Intro To Radiology Lecture

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Intro To Radiology Lecture - Quiz

Ch 1-8


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    MRI is a form of radiation that can alter the patient's DNA.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    MRI is a form of radiation that can NOT alter the patient's DNA.

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  • 2. 

    Anaphylaxis is a contraindication to contrast.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Anaphylaxis is a contraindication to contrast, but the patient can be pretreated if a mild reaction had occurred previously. Can treat patient with benadryl 1 hr prior to scan.

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  • 3. 

    Radiographs are mostly read on PACS. These radiographs are great for trauma, including fractures and bullets. They are also great for bone tumor evaluation and bowel obstruction diagnosis. Radiographs are not the best when examining soft tissue pathology (except for foreign body and air). PACS stands for ____ _____ ____ ____.

    Correct Answer
    picture archiving and communication system
    Explanation
    PACS stands for "picture archiving and communication system". This system is commonly used for reading radiographs, which are useful for diagnosing trauma, such as fractures and bullets, as well as evaluating bone tumors and diagnosing bowel obstruction. However, radiographs are not the ideal imaging technique for examining soft tissue pathology, except for detecting foreign bodies and air.

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  • 4. 

    Unless life or death emergency, a CT with IV contrast is contraindicated when CR is GREATER than ____.

    • A.

      1.0

    • B.

      1.3

    • C.

      1.5

    • D.

      1.8

    Correct Answer
    D. 1.8
    Explanation
    A CT scan with IV contrast is contraindicated when the patient's creatinine level (CR) is greater than 1.8. This is because IV contrast can potentially cause kidney damage, and patients with higher creatinine levels are at a higher risk for kidney problems. Therefore, it is important to avoid administering IV contrast in these cases to prevent further harm to the patient's kidneys.

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  • 5. 

    Select all the possible routes of administration for CT contrast.

    • A.

      Oral

    • B.

      IV

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Topical

    • E.

      Rectal

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Oral
    B. IV
    E. Rectal
    Explanation
    The possible routes of administration for CT contrast include oral, IV, and rectal. Oral administration involves taking the contrast agent by mouth, IV administration involves injecting the contrast agent into a vein, and rectal administration involves inserting the contrast agent into the rectum. These routes allow the contrast agent to reach the desired areas of the body for imaging purposes.

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  • 6. 

    Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis is a debilitating disease that can occur as a side effect of which imaging modality in patients with renal insufficiency?

    • A.

      CT with barium sulfate contrast

    • B.

      MRI with gadolinium-based contrast

    • C.

      CT with gastrograffin contrast

    • D.

      CT with nonionic low-osmolar contrast

    Correct Answer
    B. MRI with gadolinium-based contrast
    Explanation
    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are commonly used in MRI scans to enhance the visibility of certain tissues and organs. However, in patients with renal insufficiency, these agents can accumulate in the body and lead to the development of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF). NSF is a rare but serious condition characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin, as well as potential involvement of internal organs. Therefore, MRI with gadolinium-based contrast should be avoided in patients with renal insufficiency to prevent the occurrence of NSF.

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  • 7. 

    What is the number one cause of repeat films?

    • A.

      Motion

    • B.

      Unskilled technologists

    • C.

      Patients falling asleep

    • D.

      Poor inspiration

    • E.

      A PA student's lack of sleep

    Correct Answer
    A. Motion
    Explanation
    Motion is the number one cause of repeat films because when there is excessive movement during the imaging process, the resulting images may be blurry or distorted. This can make it difficult for the radiologist to accurately interpret the images and make a diagnosis. Repeat films are then necessary to obtain clear and high-quality images for a more accurate diagnosis.

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  • 8. 

    In adults, the heart should be less than ____ of the internal diameter of the thoracic rib cage.  In infants, the heart should be less than ____ of the internal diameter of the thoracic rib cage. 

    • A.

      45%; 50%

    • B.

      50%; 50%

    • C.

      50%; 65%

    • D.

      50%; 75%

    Correct Answer
    C. 50%; 65%
    Explanation
    In adults, the heart should be less than 50% of the internal diameter of the thoracic rib cage. This means that the heart should occupy less than half of the space inside the rib cage. In infants, the heart should be less than 65% of the internal diameter of the thoracic rib cage. This indicates that the heart can occupy a larger portion of the space inside the rib cage in infants compared to adults.

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  • 9. 

    The silhouette sign occurs when

    • A.

