Ultimate Quiz On Human Growth And Development

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Ultimate Quiz On Human Growth And Development - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which person believed that children were born a blank slate?

    • A.

      Jean-Jaques Rousseau

    • B.

      John Locke

    • C.

      Alfred Binet

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud

    • E.

      Erik Erikson

    Correct Answer
    B. John Locke
    Explanation
    John Locke believed that children were born a blank slate, also known as tabula rasa. He argued that the mind of a child is devoid of innate ideas or knowledge and that all knowledge is acquired through experience and observation. Locke's theory of empiricism suggests that individuals are shaped by their environment and experiences, and that they have the potential to develop and learn based on these external influences. This concept has had a significant impact on educational philosophy and the understanding of human development.

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  • 2. 

    According to the social learning theory, behaviors and personalities develop as people

    • A.

      Adjust their behavior to be less like people they dislike

    • B.

      Model themselves after people they admire or associate themselves with

    • C.

      Learn to get what they want through the process of trial and error

    • D.

      Repeatedly undergo the process of operant conditioning when developing their personalities

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Model themselves after people they admire or associate themselves with
    Explanation
    According to the social learning theory, individuals learn by observing and imitating the behaviors of others, particularly those they admire or associate themselves with. This process of modeling allows individuals to acquire new behaviors and incorporate them into their own repertoire. By emulating the behaviors and characteristics of admired individuals, people shape and develop their own personalities and behaviors.

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  • 3. 

    Trust vs. Mistrust is Erikson's developmental stage which occurs while a

    • A.

      Infant

    • B.

      Toddler

    • C.

      Preschooler

    • D.

      School-Age child

    • E.

      Adolescent

    Correct Answer
    A. Infant
    Explanation
    Trust vs. Mistrust is Erikson's developmental stage that occurs during infancy. This stage is characterized by the infant's need for a consistent and nurturing caregiver to develop a sense of trust in the world. If the caregiver meets the infant's needs consistently and with love, the infant will develop a sense of trust and security. However, if the caregiver is inconsistent or neglectful, the infant may develop a sense of mistrust and insecurity. This stage is crucial for the infant's emotional and social development.

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  • 4. 

    What is the earliest sound a childe makes to communicate?

    • A.

      Babbling

    • B.

      Cooing

    • C.

      Echolalia

    • D.

      Crying

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Crying
    Explanation
    Crying is the earliest sound a child makes to communicate. It is their way of expressing discomfort, hunger, or other needs. Crying is a natural instinct and is the primary means of communication for infants before they develop other forms of communication such as babbling or cooing. Echolalia refers to the repetition of words or phrases without comprehension and is not typically seen as an early form of communication in infants.

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  • 5. 

    A student is nervous about a test they have coming up so they decide to study an extra hour the night before. They can sleep well because they feel more prepared. The next day they take the test and feel confident about how they did. The test is returned to them and they have received a perfect score, and will get an A grade for the quarter. The student's parents are pleased and reward them by taking them out to dinner. Name all of the intrinsic reinforcers for the student in the story.

    • A.

      Relieved anxiety, confidence, pleased parents

    • B.

      Confidence, good grades, dinner

    • C.

      Dinner, relieved anxiety, pleased parents

    • D.

      Relieved anxiety, confidence

    • E.

      Confidence, sleep well, pleased parents

    Correct Answer
    D. Relieved anxiety, confidence
    Explanation
    The student experiences relieved anxiety because they feel more prepared for the test after studying extra. They also feel confident about how they did on the test. These feelings of relieved anxiety and confidence serve as intrinsic reinforcers for the student.

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  • 6. 

    __________ is the ethical component of personality and provides moral standards

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Superego

    • D.

      Id and Ego

    • E.

