Liver Pathology / Infectious Diseases

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Quizzes Created: 20 | Total Attempts: 13,629
Questions: 21 | Attempts: 174

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Liver Pathology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Fungal infections are a complication seen in patients with ______ or other immune compromised conditions.

    Explanation
    Fungal infections are commonly observed in patients with HIV or other immune compromised conditions. This is because the weakened immune system in these individuals is unable to effectively fight off fungal pathogens, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. HIV specifically targets and destroys CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for the immune response against fungal infections. As a result, patients with HIV are more prone to developing fungal infections, such as candidiasis, cryptococcosis, and aspergillosis.

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  • 2. 

    What are the 2 main types of fungal mycotic abscesses or fungal infections?

    Explanation
    Actinomycosis and candidiasis are the two main types of fungal mycotic abscesses or fungal infections. Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces bacteria, which can form abscesses in various parts of the body. Candidiasis, on the other hand, is caused by the Candida fungus and commonly affects the skin, mouth, throat, and genital area. Both infections can cause discomfort and require appropriate treatment to prevent complications.

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  • 3. 

    This is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by the formation of abscesses in the mouth, lungs, and intestines

    Explanation
    Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection that is characterized by the formation of abscesses in various parts of the body, including the mouth, lungs, and intestines. It is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces, which is commonly found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The infection can spread to other tissues and organs, leading to the formation of pus-filled abscesses. Actinomycosis can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and fever. It is usually treated with antibiotics, but in some cases, surgical drainage of the abscess may be required.

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  • 4. 

    Name the rare site for actinomycosis abscess formation.

    Explanation
    Actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection that can form abscesses in various parts of the body, including the liver. The liver is not a common site for actinomycosis abscess formation, making it a rare occurrence. This infection occurs when Actinomyces bacteria invade the tissues, leading to the formation of abscesses. While actinomycosis typically affects the face and neck region, it can also spread to other organs, including the liver. Therefore, the liver can be considered a rare site for actinomycosis abscess formation.

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  • 5. 

    Candidiasis is also referred to as _________.

    Explanation
    Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by the Candida fungus. One common type of candidiasis is thrush, which typically affects the mouth and throat. It is characterized by white patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, and roof of the mouth. Therefore, thrush is the correct term used to refer to candidiasis.

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  • 6. 

    This is a fungus found normally in humans, where the normal immune system keeps it under control.  It is an opportunistic infection and thrives in HIV positive patients, patients on chemotherapy, organ transplant recipients, or any severely immunocompromised patient.

    Explanation
    Candidiasis is a fungal infection that typically occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems. It is commonly found in humans but is usually kept in check by a healthy immune system. However, in individuals with conditions such as HIV, undergoing chemotherapy, or receiving organ transplants, the immune system is compromised, allowing the Candida fungus to thrive and cause infection. Therefore, candidiasis is considered an opportunistic infection that affects severely immunocompromised patients.

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  • 7. 

    With candidiasis, the liver is frequently involved _________ to hematogenous blood spread.

    Explanation
    Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species. In this context, "secondary" refers to the fact that the involvement of the liver in candidiasis is not a primary or direct infection, but rather a result of the fungus spreading through the bloodstream (hematogenous spread) from another site of infection. This suggests that the liver becomes involved as a secondary site of infection after the initial infection has spread through the blood.

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  • 8. 

    Check all that apply to the clinical and lab data of candidiasis:

    • A.

      RUQ pain

    • B.

      Leukocytosis

    • C.

      Hepatomegaly

    • D.

      Fever

    • E.

      Elevations in LFTs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. RUQ pain
    C. Hepatomegaly
    D. Fever
    Explanation
    The clinical and lab data of candidiasis can include RUQ pain, hepatomegaly, and fever. RUQ pain refers to pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, which can be a symptom of candidiasis. Hepatomegaly, or an enlarged liver, can also be present in candidiasis cases. Fever is a common symptom of many infections, including candidiasis. However, leukocytosis (an increase in white blood cell count) and elevations in liver function tests (LFTs) are not specific to candidiasis and can be seen in other conditions as well.

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  • 9. 

    Check all that apply to the sonographic appearance of candidiasis:

    • A.

