Urinary System Disorders | NCLEX Quiz 109

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Urinary System Disorders | NCLEX Quiz 109 - Quiz

All questions are shown, but the results will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz. You are given 1 minute per question, a total of 10 minutes in this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Your patient returns from the operating room after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Which symptom is a sign of acute renal failure?

    • A.

      Anuria

    • B.

      Diarrhea

    • C.

      Oliguria

    • D.

      Vomiting

    Correct Answer
    C. Oliguria
    Explanation
    Urine output less than 50ml in 24 hours signifies oliguria. an early sign of renal failure. Anuria is uncommon except in obstructive renal disorders.

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  • 2. 

    Which cause of hypertension is the most common in acute renal failure?

    • A.

      Pulmonary edema

    • B.

      Hypervolemia

    • C.

      Hypovolemia

    • D.

      Anemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypervolemia
    Explanation
    Acute renal failure causes hypervolemia as a result of overexpansion of extracellular fluid and plasma volume with the hypersecretion of renin. Therefore. hypervolemia causes hypertension.

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  • 3. 

    A patient returns from surgery with an indwelling urinary catheter in place and empty. Six hours later. the volume is 120ml. The drainage system has no obstructions. Which intervention has priority?

    • A.

      Give a 500 ml bolus of isotonic saline

    • B.

      Evaluate the patient’s circulation and vital signs

    • C.

      Flush the urinary catheter with sterile water or saline

    • D.

      Place the patient in the shock position. and notify the surgeon

    Correct Answer
    B. Evaluate the patient’s circulation and vital signs
    Explanation
    A total UO of 120ml is too low. Assess the patient’s circulation and hemodynamic stability for signs of hypovolemia. A fluid bolus may be required. but only after further nursing assessment and a doctor’s order.

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  • 4. 

    You’re preparing for urinary catheterization of a trauma patient and you observe bleeding at the urethral meatus. Which action has priority?

    • A.

      Irrigate and clean the meatus before catheterization

    • B.

      Check the discharge for occult blood before catheterization

    • C.

      Heavily lubricate the catheter before insertion

    • D.

      Delay catheterization and notify the doctor

    Correct Answer
    D. Delay catheterization and notify the doctor
    Explanation
    Bleeding at the urethral meatus is evidence that the urethra is injured. Because catheterization can cause further harm. consult with the doctor.

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  • 5. 

    What change indicates recovery in a patient with nephritic syndrome?

    • A.

      Disappearance of protein from the urine

    • B.

      Decrease in blood pressure to normal

    • C.

      Increase in serum lipid levels

    • D.

      Gain in body weight

    Correct Answer
    A. Disappearance of protein from the urine
    Explanation
    With nephrotic syndrome. the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney becomes more porous. leading to loss of protein in the urine. As the patient recovers. less protein is found in the urine.

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  • 6. 

    Which statement correctly distinguishes renal failure from prerenal failure?

    • A.

      With prerenal failure. vasoactive substances such as dopamine (Intropin) increase blood pressure

    • B.

      With prerenal failure. there is less response to such diuretics as furosemide (Lasix)

    • C.

      With prerenal failure. an IV isotonic saline infusion increases urine output

    • D.

      With prerenal failure. hemodialysis reduces the BUN level

    Correct Answer
    C. With prerenal failure. an IV isotonic saline infusion increases urine output
    Explanation
    Prerenal failure is caused by such conditions as hypovolemia that impairs kidney perfusion; giving isotonic fluids improves urine output. Vasoactive substances can increase blood pressure in both conditions.

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  • 7. 

    Which criterion is required before a patient can be considered for continuous peritoneal dialysis?

    • A.

      The patient must be hemodynamically stable

    • B.

      The vascular access must have healed

    • C.

      The patient must be in a home setting

    • D.

      Hemodialysis must have failed

    Correct Answer
    A. The patient must be hemodynamically stable
    Explanation
    Hemodynamic stability must be established before continuous peritoneal dialysis can be started.

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  • 8. 

    Polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) is used in renal failure to:

    • A.

      Correct acidosis

    • B.

      Reduce serum phosphate levels

    • C.

      Exchange potassium for sodium

    • D.

      Prevent constipation from sorbitol use

    Correct Answer
    C. Exchange potassium for sodium
    Explanation
    In renal failure. patients become hyperkalemic because they can’t excrete potassium in the urine. Polystyrene sulfonate acts to excrete potassium by pulling potassium into the bowels and exchanging it for sodium.

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  • 9. 

    Your patient has complaints of severe right-sided flank pain. nausea. vomiting and restlessness. He appears slightly pale and is diaphoretic. Vital signs are BP 140/90 mmHg. Pulse 118 beats/min.. respirations 33 breaths/minute. and temperature. 98.0F. Which subjective data supports a diagnosis of renal calculi?

    • A.

      Pain radiating to the right upper quadrant

    • B.

      History of mild flu symptoms last week

    • C.

      Dark-colored coffee-ground emesis

    • D.

      Dark. scanty urine output

    Correct Answer
    D. Dark. scanty urine output
    Explanation
    Patients with renal calculi commonly have blood in the urine caused by the stone’s passage through the urinary tract. The urine appears dark. tests positive for blood. and is typically scant.

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  • 10. 

    Immunosuppression following Kidney transplantation is continued:

    • A.

      For life

    • B.

      24 hours after transplantation

    • C.

      A week after transplantation

    • D.

      Until the kidney is not anymore rejected

    Correct Answer
    A. For life
    Explanation
    1.11E+35

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  • Current Version
  • May 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 07, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Santepro
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