      Superego and ego

    Correct Answer
    C. Superego
    Explanation
    The superego is the ethical component of personality and provides moral standards. It represents the internalized ideals and values of society, as well as the individual's sense of right and wrong. It acts as a conscience and strives for moral perfection, often restraining the impulses of the id and mediating conflicts between the id and ego. The superego develops through the internalization of societal norms and parental values during childhood. It helps individuals make moral decisions and guides their behavior based on moral principles.

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  • 7. 

    The belief that you are the center of the universe

    • A.

      Assimilation

    • B.

      Accomodation

    • C.

      Classification

    • D.

      Conservation

    • E.

      Egocentrism

    Correct Answer
    E. Egocentrism
    Explanation
    Egocentrism refers to the belief that one is the center of the universe, meaning that they perceive the world from their own perspective and struggle to understand others' viewpoints. This concept was introduced by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, as part of his theory of cognitive development. Egocentrism is commonly observed in young children who have not yet developed the ability to take others' perspectives into account. They may assume that everyone sees, thinks, and feels the same way they do. This can lead to difficulties in social interactions and understanding others' emotions and thoughts.

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  • 8. 

    If a teacher rewards children with treats for participating in class, what type of conditioning is occuring?

    • A.

      Positive reinforcing

    • B.

      Negative reinforcing

    • C.

      Positive punishment

    • D.

      Negative punishment

    • E.

      No conditioning is occuring

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive reinforcing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is positive reinforcing because the teacher is using treats as a reward to encourage and strengthen the behavior of participating in class. Positive reinforcing involves providing a positive stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated in the future. In this case, the treats serve as a positive reinforcement to motivate the children to participate in class.

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  • 9. 

    A statistical measure of typical scores for categories of information

    • A.

      Class inclusion

    • B.

      Conservation

    • C.

      Developmental norm

    • D.

      Egocentrism

    • E.

      Elaboration

    Correct Answer
    C. Developmental norm
    Explanation
    A developmental norm is a statistical measure that represents typical scores for various categories of information. It provides a standard or average level of development that is expected at a certain age or stage of development. This measure helps professionals and researchers understand and evaluate the progress and growth of individuals in different areas, such as physical, cognitive, or social development. Developmental norms provide a framework for comparing an individual's performance or behavior to what is considered typical or expected for their age group.

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  • 10. 

    What was the visual cliff experiment designed to test?

    • A.

      An infant's depth perception

    • B.

      An infant's auditory capabilities

    • C.

      An infant's visual acuity

    • D.

      An infant's mental capabilities

    • E.

      An infant's hand eye coordination

    Correct Answer
    A. An infant's depth perception
    Explanation
    The visual cliff experiment was designed to test an infant's depth perception. This experiment involved a glass-covered platform with a drop-off, creating the illusion of a cliff. The researchers observed whether infants would crawl or hesitate to crawl across the "cliff," indicating their ability to perceive depth. This experiment provided insights into the development of depth perception in infants and how they perceive and interact with their environment.

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  • 11. 

    The first three weeks of prenatal growth are known as?

    • A.

      Growing period

    • B.

      Germinal period

    • C.

      Fetus period

    • D.

      Neonate period

    • E.

      Embryo period

    Correct Answer
    B. Germinal period
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Germinal period. The germinal period refers to the first three weeks of prenatal growth, during which the fertilized egg undergoes rapid cell division and begins to form the embryo. This period is characterized by the implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall and the development of the placenta. It is a crucial stage in prenatal development as it lays the foundation for the formation of the major organs and body systems.

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  • 12. 

    After a person moves to a new area they often hear airplanes flying overhead. After a week or two, they rarely notice them. What is this an example of?

    • A.

      Operation

    • B.

      Recognition

    • C.

      Recall

    • D.

      Schema

    • E.

      Stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Recognition
    Explanation
    This is an example of recognition. Recognition refers to the ability to identify or acknowledge something that has been previously experienced or learned. In this scenario, the person initially notices the sound of airplanes flying overhead after moving to a new area. However, after a week or two, they become accustomed to the sound and no longer pay much attention to it. This indicates that they have recognized the sound of airplanes as a familiar and expected occurrence in their new environment.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements is the best example of telegeraphic speech?