      "wheel within a wheel"

    • B.

      Uniformly hypoechoic lesion: MOST COMMON

    • C.

      Echogenic focus: calcification representing scar formation seen late in disease prcess

    • D.

      "bulls eye"

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. "wheel within a wheel"
    B. Uniformly hypoechoic lesion: MOST COMMON
    C. Echogenic focus: calcification representing scar formation seen late in disease prcess
    D. "bulls eye"
    Explanation
    The sonographic appearance of candidiasis can include a "wheel within a wheel" pattern, which refers to concentric rings of hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas. A uniformly hypoechoic lesion is the most common presentation of candidiasis on ultrasound. An echogenic focus can be seen as calcification, indicating scar formation in the later stages of the disease. A "bulls eye" appearance may also be observed in some cases.

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  • 10. 

    Percutaneous liver aspiration is of great benefit in obtaining the organism in pyogenic liver abscesses, however it yields a false negative result for the presence of Candida organisms

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Percutaneous liver aspiration is a useful method for obtaining the organism in pyogenic liver abscesses. However, it is not effective in detecting the presence of Candida organisms, leading to false negative results. This means that even if a patient has a Candida infection in their liver, the percutaneous liver aspiration may not be able to detect it. Therefore, the statement that percutaneous liver aspiration yields a false negative result for the presence of Candida organisms is true.

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  • 11. 

    This is the most common organism causing opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS:

    Correct Answer
    pneumocystis carinii
    Explanation
    Pneumocystis carinii is the most common organism causing opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. This organism is a type of fungus that primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with AIDS. It can cause pneumonia, which is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition in these individuals. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing this infection and preventing complications.

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  • 12. 

    Pneumocystis pneumonia affects nearly 50% of AIDS patients.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    pneumocystis pneumonia affects nearly 80% of AIDS patients

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  • 13. 

    Pneumocystis carinii affects which of the following:

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      CBD

    • C.

      Spleen

    • D.

      Kidneys

    • E.

      Pancreas

    • F.

      Carotid

    • G.

      Thyroid

    • H.

      Lymph nodes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Liver
    C. Spleen
    D. Kidneys
    E. Pancreas
    G. Thyroid
    H. Lymph nodes
    Explanation
    Pneumocystis carinii affects multiple organs including the liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, thyroid, and lymph nodes. This indicates that the infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii is not limited to a specific organ but can spread to various parts of the body.

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  • 14. 

    _______________ is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans worldwide.

    Correct Answer(s)
    schistosomiasis
    Explanation
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that is widespread among humans globally. It is caused by a type of parasitic worm called Schistosoma, which primarily infects people in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection occurs when individuals come into contact with contaminated freshwater, such as rivers or lakes, that contains the larvae of the parasite. Once inside the body, the worms can cause various symptoms and complications, including damage to the liver, intestines, and urinary system. Due to its prevalence and impact on human health, schistosomiasis is considered one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide.

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  • 15. 

    The sono appearance of  ____________ ____________ varies ranging from tiny, non shadowing echogenic foci to extensive replacement of normal hepatic parenchyma by echogenic clumps representing dense calcifications.

    Correct Answer(s)
    pneumocystis carinii
    Explanation
    The correct answer is pneumocystis carinii. The explanation is that the sono appearance of pneumocystis carinii can vary, ranging from tiny, non-shadowing echogenic foci to extensive replacement of normal hepatic parenchyma by echogenic clumps representing dense calcifications.

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  • 16. 

    Granulomas are most commonly caused by ___________ and TB.

    Correct Answer(s)
    histoplasmosis
    Explanation
    Granulomas are most commonly caused by histoplasmosis and TB. Granulomas are small areas of inflammation that form in tissues as a response to infection or injury. Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which commonly affects the lungs and can lead to the formation of granulomas. TB, or tuberculosis, is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which also commonly forms granulomas in the lungs. Therefore, both histoplasmosis and TB are known to cause granulomas.

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  • 17. 

    Check all that apply to histoplasmosis:

    • A.

      Infection caused by fungus

    • B.

      Fungus produces spores that are inhaled

    • C.

