Justice And Ethics Ch 5 Quiz

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| By Dnelson40
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Justice And Ethics Ch 5 Quiz - Quiz

Justice and Ethics Ch 5 Quiz---------------------------------------------


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Robert Hanssen was convicted of

    • A.

      Murder

    • B.

      Sexual assault

    • C.

      Espionage

    • D.

      Nothing. He died before he could be brought to justice.

    Correct Answer
    C. Espionage
    Explanation
    Robert Hanssen was convicted of espionage. Espionage refers to the act of spying or gathering confidential information for a foreign government or organization without permission. In this case, Hanssen was found guilty of spying for the Soviet Union and Russia for over 20 years. He sold valuable classified information that compromised national security, making him one of the most damaging spies in US history. Although he died before facing the full consequences of his actions, his conviction for espionage stands as a testament to his betrayal of his country.

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  • 2. 

    The difficulty for psychological egoism as an explanation for human motivation is that:

    • A.

      It does not take religious and spiritual motivations into account

    • B.

      There is no empirical evidence that supports the existence of deeper incentives

    • C.

      Human beings and their actions are highly variable

    • D.

      It does not take into account decision-making skills and critical thinking

    Correct Answer
    B. There is no empirical evidence that supports the existence of deeper incentives
    Explanation
    Psychological egoism claims that all human actions are ultimately motivated by self-interest. However, this explanation fails to consider religious and spiritual motivations, which can be powerful driving forces for individuals. Additionally, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting the existence of deeper incentives beyond self-interest. Human beings are complex and their actions are highly variable, making it difficult to attribute all motivations solely to self-interest. Lastly, psychological egoism overlooks the role of decision-making skills and critical thinking in shaping human behavior.

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  • 3. 

    ________ argued that all evil-including that which we do to ourselves-is a product of ignorance.

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      Homer

    Correct Answer
    A. Socrates
    Explanation
    Socrates argued that all evil, including the harm we cause to ourselves, is a result of ignorance. He believed that people only commit harmful actions because they lack knowledge or understanding of what is truly good. Socrates emphasized the importance of seeking knowledge and self-reflection in order to overcome ignorance and lead a virtuous life. His philosophy had a significant influence on Plato and Aristotle, who further developed his ideas.

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  • 4. 

    The _________ hypothesis states that jurors are more likely to make decisions in favor of defendants who are demographically and socially simialr to themselves.

    • A.

      Similarity-leniency

    • B.

      Pity

    • C.

      Desistance

    • D.

      Jury nullification

    Correct Answer
    A. Similarity-leniency
    Explanation
    The similarity-leniency hypothesis suggests that jurors are more inclined to make decisions in favor of defendants who share similar demographic and social characteristics with themselves. This means that jurors may show more leniency towards defendants who they perceive as being more like them, leading to a potential bias in the decision-making process.

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  • 5. 

    The distinguishing characteristic of ________ in relation to other forms of sanction is its tendency to continue even after other forms of sanction disappear.

    • A.

      Religious condemnation

    • B.

      Guilt

    • C.

      Social disapproval

    • D.

      Incarceration

    Correct Answer
    B. Guilt
    Explanation
    Guilt is the correct answer because it is a form of sanction that tends to persist even after other forms of sanction, such as religious condemnation, social disapproval, or incarceration, have been lifted or resolved. Guilt is an internal feeling of remorse or responsibility for wrongdoing, and it can continue to affect an individual's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors even when external sanctions or consequences have been removed. This makes guilt unique and distinguishes it from other forms of sanction.

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  • 6. 

      The ________ explanation implies that the cause of corruption is to be found in the questionable moral character of a few individuals who, by virtue of their psychological makeup, were predisposed to engage in corrupt practices even before they joined the police force.

    • A.

      Rotten-apple

    • B.

      Bad-seed

    • C.

      Select-few

    • D.

      Corrupted-officer

    Correct Answer
    A. Rotten-apple
    Explanation
    This explanation suggests that the cause of corruption is attributed to a small number of individuals within the police force who have questionable moral character. These individuals are believed to have a predisposition towards engaging in corrupt practices even before they became part of the force. The term "rotten apple" is often used metaphorically to refer to a person or thing that is corrupt or has a negative influence on others. In this context, it implies that the corruption within the police force is primarily caused by a few individuals with corrupt tendencies.

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  • 7. 