    • A.

      My oldest and prettiest sister will visit with us next week

    • B.

      My sister will visit next week

    • C.

      Sister visit week

    • D.

      My sister will be coming to visit me next week for three days

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Sister visit week
    Explanation
    The best example of telegraphic speech is "Sister visit week". Telegraphic speech refers to the use of short and concise phrases that omit unnecessary words, typically used by young children or individuals who are learning a new language. In this example, the speaker uses only the essential words to convey the message, omitting articles and other unnecessary details.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following correctly lists Frued's psychosexual stages in order?

    • A.

      Latency, Oral, Phallic, Anal, Genital

    • B.

      Anal, Oral, Latency, Phallic, Genital

    • C.

      Genital, Latency, Oral, Phallic, Anal

    • D.

      PHallic, Oral, Anal, Latency, Genital

    • E.

      Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital

    Correct Answer
    E. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital. This is the correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development. The oral stage occurs during infancy, where the focus is on the mouth and oral activities. The anal stage follows, during which the focus shifts to the anus and toilet training. The phallic stage comes next, where the focus is on the genitals and children may develop Oedipus or Electra complexes. The latency stage is then experienced, during which sexual feelings are repressed. Finally, the genital stage occurs during adolescence and adulthood, where the focus is on mature sexual relationships.

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  • 15. 

    Generativity vs. Stagnation is Erikson's developmental stage which occurs while a

    • A.

      School-age child

    • B.

      Adolescent

    • C.

      Young Adult

    • D.

      Middle-age adult

    • E.

      Old age

    Correct Answer
    D. Middle-age adult
    Explanation
    Generativity vs. Stagnation is Erikson's developmental stage that occurs during middle-age adulthood. This stage is characterized by the desire to contribute to society and make a positive impact on future generations. Middle-aged adults may focus on raising their own children, pursuing meaningful careers, and becoming involved in community activities. They strive to leave a lasting legacy and feel a sense of fulfillment and purpose. Stagnation, on the other hand, refers to a lack of productivity and feeling unfulfilled. This stage is important for individuals to find meaning and satisfaction in their lives.

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  • 16. 

    A set of perceptions, ideas or actions which go together

    • A.

      Operation

    • B.

      Recognition

    • C.

      Recall

    • D.

      Schema

    • E.

      Stage

    Correct Answer
    D. Schema
    Explanation
    A schema refers to a set of perceptions, ideas, or actions that are interconnected and go together. It represents a mental framework or structure that helps individuals organize and interpret information. Schemas play a crucial role in cognitive processes such as memory, perception, and problem-solving. They allow individuals to make sense of the world by categorizing and organizing information into meaningful patterns. Schemas can be influenced by past experiences, cultural factors, and personal beliefs, and they guide our expectations and behaviors in various situations.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following does classical conditioning best explain? I. Reflexive reactions II. Unconscious actions III. Elective actions

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      I and II only

    • C.

      I, II, and III

    • D.

      II and III only

    • E.

      I and III only

    Correct Answer
    B. I and II only
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, resulting in a reflexive or unconscious reaction. This explains why the correct answer is I and II only. Reflexive reactions are involuntary responses to a stimulus, while unconscious actions are behaviors that occur without conscious awareness or control. Classical conditioning does not explain elective actions, which are conscious and deliberate choices made by an individual.

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  • 18. 

    According to Frued, at what age does the oral stage occur?

    • A.

      Birth to 1 year old

    • B.

      1-3 year old

    • C.

      3-6 year old

    • D.

      6-11 year old

    • E.

      Adolescence

    Correct Answer
    A. Birth to 1 year old
    Explanation
    According to Freud's psychosexual development theory, the oral stage occurs from birth to 1 year old. During this stage, the infant's primary source of pleasure and satisfaction is through oral activities such as sucking and biting. Freud believed that unresolved conflicts during this stage could lead to oral fixation or oral-dependent behaviors in adulthood.