      Usually affects lungs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Infection caused by fungus
    B. Fungus produces spores that are inhaled
    C. Usually affects lungs
    Explanation
    Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus that produces spores that can be inhaled. It is a respiratory infection that primarily affects the lungs. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct.

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  • 18. 

    Not only is schistosomiasis the most common parasitic infection worldwide but it is a leading cause of ______ _________ worldwide.

    Correct Answer(s)
    portal hypertension
    Explanation
    Schistosomiasis, the most common parasitic infection globally, is also a leading cause of portal hypertension. This condition occurs when there is increased pressure in the portal vein, which carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. Schistosomiasis can lead to liver damage and the formation of scar tissue, causing blockages in the blood flow and ultimately leading to portal hypertension. This condition can have severe consequences, including the development of varices (enlarged veins) in the esophagus and stomach, which can rupture and cause life-threatening bleeding.

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  • 19. 

    Check all that apply to the clinical and lab data of schistosomiasis:

    • A.

      Visible eggs found in stool

    • B.

      Diarrhea

    • C.

      Tender, palpable enlarged liver

    • D.

      Splenomegaly and possible ascites

    • E.

      History of previous travel to Africa, Asia, Egypt, South America

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Visible eggs found in stool
    B. Diarrhea
    C. Tender, palpable enlarged liver
    D. Splenomegaly and possible ascites
    E. History of previous travel to Africa, Asia, Egypt, South America
    Explanation
    The clinical and lab data of schistosomiasis may include visible eggs found in stool, diarrhea, tender, palpable enlarged liver, splenomegaly and possible ascites, and a history of previous travel to Africa, Asia, Egypt, South America. These symptoms and findings are commonly associated with schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Schistosoma parasites. The presence of visible eggs in stool is a definitive diagnostic feature of the disease. Diarrhea can occur due to inflammation and damage to the intestines. Enlarged liver with tenderness is a common manifestation of schistosomiasis, as the parasites can migrate to the liver and cause inflammation. Splenomegaly and ascites can also occur due to liver involvement. Finally, a history of travel to endemic regions is important in considering the possibility of schistosomiasis.

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  • 20. 

    Put the following in sequential order regarding schistosomiasis:(use # in answer)1. the liver responds to invasion by producing a granulomatous reaction, which causes increased PV pressure and eventually PHTN, splenomegaly, varices, and ascites2. a blood fluke or parasitic trematode enters unbroken skin3. in locations with contaminated water4. travels via the lymphatic and bloodstream into the liver through the portal venous system5. larvae mature in the terminal PV branches releasing eggs that occlude the portal venous flow

    Correct Answer(s)
    3, 2, 4, 5, 1
    Explanation
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by blood flukes or parasitic trematodes. The infection occurs when individuals come into contact with contaminated water. The parasites enter the body through unbroken skin (2) and travel through the lymphatic and bloodstream into the liver (4) via the portal venous system. In the liver, the parasites mature and release eggs (5), which occlude the portal venous flow. This leads to the liver producing a granulomatous reaction (1), causing increased portal venous pressure and eventually leading to complications such as portal hypertension, splenomegaly, varices, and ascites. Therefore, the correct sequential order is 3, 2, 4, 5, 1.

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  • 21. 

    Check all that apply to the sonographic appearance of schistosomiasis:

    • A.

      Widened, echogenic portal tracts

    • B.

      Liver enlarges initially, then as disease progresses, the liver shrinks with scarring and periportal fibrosis

    • C.

      MPV is most affected

    • D.

      Veins dilate, lumen widens, walls become more prominent with increased pressure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Widened, echogenic portal tracts
    B. Liver enlarges initially, then as disease progresses, the liver shrinks with scarring and periportal fibrosis
    C. MPV is most affected
    D. Veins dilate, lumen widens, walls become more prominent with increased pressure
    Explanation
    The sonographic appearance of schistosomiasis includes widened, echogenic portal tracts. This is due to the inflammation and fibrosis caused by the parasite eggs in the liver. Initially, the liver enlarges as a response to the infection, but as the disease progresses, the liver shrinks due to scarring and periportal fibrosis. The main portal vein (MPV) is most affected by the disease, with veins dilating, lumen widening, and walls becoming more prominent due to increased pressure caused by the fibrosis.

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