Basic Science Of Public Health: Trivia Quiz!

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Basic Science Of Public Health: Trivia Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is Market Justice?

    • A.

      Views health and healthcare as a right, and makes the issue collective responsibility enabling everyone to get access.

    • B.

      Health and healthcare is a market commodity that each individual person is responsible for obtaining. The fate of each person is determined by themselves and not by a collective effort.

    • C.

      Views health and healthcare as a right, and makes the issue individual responsibility enabling everyone to get access.

    • D.

      Health and healthcare is a market commodity that each individual person is responsible for obtaining. The fate of each person is determined by themselves and not by a individual effort.

    Correct Answer
    B. Health and healthcare is a market commodity that each individual person is responsible for obtaining. The fate of each person is determined by themselves and not by a collective effort.
    Explanation
    Market Justice is a perspective that views health and healthcare as a market commodity that each individual person is responsible for obtaining. According to this view, individuals are accountable for their own health and healthcare, and it is not a collective responsibility. This perspective emphasizes individual choice and personal responsibility in accessing and obtaining healthcare services, suggesting that each person's fate is determined by their own efforts rather than by a collective effort.

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  • 2. 

    Case Control Study:

    • A.

      Epidemiologists test a new substance on some part of the population and compare its effect to the control group.

    • B.

      Epidemiologists observe habitats of several different groups and determine the rate of a particular disease in each group.

    • C.

      Follow up with initially healthy people and record their exposures

    • D.

      Epidemiologist take a group of people developed disease and compare their exposures and habitats to a similar group of people that didn't develop the disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Epidemiologist take a group of people developed disease and compare their exposures and habitats to a similar group of people that didn't develop the disease
    Explanation
    In a case-control study, epidemiologists select a group of people who have developed a particular disease and compare their exposures and habitats to a similar group of people who did not develop the disease. This type of study helps researchers identify potential risk factors or protective factors associated with the disease by comparing the two groups. By analyzing the differences in exposures and habitats between the two groups, epidemiologists can gain insights into the causes or contributing factors of the disease.

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  • 3. 

    Indirect contact

    • A.

      Format (contaminated doorknob) vector (mosquito bite)

    • B.

      Droplets from sneeze or cough

    • C.

      Kissing or sex

    • D.

      Drinking from someone else's beverage

    Correct Answer
    A. Format (contaminated doorknob) vector (mosquito bite)
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the transmission of a certain disease occurs through indirect contact, specifically through a contaminated doorknob acting as a vector, which means it carries and transmits the disease. Additionally, it mentions that a mosquito bite can also serve as a vector for transmitting the disease. The answer implies that the disease cannot be transmitted through droplets from sneezing or coughing, kissing or sex, or drinking from someone else's beverage.

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  • 4. 

    Direct contact:

    • A.

      Dog bite

    • B.

      Mosquito bite

    • C.

      Kissing or sex

    • D.

      Contaminated doorknob

    Correct Answer
    C. Kissing or sex
    Explanation
    This question is asking about the ways in which a person can have direct contact with something. Out of the given options, kissing or sex involves the closest and most intimate form of direct contact between two individuals. This answer is correct because it aligns with the concept of direct contact, where physical contact is made between two people through activities such as kissing or engaging in sexual intercourse.

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  • 5. 

    John Snow discovered?

    • A.

      He was an English epidemiologist who observed that some neighborhoods had higher cancer rates than others. Two different wells, one was providing carcinogens.

    • B.

      He was an English epidemiologist who observed that some neighborhoods had higher cholera rates than others. Two different wells, one was providing cholera bacteria.

    • C.

      He was a german epidemiologist who observed that some neighborhoods had higher cholera rates than others. Two different wells, one was providing cholera bacteria.

    • D.

      He was an english epidemiologist who observed that some countries in europe had higher cholera rates than others. Two different wells, one was providing cholera bacteria.

    Correct Answer
    B. He was an English epidemiologist who observed that some neighborhoods had higher cholera rates than others. Two different wells, one was providing cholera bacteria.
    Explanation
    John Snow was an English epidemiologist who made a significant discovery regarding the spread of cholera. He observed that certain neighborhoods had higher cholera rates than others, and upon investigation, he found that two different wells were the source of the outbreak. One of the wells was providing water contaminated with cholera bacteria. This discovery helped establish the understanding that cholera is a waterborne disease, leading to significant advancements in public health and sanitation practices.

