Inheritance Practice Exam: Quiz!

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Inheritance Practice Exam: Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue (b). A brown-eyed man marries a blue-eyed woman and they have three children, two of whom are brown-eyed and one of whom is blue-eyed. What must the genotype of the man be?

    • A.

      BB

    • B.

      Bb

    • C.

      BB

    • D.

      Bb

    Correct Answer
    B. Bb
    Explanation
    In this case, the man must be heterozygous for the eye color gene, meaning his genotype is Bb. Here’s why:
    The blue-eyed woman can only pass on a blue allele (b) because blue is recessive and only exists as bb. The fact that they have a blue-eyed child means the man must have a blue allele (b) to pass on. But since he has brown eyes, he must also have a brown allele (B). So, his genotype must be Bb.
    This allows for the possibility of having both brown-eyed (Bb) and blue-eyed (bb) children. The brown-eyed children inherited the B from the father and b from the mother, while the blue-eyed child inherited b from both parents.

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  • 2. 

    How many divisions are there in meiosis?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    In meiosis, there are 2 divisions. The first division results in two diploid cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell (after replication) while the second division results in four haploid cells or gametes.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements best describes sexual reproduction?

    • A.

      Cells reproduce making identical copies to the parent cell

    • B.

      Cells reproduce and pass on the genetic traits of one parent

    • C.

      Parent cells contribute half of a set of chromosomes each, creating a cell that is genetically different than the parent cell

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Parent cells contribute half of a set of chromosomes each, creating a cell that is genetically different than the parent cell
    Explanation
    Each parent cell gives one half of a set of chromosomes in teh form of an egg cell or a sperm cell. These cells meet in a process called fertilization to create a zygote or fertilized egg that has a combination of traits

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  • 4. 

    If dimples are dominant in humans, what are the possible genotypes of a man with dimples?

    • A.

      Dimples

    • B.

      Non-dimpled

    • C.

      BB, bb

    • D.

      BB, Bb

    Correct Answer
    D. BB, Bb
    Explanation
    Since dimples are the dominant trait, the dominant allele must appear at least once.

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  • 5. 

     What is the end result of meiosis?

    • A.

      Two diploid cells genetically identical to their parent cells

    • B.

      Two haploid cells genetically different from their parent cells

    • C.

      Four diploid cells genetically identical to their parent cells

    • D.

      Four haploid cells genetically different from their parent cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Four haploid cells genetically different from their parent cells
    Explanation
    The end result of meiosis is four haploid cells that are genetically different from their parent cells. These cells are called gametes.

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  • 6. 

    Crossing over results in which of the following?

    • A.

      Crossing over does not change the outcome in the offspring

    • B.

      The chromosomes of the parent cell mutate to form new chromosomes

    • C.

      The daughter cells to be genetically identical to the parent cells

    • D.

      New combinations of alleles for a given trait

    Correct Answer
    D. New combinations of alleles for a given trait
    Explanation
    The exchange of segments of the chromosomes result in a new combination of alleles

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following crosses will produce all homozygous offspring?

    • A.

      FF x FF

    • B.

      FF x Ff

    • C.

      Ff x Ff

    • D.

      FF x ff

    Correct Answer
    A. FF x FF
    Explanation
    Crossing two homozygous dominant or two recessive traits will produce all homozygous offspring.

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  • 8. 

    All of the following are produced by meiosis except

    • A.

      Egg

    • B.

      Sperm

    • C.

      Zygote

    • D.

      Gamete

    Correct Answer
    C. Zygote
    Explanation
    zygotes are the end result of fertilization when egg and sperm cells meet.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the punnet squares above shows the results of a cross between two heterozygous individuals?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    The result of a cross between two heterozygous individuals gives you a 1:2:1 ratio of offspring

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  • 10. 

    The genotypic ratio of a cross between one heterozygous dominant and one homozygous dominant individual is

    • A.

      1:1

    • B.

      1:2:1

    • C.

      3:1

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. 1:1
    Explanation
    the genotypic ratio of one heterozygous dominant and one homozygous dominant individual produces 2 heterozygous dominant and two homozygous dominant children or 1:1

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  • 11. 

    A plant breeder wants to create flowers with all red petals. The genotype of the flower that she has is Rr. Which of the following genotypes should she use to make sure that all the petals of the offspring are red.

    • A.

      Rr

    • B.

      Rr

    • C.

      RR

    • D.