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  • 19. 

    Which parenting style is most likely to allow discussion about what the family vacation should be, without allowing the children to make the final decision?

    • A.

      Authoritarian

    • B.

      Authoritative

    • C.

      Permissive

    • D.

      Uninvolved

    • E.

      All of the above are equally likely

    Correct Answer
    B. Authoritative
    Explanation
    Authoritative parenting style is most likely to allow discussion about the family vacation without giving the children the final decision. This style promotes open communication and encourages children to express their opinions and ideas. However, the parents still maintain their authority and make the final decision based on what they believe is best for the family. This approach fosters a sense of autonomy and independence in children while still providing guidance and structure.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following describes the theory of fast mapping?

    • A.

      Children are able to learn new words and concepts after a single exposure to them

    • B.

      When a link is created between a stimulus and a response in which a person substitutes a neutral stimulus for the actual stimulus

    • C.

      When people pattern their behavior off of others who they find admirable, or similar to themselves

    • D.

      An infant needs to form at least one strong attachment in order to develop normally

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Children are able to learn new words and concepts after a single exposure to them
    Explanation
    The theory of fast mapping suggests that children have the ability to learn new words and concepts after being exposed to them only once. This means that they can quickly and efficiently acquire new vocabulary and understand the meaning of words with minimal repetition or instruction. Fast mapping allows children to rapidly expand their language skills and cognitive development by rapidly forming associations between words and their meanings.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following statements is TRUE?

    • A.

      Parents should encourage their children to become ambidextrous becuase it will make them more efficient in performing tasks which require fine motor skills

    • B.

      Parents should encourage their children to use their right hand because right handed children tend to be better readers than left handed children

    • C.

      Parents should encourage their children to use their left hand because this stimulates right brain growth

    • D.

      It doesn't matter if the children are right or left handed. However, it is encouraged that they are one or the other, to aid in the development of fine motor skills

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. It doesn't matter if the children are right or left handed. However, it is encouraged that they are one or the other, to aid in the development of fine motor skills
    Explanation
    Encouraging children to be either right or left-handed helps in the development of fine motor skills because it allows them to focus on developing proficiency in one hand. Being ambidextrous may not necessarily make them more efficient in performing tasks requiring fine motor skills. Additionally, there is no evidence to support the claim that right-handed children are better readers than left-handed children or that using the left hand stimulates right brain growth. Therefore, the most accurate statement is that it doesn't matter if children are right or left-handed, as long as they choose one hand to focus on for fine motor skill development.

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  • 22. 

    Which is the second stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

    • A.

      Self-actualization

    • B.

      Esteem needs

    • C.

      Belonging and needs

    • D.

      Safety

    • E.

      Physical needs

    Correct Answer
    D. Safety
    Explanation
    The second stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is safety. This stage refers to the need for a sense of security and stability in one's life. It includes physical safety, financial security, and protection from harm or danger. Without satisfying this need, individuals may feel anxious or fearful, hindering their ability to progress to higher stages of self-fulfillment.

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  • 23. 

    Determine the mode and mean of the following set of numbers respectively 23, 24, 27, 25, 26, 24, 28, 3, 6, 1

    • A.

      24.5, 18.7

    • B.

      24, 18.7

    • C.

      24, 24.5

    • D.

      25, 24.5

    • E.

      18.7, 24

    Correct Answer
    B. 24, 18.7
    Explanation
    The mode of a set of numbers is the value that appears most frequently. In this set, the number 24 appears twice, which is more than any other number, making it the mode.

    The mean of a set of numbers is the average value. To find the mean, you add up all the numbers in the set and divide by the total number of values. In this case, the sum of all the numbers is 23+24+27+25+26+24+28+3+6+1 = 187. Dividing this sum by the total number of values (10), we get 18.7 as the mean.