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  • 6. 

    Achievements of public health include:

    • A.

      Cleaner air, water sanitation, better nutrition and waste management.

    • B.

      Cleaner air, water sanitation, worse nutrition

    • C.

      Better health insurances

    • D.

      Cleaner air, water sanitation, better nutrition, health insurance and waste management.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cleaner air, water sanitation, better nutrition and waste management.
    Explanation
    The achievements of public health include cleaner air, water sanitation, better nutrition, and waste management. These factors play a crucial role in promoting and maintaining the overall health and well-being of individuals and communities. Cleaner air helps reduce the risk of respiratory diseases, while improved water sanitation prevents the spread of waterborne illnesses. Better nutrition ensures proper growth and development, while effective waste management minimizes environmental hazards and the spread of diseases. Therefore, these achievements contribute significantly to public health improvement.

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  • 7. 

    Three core functions of public health.

    • A.

      Assessment, Policy development and Ensurance

    • B.

      Assessment, Law development and Assurance

    • C.

      Assessment, Policy development and Assurance

    • D.

      Testing, Policy development and Assurance

    Correct Answer
    C. Assessment, Policy development and Assurance
    Explanation
    The three core functions of public health are assessment, policy development, and assurance. Assessment involves collecting and analyzing data to understand the health needs of a population. Policy development refers to creating and implementing strategies and interventions to address those needs. Assurance involves ensuring that necessary health services and programs are available and accessible to the population. This includes monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions and advocating for necessary resources and support.

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  • 8. 

    What is Assessment?

    • A.

      Developing laws and regulations relating to health promotion and public health.

    • B.

      Collecting relevant info on a disease, looking at existing policy, conducing community surveys

    • C.

      Making sure people get what they need based on policy development. Fines for public health violations and providing specific services that are not readily available.

    Correct Answer
    B. Collecting relevant info on a disease, looking at existing policy, conducing community surveys
    Explanation
    Assessment refers to the process of collecting relevant information on a disease, examining existing policies, and conducting community surveys. This helps in understanding the current situation and identifying the needs and priorities for health promotion and public health interventions. It is an essential step in policy development and decision-making, as it provides a comprehensive understanding of the problem and helps in designing effective strategies and interventions. Additionally, assessment also involves identifying public health violations and ensuring that appropriate fines are imposed, as well as providing specific services that may not be readily available to the community.

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  • 9. 

    What is the assurance?

    • A.

      Developing laws and regulations relating to public health promotion and public health.

    • B.

      Making sure people get what they need based on policy development. Fines for public health violations and providing specific services that are not readily available.

    • C.

      Collecting revenant info of a disease, looking at existing policy, conducting community surveys.

    Correct Answer
    B. Making sure people get what they need based on policy development. Fines for public health violations and providing specific services that are not readily available.
    Explanation
    The assurance in this context refers to ensuring that people receive the necessary resources and services through policy development. This includes imposing fines for public health violations and offering specific services that may not be easily accessible. It implies a commitment to meeting the needs of the public and promoting public health through effective policies and interventions.

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  • 10. 

    What is policy development?

    • A.

      Developing laws and regulations relating to health promotion and public health

    • B.

      Collecting relevant info on a disease, looking at existing policy, conducing community surveys

    • C.

      Making sure people get what they need based on policy dev. fines for public health violations providing specific services that are not readily available.

    Correct Answer
    A. Developing laws and regulations relating to health promotion and public health
    Explanation
    Policy development refers to the process of creating laws and regulations that are focused on promoting health and public health. This involves collecting relevant information on a particular disease or health issue, examining existing policies, and conducting community surveys to gather input and insights. The objective is to ensure that people receive the necessary resources and services based on the policies developed. Additionally, policy development may also involve imposing fines for violations related to public health and providing specific services that may not be easily accessible otherwise.

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  • 11. 

    Prospective study:

    • A.

      Epidemiologists rake a group of people with disorder and look at past exposure to determine possible causal factor.

    • B.