      RR

    Correct Answer
    C. RR
    Explanation
    In this context, let's assume that "R" represents the dominant allele for red petals and "r" represents the recessive allele for a different petal color (e.g., white). The genotype Rr means that the flower has one dominant allele (R) and one recessive allele (r), resulting in red petals because the dominant allele masks the recessive one.
    To make sure that all the offspring have red petals, the breeder needs to ensure that every offspring inherits at least one dominant R allele. If the breeder uses a flower with the genotype RR (homozygous dominant) and crosses it with the existing Rr flower, the possible offspring genotypes will be:
    RR (from R and R)
    Rr (from R and r)
    All these genotypes (RR and Rr) will have red petals because they all contain at least one dominant R allele. Thus, crossing Rr with RR ensures that all offspring will have red petals.

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  • 12. 

    Sharon has 100 rabbits. Sevety-nine of her rabbits are black and twenty-oneof the rabbits are white. Based on this information, what can she conclude about the rabbits?

    • A.

      The parents of the rabbits were homozygous dominant

    • B.

      The genotypes of the rabbits were Rr x RR

    • C.

      One parent was homozygous dominant and one parent was recessive

    • D.

      The genotypes of the rabbits were Rr x Rr

    Correct Answer
    D. The genotypes of the rabbits were Rr x Rr
    Explanation
    The phenotypic ratio is about 3:1 which means that both of the parents had to be heterozygous dominant

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is used to describe a genotype?

    • A.

      Brown

    • B.

      3:1 ratio

    • C.

      100% recessive

    • D.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    C. 100% recessive
    Explanation
    When describing geneotype, you are referring to genetic make-up. These are not things that can be seen so you would use words like homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive

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  • 14. 

    Brown eyes are dominant to blue eyes. What would the phenotypes of the offspring be if the cross was Bb x bb?

    • A.

      100% brown

    • B.

      75% brown, 25% blue

    • C.

      50% brown, 50% blue

    • D.

      25% brown, 75% blue

    Correct Answer
    C. 50% brown, 50% blue
    Explanation
    When crossing a heterozygous dominant individual and a recessive individual, the phenotypic ratio is 1:1 where 50% of the offspring will carry the dominant trait and 50% will carry the recessive trait

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  • 15. 

    In a certain species of animal, brown eyes (B) are dominant over green eyes (b). Predict the genotypes of the offspring whose parents are heterozygous brown and green.

    • A.

      Brown and green

    • B.

      100% homozygous brown

    • C.

      50% heterozygous dominant and 50% recessive

    • D.

      100% bb

    Correct Answer
    C. 50% heterozygous dominant and 50% recessive
    Explanation
    When the punnett square is completed, the offspring is 50% Bb or heterozygous dominant and 50% recessive or bb

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  • 16. 

    In a cross between a heterozygous dominant parent with brown fur and a recessive parent with white fur, how many of the offspring will be homozygous dominant for brown fur?

    • A.

      100%

    • B.

      75%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      0%

    Correct Answer
    D. 0%
    Explanation
    A cross between a Bb and a bb parent will not produce any BB offspring.

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  • 17. 

    In metaphase, the chromosomes:

    • A.

      Form

    • B.

      Line up in the middle of the cell

    • C.

      Move topward the centrioles

    • D.

      Condense to form chromatin

    Correct Answer
    B. Line up in the middle of the cell
    Explanation
    In metaphase, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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  • 18. 

    In pea plants, purple flowers are dominant to white flowers. If two white flowered plants are crossed, what percentage of their offspring will be white flowered?

    • A.

      0%

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      75%

    • D.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    D. 100%
    Explanation
    White flowers are recessive so if two white flowers are crossed, they have to produce white flowers.

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  • 19. 

    A heterozygous round seed plant is crossed with a heterozygous round seed plant. What percentage of the offspring will be homozygous?

    • A.

      0%

    • B.

      25%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    C. 50%
    Explanation
    If Rr is crossed with Rr, 25% of the offspring will be homozygous dominant and 25% of the offspring will be recessive (which is also homozygous). Together, they add to make 50%

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  • 20. 

    Replication of the chromosomes takes place in:

    • A.

      Meiosis I

    • B.

      Meiosis II

    • C.

      Mitosis

    • D.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    D. Interphase
    Explanation
    The chromosomes make copies of themselves before cell division takes place, which is in interphase

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  • 21. 

