# Life On Earth Exam 1

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Quiz for Life on Earth class at University of Arizona.

• 1.

### Components of conceptual, numerical and analog models can include:

• A.

Inputs, outputs, feedbacks and boundary conditions

• B.

Miniature versions of a system

• C.

Natural tests

• D.

Qualitative objectives, flows and fluxes

• E.

Values derived from open systems

A. Inputs, outputs, feedbacks and boundary conditions
Explanation
The components of conceptual, numerical, and analog models can include inputs, outputs, feedbacks, and boundary conditions. These components are essential for modeling and understanding complex systems. Inputs are the data or information that is provided to the model, while outputs are the results or predictions generated by the model. Feedbacks refer to the interactions and relationships between different components within the system. Boundary conditions define the limits or constraints within which the model operates. These components help to simulate and analyze real-world systems, allowing researchers and scientists to make predictions and gain insights into the behavior of these systems.

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• 2.

### What is a natural collection of interacting components that function together in a quantifiable manner?

• A.

Hypotheses

• B.

Laws

• C.

Models

• D.

Systems

• E.

Theories

D. Systems
Explanation
A system is a natural collection of interacting components that function together in a quantifiable manner. It refers to a set of interconnected elements or parts that work together to achieve a specific purpose or goal. Systems can be found in various domains such as biology, engineering, and social sciences. They are characterized by their ability to exhibit emergent properties, where the behavior of the system as a whole cannot be fully explained by the properties of its individual components.

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• 3.

### If you took your temperature 10 times and got the exact same result each time, your data is

• A.

Accurate

• B.

A fact

• C.

A theory

• D.

Precise

• E.

True

D. Precise
Explanation
If you took your temperature 10 times and got the exact same result each time, your data is precise. Precise means that the measurements are consistent and have a low level of variability or error. In this case, since the temperature readings are the same each time, it indicates a high level of precision in the data. However, it does not necessarily mean that the data is accurate or true, as accuracy refers to how close the measurements are to the true value.

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• 4.

### Which of the following is a gauge of how well a measurement matches the "true" value?

• A.

Accuracy

• B.

Precision

• C.

Probability

• D.

Repeatability

• E.

Stability

A. Accuracy
Explanation
Accuracy is a gauge of how well a measurement matches the "true" value. It refers to the closeness of a measured value to the accepted or true value. In other words, accuracy indicates how correct or exact a measurement is. It is independent of precision, which refers to the consistency or reproducibility of measurements. Accuracy is important in various fields such as science, engineering, and industry, as it ensures reliable and trustworthy results.

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• 5.

### Atoms are made of the following EXCEPT

• A.

Electrons

• B.

Molecules

• C.

Protons

• D.

Neutrons

B. Molecules
Explanation
Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter, and they consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Molecules, on the other hand, are formed when two or more atoms chemically bond together. Therefore, molecules are not a part of atoms but rather a combination of atoms. Hence, the correct answer is "Molecules."

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• 6.

### Nucleic Acids are the building blocks of

• A.

Atoms

• B.

DNA

• C.

Fat

• D.

Protein

• E.

Starches

B. DNA
Explanation
Nucleic acids, specifically DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), are the building blocks of genetic material in living organisms. DNA carries the instructions necessary for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known organisms. It is composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides form the double helix structure of DNA, allowing it to store and transmit genetic information. Therefore, DNA is the correct answer as it accurately represents the role of nucleic acids in building genetic material.

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• 7.

### Elements that have less than or more than the normal number of neutrons are

• A.

Ions

• B.

Isotopes

• C.

Metals

• D.

Nucleic

• E.

B. Isotopes
Explanation
Isotopes are elements that have less or more than the normal number of neutrons. Neutrons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom, and they contribute to the mass of the atom. The number of neutrons can vary among different isotopes of the same element, while the number of protons (which determines the element's identity) remains the same. Therefore, isotopes have different atomic masses but the same atomic number.

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• 8.

### Starches are biopolymers of

• A.

Amino acids

• B.

Fatty acids

• C.

Nucleotides

• D.

Sugars

• E.

Waxes

D. Sugars
Explanation
Starches are biopolymers of sugars. Starch is a complex carbohydrate made up of glucose molecules. It is the primary storage form of energy in plants. Starches are composed of long chains of glucose units that are linked together by glycosidic bonds. These chains can be branched or unbranched. Starches are commonly found in foods such as potatoes, rice, and bread, where they serve as a source of energy for the human body when broken down into glucose through digestion.

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• 9.

### A circular ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a:

• A.

Ligase

• B.

Organelle

• C.

Plasmid

• D.