      Epidemiologists test a new substance on some part of the population and compare its effect to control

    • C.

      Epidemiologists observe habits of several different groups and determine the rate of a particular disease in each group.

    • D.

      Epidemiologist follow up with initially healthy people and record their exposures.

    Correct Answer
    D. Epidemiologist follow up with initially healthy people and record their exposures.
    Explanation
    The answer is "epidemiologist follow up with initially healthy people and record their exposures." This is because a prospective study involves following a group of initially healthy people over a period of time and recording their exposures to certain factors. This type of study allows researchers to observe the development of diseases or conditions and determine possible causal factors. The other options mentioned in the question involve different types of study designs, such as retrospective studies or experimental studies.

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  • 12. 

    Cost benefits definition:

    • A.

      Measures estimated cost spent in US

    • B.

      Measures estimated benefit

    • C.

      Weighs estimated monetary cost of implementing policy against estimated benefit

    • D.

      Weights estimated monetary cost on health insurances

    Correct Answer
    C. Weighs estimated monetary cost of implementing policy against estimated benefit
    Explanation
    The cost benefits definition refers to a process that involves weighing the estimated monetary cost of implementing a policy against its estimated benefit. This means that when making decisions about implementing a policy, the potential costs and benefits are carefully considered and compared. The aim is to determine whether the benefits of implementing the policy outweigh the costs, in order to make an informed decision. This approach helps to ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, maximizing the overall outcome.

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  • 13. 

    Chain infection in order:

    • A.

      Susceptible host, recevoir, method of trasmission, and pathogens.

    • B.

      Pathogens, recevoir, method of transmission, and susceptible host.

    • C.

      Pathogens, recevoir, portale exit , and susceptible host.

    • D.

      Resevoir, method of transmission, pathogens and susceptible host.

    Correct Answer
    B. Pathogens, recevoir, method of transmission, and susceptible host.
    Explanation
    The correct order of chain infection is pathogens, reservoir, method of transmission, and susceptible host. Pathogens are the disease-causing microorganisms. The reservoir is the source or location where the pathogens can survive and multiply. The method of transmission refers to how the pathogens are spread from the reservoir to the susceptible host. Finally, the susceptible host is the individual who can become infected by the pathogens.

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  • 14. 

    Incidence

    • A.

      Number of new cases present at specific point in time

    • B.

      Number of cases present at a specific point in time

    Correct Answer
    A. Number of new cases present at specific point in time
    Explanation
    The term "incidence" refers to the number of new cases of a particular condition or disease that occur within a specific population over a given period of time. It represents the rate at which new cases are occurring at a specific point in time. This is different from the prevalence, which refers to the total number of cases, both new and existing, within a population at a specific point in time. Therefore, the correct answer is "number of new cases present at a specific point in time."

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  • 15. 

    Prevalence

    • A.

      Number of new cases present at a specific point of time.

    • B.

      Number of cases present at a specific period of time.

    Correct Answer
    B. Number of cases present at a specific period of time.
    Explanation
    The term "prevalence" refers to the number of cases present at a specific period of time, rather than the number of new cases at a specific point in time. This means that prevalence takes into account both new and existing cases, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the total number of cases within a given timeframe.

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  • 16. 

    Largest national survey which contains important demographic, geographic and socioeconomic data:

    • A.

      YPLL

    • B.

      Census data

    • C.

      Vital data

    • D.

      Vital statistics

    Correct Answer
    B. Census data
    Explanation
    Census data refers to the largest national survey that collects important demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic information. It provides a comprehensive picture of a country's population, including details such as age, gender, race, education, income, and housing. This data is crucial for understanding the characteristics and needs of different populations, and it is used by governments, businesses, researchers, and policymakers to make informed decisions and allocate resources effectively.

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  • 17. 

    A person is infected by bacteria from the environment such as first with bacteria infecting a cut after a bad fall off a bike.

    • A.

      Chronic disease

    • B.

      Endogenous spread

    • C.

      Fecal oral

    • D.

      Environmental disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Environmental disease
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes a situation where a person becomes infected by bacteria from the environment, specifically through a cut obtained from a fall off a bike. This suggests that the person contracted the bacteria from the surrounding environment, rather than through endogenous spread (spread from within the body), fecal-oral transmission (ingesting bacteria through contaminated food or water), or a chronic disease (a long-lasting condition). Therefore, the most appropriate explanation for the given scenario is an environmental disease.