    A specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another is called a

    Correct Answer
    trait, Trait, traits
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "trait." A trait is a specific characteristic that can vary from one individual to another. The word "trait" is repeated twice in the question, which indicates that it is the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    The process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a  diploid cell is called

    Correct Answer
    meiosis , Meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the correct answer because it is the process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes is halved through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. During meiosis, the cell undergoes two rounds of division, resulting in four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction, as it ensures the production of gametes with the correct number of chromosomes.

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  • 23. 

    When an organism has two identical alleles for a trait, the organism is said to be

    Correct Answer
    homozygous, Homozygous
    Explanation
    When an organism has two identical alleles for a trait, it is said to be homozygous. This means that both copies of the gene for that trait are the same. In this case, the organism has two identical alleles, which could be either dominant or recessive. The term "Homozygous" is used to describe this genetic condition where the organism has a pair of identical alleles for a specific trait.

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  • 24. 

    Different forms of a gene are called

    • A.

      Hybrids

    • B.

      Dominant factors

    • C.

      Recessive factors

    • D.

      Alleles

    Correct Answer
    D. Alleles
    Explanation
    Alleles are different forms or variations of a gene that occupy the same position on a specific chromosome. They can exist in different combinations and can result in different traits or characteristics. In genetics, alleles can be dominant or recessive, meaning that one allele may mask the expression of the other. The concept of alleles is important in understanding inheritance patterns and how traits are passed from one generation to another.

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  • 25. 

    A punnett square is used to determine the

    • A.

      Probable outcome of a cross

    • B.

      Actual outcome of a cross

    • C.

      Result in segregation

    • D.

      Result of meiosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Probable outcome of a cross
    Explanation
    Punnett squares are used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It does not determine what will actually happen; just the possibilities of a test cross.

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  • 26. 

    The offspring of crosses between parents with two different traits are called

    • A.

      Homozygous

    • B.

      Hybrids

    • C.

      Dominant

    • D.

      Recessive

    Correct Answer
    B. Hybrids
    Explanation
    Hybrid organisms occur as a result of crosses between organisms with different traits (for example, white flowers and purple flowers)

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  • 27. 

    The chemical factors that determine traits are called

    • A.

      Traits

    • B.

      Genes

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      Alleles

    Correct Answer
    B. Genes
    Explanation
    Genes are the correct answer because they are the specific segments of DNA that carry the instructions for producing traits. These instructions determine the characteristics or traits that an organism will have, such as eye color, height, or hair texture. Genes are passed down from parents to offspring and play a crucial role in determining an individual's physical and biological traits.

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  • 28. 

    The separation of alleles during gamete formation is called

    • A.

      Separation of alleles

    • B.

      Segregation

    • C.

      Meiosis

    • D.

      Mitosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Segregation
    Explanation
    Segregation refers to the separation of alleles during gamete formation. This process occurs during meiosis, where the homologous chromosomes pair up and then separate, resulting in the distribution of different alleles into different gametes. Segregation is a fundamental principle of genetics and is responsible for the variation observed in offspring. It ensures that each gamete receives only one allele from each gene, allowing for the inheritance of different combinations of alleles from both parents.

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  • 29. 

    The physical expression of a gene is called

    • A.

      Homozygous

    • B.

      Heterozygous

    • C.

      Genotype

    • D.

      Phenotype

    Correct Answer
    D. Phenotype
    Explanation
    The physical expression of a gene refers to the observable characteristics or traits that are produced as a result of the interaction between an individual's genes and their environment. This includes traits such as eye color, height, and hair texture. The term "phenotype" specifically refers to these observable traits, making it the correct answer in this context. Homozygous and heterozygous refer to the genetic makeup of an individual, while genotype refers to the specific combination of alleles present in an individual's genes.

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  • 30. 

    The genetic expression of the trait is called the

    • A.

      Homozygous trait

    • B.

      Heterozygous trait

    • C.

      Genotype

    • D.

      Phenotype

    Correct Answer
    C. Genotype
    Explanation
    The genetic expression of a trait refers to the combination of alleles present in an individual's genes. This combination is known as the genotype. It determines the genetic makeup of an organism and can consist of either homozygous alleles (two identical alleles) or heterozygous alleles (two different alleles). The genotype ultimately influences the physical characteristics or traits that are observable in an individual, which is referred to as the phenotype.

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  • Jul 17, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 20, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Mbromell
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