Restriction enzyme

• E.

RNA

C. Plasmid
Explanation
A circular ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a plasmid. Plasmids are small, self-replicating DNA molecules that exist separate from the bacterial chromosome. They can be transferred between bacteria and often carry genes that provide advantages such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to produce toxins. Plasmids are commonly used in genetic engineering and biotechnology research as they can be easily manipulated and introduced into other organisms.

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• 10.

### Methanogens and Extremophiles two examples of:

• A.

Animalia

• B.

Archaea

• C.

Bacteria

• D.

Protista

• E.

Vertibrata

B. Archaea
Explanation
Methanogens and Extremophiles are two examples of Archaea. Archaea are a group of single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from both bacteria and eukaryotes. They are known for their ability to live in extreme environments such as hot springs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and acidic environments. Methanogens are a type of Archaea that produce methane gas as a byproduct of their metabolism, while extremophiles are organisms that can survive and thrive in extreme conditions such as high temperatures, high pressures, or extreme pH levels.

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• 11.

### The chromatids separate & migrate to opposite ends of the cell during what phase of mitosis?

• A.

Anaphase

• B.

Metaphase

• C.

Interphase

• D.

Prophase

• E.

Telophase

A. Anaphase
Explanation
During anaphase of mitosis, the chromatids, which are duplicated copies of the chromosomes, separate and migrate towards opposite ends of the cell. This is facilitated by the contraction of the spindle fibers, which pull the chromatids apart. Once the chromatids have separated, they are considered individual chromosomes. Anaphase is the third phase of mitosis, following prophase and metaphase, and is followed by telophase, where the nuclear envelope reforms around the separated chromosomes.

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• 12.

### The "genotype" of an organism is its:

• A.

Homozygous dominant

• B.

Genetic make-up

• C.

Punnet Square

• D.

Appearance

• E.

Heterozygous

B. Genetic make-up
Explanation
The term "genotype" refers to the genetic makeup of an organism, which includes all the genes and alleles present in its DNA. It determines the traits and characteristics that an organism inherits from its parents. The genetic makeup of an organism is responsible for its physical appearance, but it is not limited to just the appearance. It encompasses all the genetic information that an organism carries, including both dominant and recessive alleles. Therefore, the correct answer is "genetic make-up."

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• 13.

### The haploid number of human chromosomes is:

• A.

13

• B.

16

• C.

23

• D.

42

• E.

46

C. 23
Explanation
The haploid number of human chromosomes is 23. This means that in human cells, there are 23 chromosomes in total, with each chromosome being present in a single copy. During sexual reproduction, the haploid number of chromosomes from each parent combines to form a diploid number of 46 chromosomes in the offspring.

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• 14.

### Cell membranes of bacteria and eukaryotes primarily consist of

• A.

Carbohydrate bilayer and proteins

• B.

Carbohydrate bilayer and proteins

• C.

Lipid bilayer and proteins

• D.

Protein bilayer and lipids

• E.

Ribonucleotide bilayer and lipids

C. Lipid bilayer and proteins
Explanation
The cell membranes of both bacteria and eukaryotes primarily consist of a lipid bilayer and proteins. The lipid bilayer forms the basic structure of the membrane, providing a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the external environment. The proteins embedded within the lipid bilayer serve various functions such as transport of molecules across the membrane, cell signaling, and structural support. Together, the lipid bilayer and proteins make up the main components of cell membranes in both bacteria and eukaryotes.

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• 15.

### Viruses are like living organisms in that they can by themselves undergo

• A.

Energy transfer

• B.

Evolution

• C.

Locomotion

• D.

Homeostasis

• E.

Reproduction

B. Evolution
Explanation
Viruses are like living organisms in that they can undergo evolution. Evolution refers to the process of genetic change over time, leading to the development of new traits and characteristics. Viruses, although not considered living organisms themselves, can evolve through genetic mutations and natural selection. This allows them to adapt to new environments, develop resistance to antiviral medications, and potentially become more virulent or less harmful. Therefore, the ability of viruses to undergo evolution is a key similarity they share with living organisms.

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• 16.

### What are well-tested and generally accepted patterns in nature

• A.

Hypotheses

• B.

Laws

• C.

Models

• D.

Systems

• E.

Theories

B. Laws
Explanation
Laws in science are well-tested and generally accepted patterns in nature. They are based on repeated observations and experiments, and have been found to hold true under a wide range of conditions. Laws describe a fundamental relationship or principle that governs a specific aspect of the natural world. They are often expressed in mathematical equations or concise statements and provide a framework for understanding and predicting natural phenomena.

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• 17.