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  • 18. 

    Disease spreads via continuation of fecal matter. Ex: typhoid Mary

    • A.

      Fecal oral

    • B.

      Endogenous spread

    • C.

      Fecal disease

    • D.

      Environmental disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Endogenous spread
  • 19. 

    Epidemiology of infectious diseases:

    • A.

      There are not routes of disease spread, it can just happen randomly

    • B.

      There are multiple routes diseases spread through, direct contact, indirect contact, fecal oral route and environmental routes.

    • C.

      There is only one route diseases can spread through and it can be either, direct contact, indirect contact, fecal oral route and environmental routes.

    Correct Answer
    B. There are multiple routes diseases spread through, direct contact, indirect contact, fecal oral route and environmental routes.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that there are multiple routes diseases spread through, including direct contact, indirect contact, fecal-oral route, and environmental routes. This means that infectious diseases can be transmitted through various means such as physical contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and exposure to infectious agents in the environment. Understanding these routes of transmission is crucial in preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases.

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  • 20. 

    P-value:

    • A.

      Tell us the variables that observed results occurred by chance

    • B.

      Tell us the data that observed results occurred by chance

    • C.

      Tell us the probability that observed results occurred by chance

    • D.

      Tell us the probability that observed results occurred by another variable

    Correct Answer
    C. Tell us the probability that observed results occurred by chance
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tell us the probability that observed results occurred by chance." The p-value is a statistical measure that quantifies the likelihood of obtaining the observed results purely by chance. It is used in hypothesis testing to determine the significance of a result and assess whether it is statistically significant or not. A low p-value indicates that the observed results are unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, while a high p-value suggests that the results could be due to random variation in the data.

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  • 21. 

    Identify events and exposures that may be harmful and estimates the probability of their occurrence.

    • A.

      Vital stats

    • B.

      P-val

    • C.

      Risk assessment

    • D.

      YPLL

    Correct Answer
    C. Risk assessment
    Explanation
    Risk assessment is the process of identifying potential events and exposures that could be harmful and estimating the probability of their occurrence. It involves evaluating the likelihood and severity of risks in order to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions to mitigate or manage those risks. Vital stats, p-val, and YPLL are not directly related to the process of risk assessment.

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  • 22. 

    Years of potential life lost an essential amount of years a particular population lost due to mortality, occurs when death happens suddenly, and at an early age like car accidents and suicide.

    • A.

      YPLL

    • B.

      YPPL

    • C.

      YPTL

    • D.

      YLLP

    Correct Answer
    A. YPLL
    Explanation
    Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) is a measure that quantifies the number of years a population loses due to premature mortality. It focuses on deaths that occur at an early age, such as car accidents and suicides, which result in a significant loss of potential life. YPLL helps to highlight the impact of these premature deaths on a particular population, emphasizing the importance of prevention and intervention strategies to reduce mortality rates and increase life expectancy.

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  • 23. 

    PUBLIC HEALTH BASICS:

    • A.

      Emphasizes prevention of disease, early diagnosis, and promotion of health. in addition to treatment, its geared to improve health at the community level.

    • B.

      Emphasizes the creation of disease, early diagnosis, and promotion of health rather than treatment, it geared to improve health at the community level.

    • C.

      Emphasizes prevention of disease, early diagnosis and promotion of health rather than treatment, it geared to improve health at the community level.

    • D.

      Emphasizes late diagnosis and promotion of health rather than treatment, it geared to improve health at the community level.

    Correct Answer
    C. Emphasizes prevention of disease, early diagnosis and promotion of health rather than treatment, it geared to improve health at the community level.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "emphasizes prevention of disease, early diagnosis and promotion of health rather than treatment, it geared to improve health at the community level." This answer accurately reflects the key principles of public health, which focus on preventing diseases before they occur, identifying diseases early through diagnosis, and promoting overall health. It also highlights the community-level approach of public health, emphasizing the importance of improving health outcomes for the entire population.

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  • 24. 

