Owner to decide on the releases based on the project environment.
What’s the main responsibility of testers?
A. There’s no tester role in Scrum
There are only three roles in Scrum: Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team. It’s
not allowed to define new roles and the Development Team members should not have any titles;
they are all just “developers”. It is so, because we want all of them to be accountable for
everything and to collaborate with each other.
Each person has his/her own area of expertise, such as testing, and that person will be more
focused on testing tasks, but it doesn’t mean that we can call the person “tester”; they are just
developers who are experts in testing.
Which two of the following are not done during the first Sprint?
A. Prepare a complete infrastructure and set of tools for the project
D. Develop a plan for the whole project
There’s no difference between the first Sprint and the rest of them; we create an Increment of
working software, get feedback from the customer (Sprint Review), and plan for improvements
for the next Sprint (Sprint Retrospective)
What should be done between a Sprint Retrospective and the next Sprint Planning?
A. Nothing; there’s no time between the two
There’s no time between one Sprint and the next.
Ordering the Product Backlog items and estimating the amount of work of new items needed for
the next Sprint Planning is done during the previous one, in a continuous process called Product
Backlog refinement (or Product Backlog grooming).
What are the benefits of having tests in the Definition of Done? (Choose 3 answers)
A. Increments will be more complete
C. There will be increased transparency of the Increments
D. Increments will be closer to being potentially shippable
Items are not really Done, unless we have tested them; so, tests should be included in the
Definition of Done. In this case, the Increments will be closer to what we can practically call
“complete”, “done”, “potentially releasable”, or “potentially shippable”; to something usable for the
Increments should be potentially releasable; for starters, because it makes it easier for the
customer to try it and give us useful feedback. The feedback enables adaptation, which is
essential to Agile.
Having an effective Definition of Done increases transparency, because everyone will know what
we mean when we say an item is Done.
Reporting to the “project manager”? We don’t have a project manager in Scrum.
When multiple teams are working on the same project, how many Definitions of Done should they use?
A. There can be multiple definitions, as long as they are capable of creating a potentially
The teams might be working on different parts of the product (e.g. desktop application, mobile
application, web application) or simply have different styles of work, and therefore require different
Definitions of Done. This is all right, as long as their definitions are compatible and have the
capacity to create an integrated potentially releasable Increments for the whole project. The
definitions should also contain all the minimum requirements coming from the organization.
Note: when multiple teams are working on the same project, all their outputs will be combined into
one integrated Increment. They also have only one Product Backlog and one Product Owner.
Who estimates the work during the Sprint?
B. The Development Team
All estimates are done by the Development Team, since they are the ones who know how to do
How is a Product Backlog ordered?
A. Based on the value of the items
The Product Backlog is ordered based on the value of the items to the business, and it is up to the
Product Owner to determine how to calculate the value.
Size, criticality, and risk all affect the “value”, but are not directly the basis for ordering.
Items should be independent of each other, so that we can freely order them based on the value.
What’s the vertical axis in a typical burndown chart?
C. The amount of remaining work
The horizontal axis is time, the vertical axis is the remaining amount of work, and the trend line
shows the forecast finish date if the Product Backlog and the team capacity stay the same.
Which 3 of the following are Scrum Master responsibilities during the Sprint
A. Solve problems
B. Ensure the Development Team stays selforganized
D. Facilitate meetings as requested or needed
The Scrum Master ensures that Scrum is understood and enacted entirely, removes impediments
(solves problems), and facilitates the meetings as requested or needed.
Assignments are done by the Developers themselves.
No one officially “approves” the Increment. The Product Owner just checks the items to know
what is Done before the Sprint Review meeting.
Which of the following is a right action from the Scrum Master in response to a Product Owner who has problems managing the Product Backlog?
B. Help the Product Owner order the items
The Scrum Master is supposed to know the tools and techniques, and to help everyone in that
regard. However, it’s only about helping, training, coaching, and consulting, rather than taking over.
Remember that we’re not supposed to have dependencies (at least not many dependencies)
among items; so, dependencies are not a basis for ordering the backlog. The only basis is the
How much of the Sprint Backlog should be defined during the Sprint Planning meeting?
B. Just enough for the Development Team to be able to forecast what it can do, and start
the first several days of the Sprint.
There are two elements in the Sprint Backlog:
1. The items selected from the Product Backlog: we don’t change them after the Sprint Planning
2. The tasks created by breaking down the items: only a few of them are created in the Sprint
Planning, and the rest will be created during the Sprint. Otherwise, it would be a form of
upfront planning. Tasks are referred to as “work” or “plan” in the PSM I exam.
The customer has the final say on the order of Product Backlog items.
The decision on the order of items can be influenced by a committee, the customer, or any other
stakeholder, but the final say belongs to the Product Owner. This decision should be respected by
the whole organization.