      Psychologically, compassion and empathy require ________ with another person.

    • A.

      Communicating

    • B.

      Connecting spiritually

    • C.

      Identification

    • D.

      Understanding

    Correct Answer
    C. Identification
    Explanation
    In order to feel compassion and empathy towards another person, it is necessary to have a sense of identification with them. This means being able to understand and relate to their experiences, emotions, and perspectives. Without this identification, it would be difficult to truly connect with someone on an emotional level and genuinely feel compassion and empathy towards them.

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  • 8. 

    The primary four negative forces that are thought to govern human conduct are:

    • A.

      Physical sensations of pain, emotional sensations of pain, moral forces, religious sanctions or condemnations

    • B.

      Emotional sensations of pain, sociological forces, political or legal forces, cultural beliefs

    • C.

      Physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces, moral forces, religious sanctions or condemnations

    • D.

      Religious sanctions or condemnations, emotional sensations of pain, physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces

    Correct Answer
    C. Physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces, moral forces, religious sanctions or condemnations
    Explanation
    The primary four negative forces that are thought to govern human conduct are physical sensations of pain, political or legal forces, moral forces, and religious sanctions or condemnations. These forces can influence human behavior by creating physical discomfort, enforcing laws or regulations, imposing moral standards, and imposing religious consequences for certain actions.

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  • 9. 

      Which philosopher attempted to provide a general theory of human motivation whereby all individual actions could be understood in terms of egoistic motives?

    • A.

      Thomas Hobbes

    • B.

      John Locke

    • C.

      Jeremy Bentham

    • D.

      Immanuel Kant

    Correct Answer
    A. Thomas Hobbes
    Explanation
    Thomas Hobbes attempted to provide a general theory of human motivation whereby all individual actions could be understood in terms of egoistic motives. He believed that humans are driven by self-interest and the desire to fulfill their own needs and desires. According to Hobbes, individuals are motivated by their own survival and seek to maximize their own pleasure and minimize their pain. This theory, known as psychological egoism, suggests that all human actions can ultimately be traced back to selfish motives.

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  • 10. 

      Which philosopher argued that neither reward nor punishment should ever be regarded as incentives to action?

    • A.

      Aristotle

    • B.

      Immanuel Kant

    • C.

      Jeremy Bentham

    • D.

      Thomas Hobbes

    Correct Answer
    B. Immanuel Kant
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant argued that neither reward nor punishment should ever be regarded as incentives to action. Kant believed that moral actions should be driven by a sense of duty and the recognition of what is morally right, rather than by external factors such as rewards or punishments. He emphasized the importance of acting out of a sense of moral duty, rather than for personal gain or avoidance of punishment. Kant's ethical philosophy, known as deontological ethics, focuses on the inherent moral worth of actions rather than their consequences.

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  • 11. 

      Within moral philosophy, religion has been employed as a ________ for moral values and as a source of ________ for moral behavior.

    • A.

      Reason; pleasure

    • B.

      Sanction; motivation

    • C.

      Justification; appreciation

    • D.

      Justification; motivation

    Correct Answer
    D. Justification; motivation
    Explanation
    Religion has historically served as a justification for moral values, providing a framework and rationale for why certain actions are considered right or wrong. Additionally, religion has acted as a source of motivation for moral behavior, providing individuals with a sense of purpose and a belief in divine rewards or punishments for their actions.

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  • 12. 

    Psychological egoism does not necessarily imply that we always ________ act in the pursuit of self-interest.

    • A.

      Intentionally

    • B.

      Consciously

    • C.

      A and B

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A and B
    Explanation
    Psychological egoism suggests that individuals always act in their own self-interest, but it does not imply that this is always done intentionally or consciously. It means that our actions are driven by our own desires and needs, even if we are not consciously aware of it or intentionally seeking self-interest. Therefore, both A (intentionally) and B (consciously) can be true in the context of psychological egoism.

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  • 13. 

    Michael Johnston defines ________ as actions that "exploit the powers of law enforcement in return for considerations of private-regarding benefit and that violate formal standards governing his or her conduct."

    • A.

      Prison corruption

    • B.

      Police corruption

    • C.

      Gratuities

    • D.

      Kickbacks

    Correct Answer
    B. Police corruption
    Explanation
    Police corruption refers to actions where law enforcement officers abuse their powers for personal gain and violate the formal standards that govern their conduct. This can include accepting bribes, engaging in illegal activities, or using their position to benefit themselves or others unlawfully.