### What are representations of systems that can be use to simulate or test hypothesis about those systems

• A.

Hypotheses

• B.

Laws

• C.

Models

• D.

Systems

• E.

Theories

C. Models
Explanation
Models are representations of systems that can be used to simulate or test hypotheses about those systems. Models can be physical, such as a scale model of a building, or conceptual, such as a mathematical equation or computer simulation. They allow researchers to study and manipulate variables in a controlled environment, making it easier to understand complex systems and make predictions about their behavior. By using models, scientists can explore different scenarios and test the validity of their hypotheses before conducting real-world experiments.

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• 18.

### An accepted well-tested explanation for how nature works is a/an ___

• A.

Experiment

• B.

Hypothesis

• C.

Law

• D.

Theory

• E.

Observation

D. Theory
Explanation
A theory is an accepted well-tested explanation for how nature works. It is a comprehensive and coherent framework that is supported by a large body of evidence and has withstood rigorous testing and scrutiny. Theories are based on observations, experiments, and hypotheses, but they go beyond individual experiments or observations to provide a broader understanding of natural phenomena. They are constantly refined and updated as new evidence emerges, making them the most reliable and robust explanations in science.

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• 19.

### What is the primary goal of science?

• A.

To develop superior technology

• B.

To observe natural phenomena

• C.

To prove the truth

• D.

To publish new ideas

• E.

To understand observable facts

E. To understand observable facts
Explanation
The primary goal of science is to understand observable facts. Science is a systematic approach to studying the natural world and gaining knowledge through observation, experimentation, and analysis. By understanding observable facts, scientists can uncover the underlying principles and mechanisms that govern the world around us. This understanding forms the basis for further scientific advancements and discoveries. The goal of science is not to prove the truth or develop superior technology, although these may be outcomes of scientific inquiry. Publishing new ideas is a means of sharing scientific knowledge but is not the primary goal of science itself.

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• 20.

### Proteins are biopolymers of

• A.

Amino acids

• B.

Fatty acids

• C.

Nucleotides

• D.

Sugars

• E.

Waxes

A. Amino acids
Explanation
Proteins are biopolymers made up of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are linked together by peptide bonds to form long chains. These chains then fold into specific three-dimensional structures, which determine the function of the protein. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acids.

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• 21.

### "Sexually reproducing organism that produces live, fertile offspring," is a definition for a

• A.

Eukaryote

• B.

Gamete

• C.

Genus

• D.

Prokaryote

• E.

Species

E. Species
Explanation
The definition provided, "Sexually reproducing organism that produces live, fertile offspring," aligns with the concept of a species. A species refers to a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring. This definition excludes other options such as eukaryote (a broader category encompassing organisms with cells containing a nucleus), gamete (reproductive cells), genus (a taxonomic rank above species), and prokaryote (organisms lacking a nucleus).

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• 22.

### In most mammals, females are homozygous for sex chromosomes. In birds, females are

• A.

Haploid

• B.

Homozygous

• C.

Heterozygous

• D.

Incubated at a lower temperature

• E.

Parthenogenic

C. Heterozygous
Explanation
In birds, females are heterozygous for sex chromosomes. This means that they have two different alleles for the sex chromosomes, one from each parent. This is different from mammals, where females are homozygous for sex chromosomes, meaning they have two identical alleles. The heterozygosity in birds allows for the development of different phenotypic traits in females, such as different coloration or size, depending on the combination of alleles they inherit.

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• 23.

### Nutrients are the elements and componds that organisms need to live, grow and reproduce. These nutrients cycle through the air, water, soil, rock and living organisms in __________ cycles.

• A.

Biogeochemical

• B.

Astronomical

• C.

Isotopic

• D.

Elemental

• E.

Orbital

A. Biogeochemical
Explanation
Nutrients cycle through various components of the Earth's system, including the air, water, soil, rocks, and living organisms. This cycling involves the movement and transformation of nutrients through biological, geological, and chemical processes. The term "biogeochemical" encompasses these processes, as it refers to the cycling of nutrients through both living (bio) and non-living (geochemical) components of the Earth's system. Therefore, the correct answer is "biogeochemical."

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• 24.

### Cells that have organelles are called

• A.

Archaea

• B.

Bacteria

• C.

Eukaryotes

• D.

Prokaryotes

• E.

Viruses

C. Eukaryotes
Explanation
Eukaryotes are cells that have organelles. Organelles are specialized structures within a cell that perform specific functions. Eukaryotes are characterized by having a true nucleus, membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists. Archaea, bacteria, prokaryotes, and viruses do not have organelles or a true nucleus, making them different from eukaryotes.

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