    Births, dates, marriages, divorces, abortions, fetal deaths.. important to know sources and their relevance. 

    • A.

      Vital data

    • B.

      Vital census

    • C.

      Vital findings

    • D.

      Vital statistics

    Correct Answer
    D. Vital statistics
    Explanation
    The given question is about the importance of knowing the sources and relevance of various events such as births, dates, marriages, divorces, abortions, and fetal deaths. The term "vital statistics" refers to the collection and analysis of data related to these events. It includes information about the number, frequency, and characteristics of these events, which is crucial for understanding and addressing various social, economic, and health issues. Therefore, "vital statistics" is the correct answer as it encompasses the collection and analysis of important data related to these events.

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  • 25. 

    Diseases which last, develop over several years. Usually has multiple causes and can affect people of all ages.

    • A.

      Endogenous disease

    • B.

      Heart disease

    • C.

      Cancer

    • D.

      Chronic diseases

    Correct Answer
    A. Endogenous disease
    Explanation
    An endogenous disease is a type of disease that develops over a long period of time and has multiple causes. It can affect people of all ages. Examples of endogenous diseases include heart disease and cancer. Chronic diseases, on the other hand, refer to diseases that last for a long time or are recurring. Therefore, the given answer of endogenous disease is correct based on the description provided.

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  • 26. 

    A person is infected by organisms present on their skin (staph entering a cut on hand)

    • A.

      Endogenous spread

    • B.

      Chronic disease

    • C.

      Environmental spread

    • D.

      Indirect contact

    Correct Answer
    A. Endogenous spread
    Explanation
    Endogenous spread refers to the transmission of infectious organisms from a person's own body to another part of their body. In this scenario, the person is infected by organisms that are already present on their own skin, which then enter a cut on their hand. This means that the infection is spreading from within the person's own body, rather than being acquired from an external source.

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  • 27. 

    Social justice

    • A.

      The fate of each person is determined by themselves not by a collective effort

    • B.

      Health and health care is a market commodity that each individual person is responsible for obtaining.

    • C.

      Views health and health care as a right and makes the issue collective responsibility enabling everyone to get access.

    Correct Answer
    C. Views health and health care as a right and makes the issue collective responsibility enabling everyone to get access.
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that the concept of social justice views health and health care as a right rather than a market commodity. It emphasizes the idea that everyone should have access to health care, and it is a collective responsibility to ensure that this access is granted to all individuals. This perspective promotes equality and fairness in society, as it recognizes the importance of providing necessary health care services to everyone, regardless of their individual circumstances or abilities to obtain it on their own.

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  • 28. 

    Most famous chronic diseases

    • A.

      1-heart disease, 2-cancer=caused by carcinogens

    • B.

      1-cancer=caused by carcinogens, 1-heart disease

    • C.

      1-heart disease, 2-asthma

    • D.

      1-heart disease, 2-cancer=caused by nutrition

    Correct Answer
    A. 1-heart disease, 2-cancer=caused by carcinogens
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the most famous chronic diseases are heart disease and cancer, and that cancer is caused by carcinogens. This explanation suggests that heart disease and cancer are the two most well-known chronic diseases, and that cancer specifically is caused by exposure to carcinogens, which are substances that can cause cancer.

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  • 29. 

    System to recognize the spread of a new disease. it ensures other systems can be put in place to control the outbreak.

    • A.

      Federal responsibility

    • B.

      Epidemiologic investigation

    • C.

      Epidemiologic surveillance

    Correct Answer
    C. Epidemiologic surveillance
    Explanation
    Epidemiologic surveillance is the correct answer because it refers to the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data in order to identify patterns and trends in the spread of diseases. This type of surveillance allows for the early detection of outbreaks and the implementation of control measures to prevent further spread. It is a crucial component in recognizing the spread of a new disease and ensuring that other systems can be put in place to control the outbreak.

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  • 30. 

    Defines what a case is, ascertain the number of cases. identifies causative agents by understanding who has the disease, when, and where they obtained it.

    • A.

      Federal responsibility

    • B.

      Epidemiologic investigation

    • C.

      Epidemiologic surveillance

    Correct Answer
    B. Epidemiologic investigation
    Explanation
    Epidemiologic investigation involves defining what a case is, determining the number of cases, and identifying the causative agents by understanding who has the disease, when, and where they obtained it. It is a federal responsibility and is part of epidemiologic surveillance.

