Introduction, Plate Tectonics, Geologic Time, Sed. Archives, And Fossils

35 Questions | Total Attempts: 65

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Fossil Quizzes & Trivia

Exam One Questions.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The scientific method commonly begins with
    • A. 

      Unproven beliefs

    • B. 

      A hypothesis

    • C. 

      A question

    • D. 

      Scientific laws

    • E. 

      Observations

  • 2. 
    One of the three great themes in Earth history is:
    • A. 

      Absolute age

    • B. 

      Plate tectonics

    • C. 

      Divergent boundaries

    • D. 

      Radioactivity

    • E. 

      Natural selection

  • 3. 
    The term half-life is related most closely to ___________.
    • A. 

      Relative age dating

    • B. 

      Absolute age dating

    • C. 

      Deformation of the asthenosphere

    • D. 

      Formation of the lithosphere

    • E. 

      Organic evolution

  • 4. 
    Plate boundaries where plates move past one another are called __________.
    • A. 

      Divergent

    • B. 

      Lithospheric

    • C. 

      Convergent

    • D. 

      Organic

    • E. 

      Transform

  • 5. 
    The age of the Earth is _____________.
    • A. 

      4,600,000 years

    • B. 

      5.5 million years

    • C. 

      150,000 to 300,000 years

    • D. 

      4.6 billion years

    • E. 

      704 million years

  • 6. 
    The radioactive process creates stable ____________.
    • A. 

      Particles that are expelled

    • B. 

      Daughter atoms

    • C. 

      Rock outcrops in Canada

    • D. 

      Divergent boundaries

    • E. 

      Natural selection

  • 7. 
    A mineral with a ratio of 1:1 among parent and daughter atoms must
    • A. 

      Have formed only days ago

    • B. 

      Be at the age corresponding to the second half-life

    • C. 

      Have passed the age of the second half-life

    • D. 

      Be at the age corresponding to the first half-life

    • E. 

      Be worthless for age dating

  • 8. 
    Geologists and other scientists assume that the results of an experiment conducted on a given day will be applicable to events that take place a day, a year, a century, or a million years later.  Which concept best fits this example?
    • A. 

      Uniformitarianism

    • B. 

      Actualism

    • C. 

      Catastrophism

    • D. 

      Principle of original lateral continuity

    • E. 

      Natural Selection

  • 9. 
    Layers of rocks outcropping on one side of a highway are the same as the layers of rocks outcropping on the other side of the highway, a distance of 1000m.  Which best principle explains this example?
    • A. 

      Principle of Unconformity

    • B. 

      Principle of Superposition

    • C. 

      Principle of Original Horizontality

    • D. 

      Principle of Original Lateral Continuity

    • E. 

      Principle of Intrusive Relationships

  • 10. 
    Which of the following rocks can an absolute date be extracted?
    • A. 

      A layered sandstone

    • B. 

      A fossiliferous limestone

    • C. 

      A fossiliferous shale

    • D. 

      A gneiss rock that extremely altered through contact metamorphism

    • E. 

      A basaltic rock cooled from a volcano

  • 11. 
    Such time units as eons, eras, periods, and epochs in the geologic time scale correspond to _______.
    • A. 

      Seconds, minutes, hours and days

    • B. 

      Days, hours, minutes and seconds

    • C. 

      Seconds, hours, minutes and days

    • D. 

      Months, days, years and hours

    • E. 

      Hours, minutes, days and months

  • 12. 
    Where are the oldest rocks on Earth found?
    • A. 

      On the platform of the craton.

    • B. 

      On the shield of the craton.

    • C. 

      In an orogenic belt.

    • D. 

      On the ocean shelf.

    • E. 

      On the abyssal plain.

  • 13. 
    The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 (i.e. 40% parent & 60% daughter atoms.) How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms?
    • A. 

      Less than 1.

    • B. 

      More than 3.

    • C. 

      Between 1 and 2.

    • D. 

      Between 2 and 3.

    • E. 

      Can't be determined.

  • 14. 
    Select the only chronostratigraphic unit below. 
    • A. 

      Pleistocene Epoch

    • B. 

      Silurian System

    • C. 

      Cambrian Period

    • D. 

      Cenozoic Era

    • E. 

      Phanerozoic Eon

  • 15. 
    A continental shield is part of a(n) _______________.
    • A. 

      Depositional environment

    • B. 

      Orogenic belt

    • C. 

      Continental shelf

    • D. 

      Craton

    • E. 

      Continental platform

  • 16. 
    An example of a marine environment of deposition is __________.
    • A. 

      Glacial lake

    • B. 

      River channel

    • C. 

      Continental shelf

    • D. 

      Wind-blown dune

    • E. 

      Alluvial fan

  • 17. 
    An eolian environment is a(n) _____________.
    • A. 

      Lake

    • B. 

      Delta

    • C. 

      Alluvial fan

    • D. 

      Deep marine

    • E. 

      Wind-blown dune

  • 18. 
    Walther's principle does NOT help us understand ______________.
    • A. 

      Chronostratigraphic units

    • B. 

      Fining upward successions

    • C. 

      Onlap and offlap sequences

    • D. 

      Transgressions and regressions

    • E. 

      Biofacies and lithofacies

  • 19. 
    Select the vertical sequence that indicates regression.
    • A. 

      Shale over sandstone

    • B. 

      Limestone over conglomerate

    • C. 

      Sandstone over conglomerate

    • D. 

      Sandstone over shale

    • E. 

      Shale over conglomerate

  • 20. 
    The part of a rock body that has characteristics from which we can infer the depositional environments is called a __________.
    • A. 

      Facies

    • B. 

      Member

    • C. 

      Group

    • D. 

      Formation

    • E. 

      Time-rock unit

  • 21. 
    Fossils that are abundant, widely dispersed and derived from organisms that lived during a relatively shore span of geologic time are _______________.
    • A. 

      Reworked fossils

    • B. 

      Haploid

    • C. 

      Index fossils

    • D. 

      Trace fossils

    • E. 

      Unaltered fossils

  • 22. 
    The interval between the first and last appearance of a species constitutes the ___________.
    • A. 

      Extinction rate

    • B. 

      Geologic time

    • C. 

      Geologic range

    • D. 

      Rate of evolution

    • E. 

      Relative geologic age

  • 23. 
    A type of geologic evidence of past glaciation is called __________.
    • A. 

      Paleomagnetism

    • B. 

      Tillites

    • C. 

      Evaporites

    • D. 

      Coal seams

    • E. 

      Annual rings

  • 24. 
    A type of reverse fault is _________.
    • A. 

      Strike-slip

    • B. 

      Normal

    • C. 

      Thrust

    • D. 

      Transform

    • E. 

      Oblique

  • 25. 
    Select the item below most closely associated with a convergent boundary.
    • A. 

      Lateral faults

    • B. 

      Subduction zone

    • C. 

      Hot spots

    • D. 

      Midoceanic ridge

    • E. 

      Continental rifting

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