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  • 14. 

    The strongest support for psychological egoism comes from:

    • A.

      Socrates' philosophical works

    • B.

      The fact that its explanation is irrefutable

    • C.

      The understanding that many motives are unconscious

    • D.

      The strategy of reinterpreting motives

    Correct Answer
    D. The strategy of reinterpreting motives
    Explanation
    The strategy of reinterpreting motives provides the strongest support for psychological egoism because it allows for the explanation of seemingly altruistic actions as ultimately being driven by self-interest. By reinterpreting motives, psychological egoism argues that individuals may engage in apparently selfless acts to fulfill their own desires or to enhance their own well-being in some way. This perspective suggests that even when people appear to be acting in the interest of others, they are ultimately motivated by their own self-interest.

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  • 15. 

    ________ proposed that human conduct is governed primarily by four negative forces.

    • A.

      Jeremy Bentham

    • B.

      Immanuel Kant

    • C.

      Cesare Beccaria

    • D.

      Joel Feinberg

    Correct Answer
    A. Jeremy Bentham
    Explanation
    Jeremy Bentham proposed that human conduct is governed primarily by four negative forces.

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  • 16. 

    The problem of self-interest is a ________ dilemma.

    • A.

      Philosophical

    • B.

      Theoretical

    • C.

      Practical

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The problem of self-interest is a dilemma that can be approached from different perspectives. Philosophically, it raises questions about ethics, morality, and the nature of human behavior. Theoretically, it can be analyzed and studied to understand its underlying principles and implications. Practically, it presents challenges in everyday life, such as making decisions that balance self-interest with the needs and well-being of others. Therefore, all of the given options - philosophical, theoretical, and practical - are valid approaches to understanding and addressing the problem of self-interest.

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  • 17. 

    When explanations of police deviance focus on a small number of offenders, they ignore

    • A.

      Departmental factors.

    • B.

      Institutional factors.

    • C.

      Systemic factors.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." This means that the explanations of police deviance that focus on a small number of offenders ignore departmental factors, institutional factors, and systemic factors. In other words, these explanations fail to consider the larger organizational and systemic issues that contribute to police deviance.

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  • 18. 

    ________ principally evaluates the psychological assumptions, attitudes, and principles (as well as developmental matters) associated with morality.

    • A.

      Ethical sociology

    • B.

      Self-interested psychology

    • C.

      Moral psychology

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Moral psychology
    Explanation
    Moral psychology is the correct answer because it is the field of study that primarily focuses on evaluating the psychological assumptions, attitudes, and principles related to morality. It examines how individuals develop their moral beliefs and how they make moral judgments. This field explores topics such as empathy, moral reasoning, moral emotions, and moral development. Ethical sociology, self-interested psychology, and none of the above do not specifically address the psychological aspects of morality, making them incorrect choices.

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  • 19. 

    ________ describes a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily, if not exclusively, by our own interests.

    • A.

      Formalism

    • B.

      Determinism

    • C.

      Relativism

    • D.

      Egoism

    Correct Answer
    D. Egoism
    Explanation
    Egoism describes a form of human motivation where our decisions and actions are primarily driven by our own self-interests. This means that individuals prioritize their own needs, desires, and well-being above others. Egoism suggests that people act in ways that they believe will bring them the greatest personal benefit or satisfaction, without considering the interests or welfare of others. This perspective views self-interest as the primary motivator for human behavior.

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  • 20. 

    Psychological egoism eliminates the possibility of:

    • A.

      Generosity

    • B.

      Altruism

    • C.

      Kindness

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Altruism
    Explanation
    Psychological egoism is the belief that individuals are fundamentally self-interested and that all actions are ultimately motivated by self-interest. This perspective denies the existence of genuine altruism, which is the selfless concern for the well-being of others. Therefore, if psychological egoism is true, it would eliminate the possibility of altruism, as well as generosity and kindness, since these actions are typically seen as selfless acts done for the benefit of others.

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  • 21. 

    Three fundamental controversies examined within the realm of moral psychology include:

    • A.

      Moral motivation, psychological egoism, moral development

    • B.

      Psychological egoism, self-interest, moral development

    • C.

      Moral motivation, moral development, human psychology

    • D.