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  • 31. 

    The basic science of public health examines distribution, determinants, deterrents, of disease.

    • A.

      Epidemiology

    • B.

      Chronic diseases

    • C.

      Environmental diseases

    • D.

      Science

    Correct Answer
    A. Epidemiology
    Explanation
    Epidemiology is the correct answer because it is the branch of public health that focuses on studying the distribution, determinants, and deterrents of diseases. It involves analyzing patterns and factors that contribute to the occurrence of diseases in populations, with the goal of preventing and controlling their spread. By studying epidemiology, public health professionals can identify risk factors, develop interventions, and make informed decisions to protect and improve the health of communities.

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  • 32. 

    Federal responsibility of public health: 

    • A.

      Fed govt, sets taxes for the nation and distributes funds at set rates for medicare and medicaid. Fed govt uses interstate commerce clause to protect health in population. most regulations is state responsibility, they have authority to place restrictions on public health agencies.

    • B.

      Fed govt, sets taxes for the nation and distributes funds at set rates for medicare and medicaid. Fed govt uses interstate commerce clause to protect health in population. most regulations is state responsibility, they have no authority to place restrictions on public health agencies.

    Correct Answer
    A. Fed govt, sets taxes for the nation and distributes funds at set rates for medicare and medicaid. Fed govt uses interstate commerce clause to protect health in population. most regulations is state responsibility, they have authority to place restrictions on public health agencies.
    Explanation
    The federal government has the responsibility of setting taxes for the nation and distributing funds at set rates for programs like Medicare and Medicaid. They also utilize the interstate commerce clause to protect the health of the population. While most regulations regarding public health are the responsibility of the state, they do have the authority to place restrictions on public health agencies.

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  • 33. 

    Sources of error in the randomized control trial.

    • A.

      Cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures

    • B.

      Not a lot of people

    • C.

      Subjects may not take the prescribed treatment

    • D.

      Confounding variable

    Correct Answer
    C. Subjects may not take the prescribed treatment
    Explanation
    One of the potential sources of error in a randomized control trial is that subjects may not take the prescribed treatment. This can lead to inaccurate results as the effectiveness of the treatment cannot be properly evaluated if subjects do not adhere to the protocol. This could be due to various reasons such as forgetfulness, inconvenience, or personal beliefs. It is important to monitor and account for non-compliance in order to minimize bias and ensure the validity of the study results.

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  • 34. 

    Small study sources of error.

    • A.

      Some subjects may not take the prescribed medication

    • B.

      Cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures

    • C.

      Not a lot of people

    • D.

      Confounding variable

    Correct Answer
    C. Not a lot of people
    Explanation
    The small sample size in a study can lead to a higher chance of random variation and less reliable results. With a small number of participants, the study may not have enough statistical power to detect significant differences or associations accurately. The findings may not be representative of the larger population, limiting the generalizability of the results. Additionally, a small sample size may increase the risk of selection bias and confounding variables, further compromising the validity of the study.

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  • 35. 

    Cohort study sources of error.

    • A.

      Confounding variable

    • B.

      Cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures

    • C.

      Not too many people

    • D.

      Some subjects may not take prescribed treatment

    Correct Answer
    A. Confounding variable
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "confounding variable." In a cohort study, confounding variables are sources of error that can influence the relationship between the exposure and outcome being studied. Confounding variables are factors that are associated with both the exposure and the outcome, and can distort the true relationship between them. They can lead to incorrect conclusions if not properly controlled for in the study design or analysis. Therefore, identifying and accounting for confounding variables is crucial in order to obtain accurate and reliable results in a cohort study.

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  • 36. 

    Case-control sources of error.

    • A.

      Too small

    • B.

      Some subjects may not take the prescribed treatment

    • C.

      Confounding variable

    • D.

      Cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures

    Correct Answer
    D. Cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cases and controls have differing memory of exposure incorrect memory exposures." This suggests that the error in case-control studies can occur because the cases and controls may have different recollections or interpretations of their past exposures. This can lead to inaccurate reporting of their exposure history, which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the study results.

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