Justice And Ethics Ch 5 Quiz

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 313

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Justice And Ethics Ch 5 Quiz

Justice and Ethics Ch 5 Quiz---------------------------------------------


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Robert Hanssen was convicted of
    • A. 

      Murder

    • B. 

      Sexual assault

    • C. 

      Espionage

    • D. 

      Nothing. He died before he could be brought to justice.

  • 2. 
    The difficulty for psychological egoism as an explanation for human motivation is that:
    • A. 

      It does not take religious and spiritual motivations into account

    • B. 

      There is no empirical evidence that supports the existence of deeper incentives

    • C. 

      Human beings and their actions are highly variable

    • D. 

      It does not take into account decision-making skills and critical thinking

  • 3. 
    ________ argued that all evil-including that which we do to ourselves-is a product of ignorance.
    • A. 

      Socrates

    • B. 

      Plato

    • C. 

      Aristotle

    • D. 

      Homer

  • 4. 
    The _________ hypothesis states that jurors are more likely to make decisions in favor of defendants who are demographically and socially simialr to themselves.
    • A. 

      Similarity-leniency

    • B. 

      Pity

    • C. 

      Desistance

    • D. 

      Jury nullification

  • 5. 
    The distinguishing characteristic of ________ in relation to other forms of sanction is its tendency to continue even after other forms of sanction disappear.
    • A. 

      Religious condemnation

    • B. 

      Guilt

    • C. 

      Social disapproval

    • D. 

      Incarceration

  • 6. 
      The ________ explanation implies that the cause of corruption is to be found in the questionable moral character of a few individuals who, by virtue of their psychological makeup, were predisposed to engage in corrupt practices even before they joined the police force.
    • A. 

      Rotten-apple

    • B. 

      Bad-seed

    • C. 

      Select-few

    • D. 

      Corrupted-officer

  • 7. 
      Psychologically, compassion and empathy require ________ with another person.
    • A. 

      Communicating

    • B. 

      Connecting spiritually

    • C. 

      Identification

    • D. 

      Understanding

  • 8. 
    The primary four negative forces that are thought to govern human conduct are:
    • A. 

      Physical sensations of pain, emotional sensations of pain, moral forces, religious sanctions or condemnations

    • B. 

      Emotional sensations of pain, sociological forces, political or legal forces, cultural beliefs

    • C. 

      Physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces, moral forces, religious sanctions or condemnations

    • D. 

      Religious sanctions or condemnations, emotional sensations of pain, physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces

  • 9. 
      Which philosopher attempted to provide a general theory of human motivation whereby all individual actions could be understood in terms of egoistic motives?
    • A. 

      Thomas Hobbes

    • B. 

      John Locke

    • C. 

      Jeremy Bentham

    • D. 

      Immanuel Kant

  • 10. 
      Which philosopher argued that neither reward nor punishment should ever be regarded as incentives to action?
    • A. 

      Aristotle

    • B. 

      Immanuel Kant

    • C. 

      Jeremy Bentham

    • D. 

      Thomas Hobbes

  • 11. 
      Within moral philosophy, religion has been employed as a ________ for moral values and as a source of ________ for moral behavior.
    • A. 

      Reason; pleasure

    • B. 

      Sanction; motivation

    • C. 

      Justification; appreciation

    • D. 

      Justification; motivation

  • 12. 
    Psychological egoism does not necessarily imply that we always ________ act in the pursuit of self-interest.
    • A. 

      Intentionally

    • B. 

      Consciously

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 13. 
    Michael Johnston defines ________ as actions that "exploit the powers of law enforcement in return for considerations of private-regarding benefit and that violate formal standards governing his or her conduct."
    • A. 

      Prison corruption

    • B. 

      Police corruption

    • C. 

      Gratuities

    • D. 

      Kickbacks

  • 14. 
    The strongest support for psychological egoism comes from:
    • A. 

      Socrates' philosophical works

    • B. 

      The fact that its explanation is irrefutable

    • C. 

      The understanding that many motives are unconscious

    • D. 

      The strategy of reinterpreting motives

  • 15. 
    ________ proposed that human conduct is governed primarily by four negative forces.
    • A. 

      Jeremy Bentham

    • B. 

      Immanuel Kant

    • C. 

      Cesare Beccaria

    • D. 

      Joel Feinberg

  • 16. 
    The problem of self-interest is a ________ dilemma.
    • A. 

      Philosophical

    • B. 

      Theoretical

    • C. 

      Practical

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    When explanations of police deviance focus on a small number of offenders, they ignore
    • A. 

      Departmental factors.

    • B. 

      Institutional factors.

    • C. 

      Systemic factors.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 18. 
    ________ principally evaluates the psychological assumptions, attitudes, and principles (as well as developmental matters) associated with morality.
    • A. 

      Ethical sociology

    • B. 

      Self-interested psychology

    • C. 

      Moral psychology

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 19. 
    ________ describes a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily, if not exclusively, by our own interests.
    • A. 

      Formalism

    • B. 

      Determinism

    • C. 

      Relativism

    • D. 

      Egoism

  • 20. 
    Psychological egoism eliminates the possibility of:
    • A. 

      Generosity

    • B. 

      Altruism

    • C. 

      Kindness

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 21. 
    Three fundamental controversies examined within the realm of moral psychology include:
    • A. 

      Moral motivation, psychological egoism, moral development

    • B. 

      Psychological egoism, self-interest, moral development

    • C. 

      Moral motivation, moral development, human psychology

    • D. 

      Moral beliefs, moral values, moral development

  • 22. 
    In his Republic, ________ tells the story of Gyges, a poor shepherd who gains the power of invisibility, but eventually uses this power immorally.
    • A. 

      Julius Caesar

    • B. 

      Plato

    • C. 

      Hippocrates

    • D. 

      Aristotle

  • 23. 
    Psychological egoism does not concern itself with:
    • A. 

      What we do

    • B. 

      Why we do what we do

    • C. 

      What we should do

    • D. 

      What we would like to do

  • 24. 
    A(n) ________ desire to help others is a moral desire; having such moral desires demonstrates that we can be ________ people.
    • A. 

      Innate; immoral

    • B. 

      Strong; moral

    • C. 

      Pre-existing; moral

    • D. 

      Pre-existing; virtuous

  • 25. 
      ________ is a normative variation of egoism which holds that we should always act in such a way that we rationally maximize our self interests.
    • A. 

      Psychological egoism

    • B. 

      Value egoism

    • C. 

      Utilitarian egoism

    • D. 

      Ethical egoism

  • 26. 
    Before we begin to talk about why we _____ be moral, we need to first ask whether we ______ be moral.
    • A. 

      Can; should

    • B. 

      Should; can

    • C. 

      Are forced to; can

    • D. 

      Should; even want to

  • 27. 
    As a way to neutralize feelings of guilt, the statement "The people I arrest deserve to be roughed up a little" is an example of
    • A. 

      Denial of responsibility

    • B. 

      Denial of injury

    • C. 

      Denial of victim

    • D. 

      Condemnation of the condemners appealling to higher authorities

  • 28. 
    A traditional typology of prison corruption includes:
    • A. 

      Feasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance

    • B. 

      Feasance, misfeasance, nonfeasance

    • C. 

      Misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance

    • D. 

      Misfeasance, malfeasance, feasance