      Moral beliefs, moral values, moral development

    Correct Answer
    A. Moral motivation, psychological egoism, moral development
    Explanation
    This answer correctly identifies the three fundamental controversies examined within the realm of moral psychology: moral motivation, psychological egoism, and moral development. These controversies revolve around questions such as what motivates individuals to act morally, whether individuals are inherently self-interested or altruistic, and how moral reasoning and behavior develop over time.

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  • 22. 

    In his Republic, ________ tells the story of Gyges, a poor shepherd who gains the power of invisibility, but eventually uses this power immorally.

    • A.

      Julius Caesar

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Hippocrates

    • D.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato tells the story of Gyges in his Republic. The story involves a poor shepherd who discovers a ring that grants him the power of invisibility. Initially, Gyges uses this power to commit immoral acts without consequence. This story serves as a moral allegory, highlighting the corrupting influence of power and the importance of living a just and virtuous life.

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  • 23. 

    Psychological egoism does not concern itself with:

    • A.

      What we do

    • B.

      Why we do what we do

    • C.

      What we should do

    • D.

      What we would like to do

    Correct Answer
    C. What we should do
    Explanation
    Psychological egoism is a theory that states that individuals always act in their own self-interest. It focuses on explaining why we do what we do and what we would like to do, rather than prescribing what we should do. It does not concern itself with moral obligations or ethical considerations, but rather seeks to understand human behavior based on self-interest. Therefore, the correct answer is that psychological egoism does not concern itself with what we should do.

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  • 24. 

    A(n) ________ desire to help others is a moral desire; having such moral desires demonstrates that we can be ________ people.

    • A.

      Innate; immoral

    • B.

      Strong; moral

    • C.

      Pre-existing; moral

    • D.

      Pre-existing; virtuous

    Correct Answer
    C. Pre-existing; moral
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that having a pre-existing desire to help others is a moral desire. It also implies that having such moral desires demonstrates that we can be moral people.

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  • 25. 

      ________ is a normative variation of egoism which holds that we should always act in such a way that we rationally maximize our self interests.

    • A.

      Psychological egoism

    • B.

      Value egoism

    • C.

      Utilitarian egoism

    • D.

      Ethical egoism

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethical egoism
    Explanation
    Ethical egoism is a normative variation of egoism that states individuals should always act in a way that maximizes their self-interests. Unlike psychological egoism, which describes human behavior, ethical egoism prescribes how individuals should behave. It is different from value egoism, which focuses on personal values, and utilitarian egoism, which prioritizes the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Ethical egoism emphasizes self-interest as the guiding principle for moral decision-making.

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  • 26. 

    Before we begin to talk about why we _____ be moral, we need to first ask whether we ______ be moral.

    • A.

      Can; should

    • B.

      Should; can

    • C.

      Are forced to; can

    • D.

      Should; even want to

    Correct Answer
    B. Should; can
    Explanation
    The question is asking whether we should be moral and whether we can be moral. It is important to first determine whether it is necessary or desirable to be moral before discussing why. The correct answer is "should; can" because it suggests that we should consider whether it is morally right to be moral and whether it is possible for us to be moral.

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  • 27. 

    As a way to neutralize feelings of guilt, the statement "The people I arrest deserve to be roughed up a little" is an example of

    • A.

      Denial of responsibility

    • B.

      Denial of injury

    • C.

      Denial of victim

    • D.

      Condemnation of the condemners appealling to higher authorities

    Correct Answer
    C. Denial of victim
    Explanation
    The statement "The people I arrest deserve to be roughed up a little" is an example of denial of victim because it suggests that the individuals being arrested are not victims of any harm or mistreatment, but rather deserving of rough treatment. This denial of victimhood helps the person making the statement to avoid feeling guilty or responsible for any harm they may cause to those they arrest.

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  • 28. 

    A traditional typology of prison corruption includes:

    • A.

      Feasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance

    • B.

      Feasance, misfeasance, nonfeasance

    • C.

      Misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance

    • D.

      Misfeasance, malfeasance, feasance

    Correct Answer
    C. Misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance
    Explanation
    The correct answer is misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance. Misfeasance refers to the improper performance of a lawful act, malfeasance refers to the performance of an unlawful act, and nonfeasance refers to the failure to perform a required act. This traditional typology categorizes different types of corruption in prisons based on the nature of the act or the lack thereof.

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