      Airspace disease obscures the right heart border, but not the right hemidiaphragm

    • B.

      Airspace disease obscures the right hemidiaphragm, but not the right heart border

    • C.

      Air surrounds the trachea

    • D.

      Packets of disease are separated by normal-appearing, aerated lung

    Correct Answer
    A. Airspace disease obscures the right heart border, but not the right hemidiaphragm
    Explanation
    Interstitial lung disease is characterized by "packets of disease separated by normal-appearing, aerated lung"

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  • 10. 

    With right-sided atelectasis, which direction does the heart shift?

    • A.

      Shifts to the left

    • B.

      Shifts to the right

    • C.

      Remains midline

    • D.

      Shifts inferiorly

    Correct Answer
    B. Shifts to the right
    Explanation
    With right-sided atelectasis, the lung on the right side collapses or becomes partially blocked, causing a decrease in lung volume. As a result, the heart, which is located in the middle of the chest, will shift towards the collapsed lung to compensate for the empty space. Therefore, the heart shifts to the right in cases of right-sided atelectasis.

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  • 11. 

    With right-sided atelectasis, which direction does the right hemidiaphragm shift?

    • A.

      Shifts to the right

    • B.

      Shifts to the left

    • C.

      Shifts upward

    • D.

      Shifts downward

    Correct Answer
    C. Shifts upward
    Explanation
    The right hemidiaphragm shifts upward and may disappear (silhouette sign).

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  • 12. 

    Which direction does the heart and trachea shift when a pleural effusion is present?

    • A.

      Both the heart and the trachea shift towards the pleural effusion

    • B.

      Both the heart and the trachea shift away from the pleural effusion

    • C.

      Both the heart and the trachea disappear

    • D.

      The heart shifts toward the pleural effusion while the trachea shifts away from the pleural effusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Both the heart and the trachea shift away from the pleural effusion
    Explanation
    When a pleural effusion is present, the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space causes compression on the surrounding structures. In this case, both the heart and the trachea shift away from the pleural effusion. The pressure from the fluid pushes these structures away, causing them to move in the opposite direction. This can be observed on imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans.

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  • 13. 

    Which direction do the heart and trachea shift when pneumonia is present in the left lung?

    • A.

      Both the heart and trachea shift towards the left

    • B.

      Both the heart and trachea shift towards the right

    • C.

      Both the heart and trachea remain in their normal positions

    • D.

      Both the heart and trachea disappear

    Correct Answer
    C. Both the heart and trachea remain in their normal positions
    Explanation
    The heart usually does not shift and the trachea remains midline.

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  • 14. 

    Which type of atelectasis is defined as "a type of passive atelectasis in which the lung does not re-expand when a pleural effusion recedes"?

    • A.

      Subsegmental atelectasis

    • B.

      Compressive atelectasis

    • C.

      Obstructive atelectasis

    • D.

      Round atelectasis

    Correct Answer
    D. Round atelectasis
    Explanation
    Read 'take-home points' of Chapter 5 in the book

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  • 15. 

    As the amount of fluid increases in a pleural effusion, it forms a _______ shape on the upright frontal chest radiograph.

    • A.

      Coffee bean

    • B.

      Silhouette

    • C.

      Patchy

    • D.

      Meniscus

    Correct Answer
    D. Meniscus
    Explanation
    Chapter 6- pleural effusion

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  • 16. 

    The lemon sign is associated with what disease/condition in the lung?

    • A.

      Pseudotumor

    • B.

      Sarcoidosis

    • C.

      Pneumothorax

    • D.

      Pneumonia

    Correct Answer
    A. Pseudotumor
    Explanation
    The lemon sign is a radiological finding associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), not pseudotumor. CDH is a condition where there is a hole in the diaphragm allowing abdominal organs to herniate into the chest cavity, compressing the lungs. The lemon sign refers to the appearance of the fetal head on ultrasound, resembling a lemon shape, due to the herniated organs pushing the diaphragm upwards. Therefore, the correct answer is not pseudotumor but CDH.

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  • 17. 

    You are looking at your patient's chest radiograph and see in the lung a "cavitary upper lobe." From your countless hours of studying radiology during PA school you remember that this finding is ____ until proven otherwise.

    • A.

      Histoplasma

    • B.

      Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    • C.

      Cryptococcus

    • D.

      Aspergillus

    Correct Answer
    B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Explanation
    Table 7-1

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 24, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    SchmeliK
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