Which 3 of the following are responsibilities of a selforganizing team?
A. Pull Product Backlog items for the upcoming Sprint
B. Estimate the amount of work of newly created Product Backlog items
F. Create tasks for Sprint Backlog items
It’s the responsibility of the Development Team to estimate the amount of work of Product Backlog
items, and to select an appropriate number of them for each Sprint. They also break down the
items into tasks during the Sprint.
Measuring the project performance is the responsibility of the Product Owner, while measuring the
Sprint performance is done by the Development Team.
Creating new Product Backlog items, ordering them (prioritization), and making sure everyone has
a clear understanding of them is the responsibility of the Product Owner.
Who should know the most about the project performance?
C. The Product Owner
Measuring the release or project performance is the Product Owner’s responsibility. Measuring the
Sprint performance is the Development Team’s responsibility.
When does the Development Team prepare the tools and infrastructure for the development?
A. Throughout the project
We do not prepare the infrastructure and tools upfront, because it requires an understanding of the
whole product, which is against the adaptation concept. The required infrastructure and tools
depend on the product we’re going to create, which in turn is defined throughout the project. So,
the infrastructure and tools will be prepared gradually throughout the project.
There’s no Sprint zero in Scrum. All Sprints are the same, used to create an Increment of working
It’s better to have longer Sprints when the project is riskier.
When Sprints are shorter, there are more opportunities for demonstration, receiving feedback, and
adaptation. So, when risks are higher, it’s better to have shorter Sprints (if it’s possible).
Generally, shorter Sprints are preferred.
When must a new Increment of working software be available?
B. At the end of each Sprint
An Increment of “Done” working software, which is potentially releasable, must be produced at the
end of each Sprint.
Remember that all Sprints are the same, and there are no Sprint Zeros, Hardening Sprints,
Integration Sprints, Release Sprints, etc.
Which of the following is common when the Scrum Team becomes mature enough during the project?
C. They will improve the Definition of Done
The Definition of Done includes quality methods and that’s why we keep improving it when we
All Scrum roles, events, and artifacts are necessary and should not be ignored for any reason.
The Product Owner determines the number of items that should be selected for each Sprint.
it is totally up to the Development Team to decide how many items they are going to select for the
How can security concerns be addressed in Scrum? (Choose 2 answers)
A. They can be added to the Product Backlog
B. They can be added to the Definition of Done
Many of the security concerns are nonfunctional features, and therefore will be added to the
Definition of Done to be applied to all Product Backlog items.
Some security concerns are specific, and only about a certain part of the product; they can be
items in the Product Backlog.
The Development Team is crossfunctional and should take care of every aspect of the product,
including security. So, it won’t be handled by external people.
Each Sprint should be focused on developing items with the highest value, and delivering Done
items. We don’t keep things such as security, tests, and integration for a time in the future.
When can a Development Team cancel a Sprint?
B. They can’t cancel Sprints
Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel a Sprint. It happens when the Product Owner
realizes that the Sprint doesn’t make sense any more, or in other words, the Sprint Goal has become obsolete. E.g. if the customer doesn’t need most of the Sprint Backlog items any more.
Note: it’s OK if we forecast that the team cannot deliver some of the Sprint Backlog items (or even
many of them) and it’s not a reason for canceling a Sprint. We will just go on and deliver as many
items as possible.
The Scrum Master has a lot of unresolved issues. Which three of the following actions can be taken to facilitate it?
A. Prioritize the issues and work on them in order
B. Consult the Development Team
E. Inform management of the impediments and their impact
It’s always a good idea to ask the rest of the team for help (consultation), but we prefer not to get
help from outside the team, because it will weaken our selforganization.
Which of the following is the subject of Sprint Retrospective?
B. Scrum process
Sprint Retrospectives are only about the Scrum process and the way the team works. The
Increment is the subject of Sprint Review. The technical approach is completely up to the
Development Team and the Product Backlog is up to the Product Owner.
Scrum Teams should normalize their estimations, so that management can measure and compare their performance
It’s almost impossible to make the estimate units (e.g. story points) comparable, and only creates
problems such as padding. Besides that, the “management” is not supposed to measure their
performance; they should be focused on the values generated by the project.
Scrum is a detailed software development methodology.
Scrum is a framework rather than a methodology, and it’s not detailed.
What’s the timebox for a complete Sprint Planning meeting?
A. 8 hours for a one month Sprint
The Sprint Planning is timeboxed for 8 hours when the Sprint is one month long, and shorter
Which does a selforganizing Development Team choose?
D. How to best accomplish its work
The Product Backlog order and composition, project performance measurement, and release
planning are the Product Owner’s responsibilities. The Sprint length is determined by the whole
Who determines how work is performed during the Sprint?
B. The Development Team
It is completely up to the selforganized Development Team to decide on the way they work and on
the technical aspects of the project.