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  • 24. 

    Which defense mechanism occurs when someone hides their feelings and does not acknowledge them?

    • A.

      Denial

    • B.

      Suppression

    • C.

      Reaction formation

    • D.

      Projection

    • E.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    B. Suppression
    Explanation
    Suppression is a defense mechanism that occurs when someone consciously hides or ignores their feelings or thoughts. Unlike denial, where the person is unaware of their true feelings, in suppression, the individual is aware of their emotions but chooses not to acknowledge or express them. This can be a temporary way of coping with uncomfortable or distressing emotions, allowing the person to focus on other aspects of their life. However, it is important to note that suppression is not a long-term solution and can lead to unresolved emotional issues if not addressed properly.

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  • 25. 

    At what age does language expand rapidly in children?

    • A.

      12 months

    • B.

      18 months

    • C.

      2 years

    • D.

      3 years

    • E.

      5 years

    Correct Answer
    B. 18 months
    Explanation
    At around 18 months, language expansion in children occurs rapidly. This is the stage when children start to acquire new words at a fast pace and begin to combine them to form simple sentences. They also start to understand and use more complex language structures. This period is often referred to as the "language explosion" phase, as children's vocabulary and linguistic abilities expand significantly during this time.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is true?

    • A.

      Firstborn children are always aggressive. They are perfectionists and crave control

    • B.

      Firstborn children follow no stereotypes whatsoever and do not differ in any meaningful ways from later born children

    • C.

      Firstborn children are always compliant. They follow their parent's examples and become cooperative and nurturing towards younger siblings

    • D.

      Although not all firstborn children follow the same stereotypes, they tend to fall into two distinct behavioral groups

    • E.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Although not all firstborn children follow the same stereotypes, they tend to fall into two distinct behavioral groups
  • 27. 

    What type of research is conducted by watching the subject?

    • A.

      Naturalistic observation

    • B.

      Longitudinal research

    • C.

      Conditioning

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Extinction

    Correct Answer
    A. Naturalistic observation
    Explanation
    Naturalistic observation is the type of research conducted by watching the subject. In this method, researchers observe and record the behavior of individuals or animals in their natural environment without any interference or manipulation. It aims to understand and describe the behavior as it naturally occurs, allowing researchers to gain insights into real-life behaviors and interactions. This type of research is particularly useful in studying social interactions, animal behavior, and the impact of the environment on behavior.

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  • 28. 

    According to Freud, a child being potty trained is in which stage of psychosexual development?

    • A.

      Phallic

    • B.

      Genital

    • C.

      Latency

    • D.

      Anal

    • E.

      Oral

    Correct Answer
    D. Anal
    Explanation
    According to Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the stage during which a child is being potty trained is the Anal stage. In this stage, which occurs between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the child's focus of pleasure and conflict centers around the elimination and retention of feces. The child learns to control their bowel movements and experiences pleasure from successfully using the toilet or frustration from accidents. This stage is crucial for the development of self-control and autonomy.

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  • 29. 

    What defense mechanism occurs when someone turns a feeling into the exact opposite feeling?

    • A.

      Denial

    • B.

      Suppression

    • C.

      Reaction formation

    • D.

      Projection

    • E.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    C. Reaction formation
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism that occurs when someone turns a feeling into the exact opposite feeling. This means that instead of expressing their true feelings, they exhibit behaviors or attitudes that are the complete opposite of what they actually feel. For example, someone who feels anger towards a person may display excessive friendliness towards them. This defense mechanism helps individuals cope with their true feelings by disguising them with opposite behaviors or attitudes.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is most directly harmed by teratogens?

    • A.

      Zygote

    • B.

      Embryo

    • C.

      Fetus

    • D.

      Zygote and Embryo

    • E.

      Embryo and Fetus

    Correct Answer
    C. Fetus
    Explanation
    Teratogens are substances or factors that can cause birth defects or developmental abnormalities in a fetus. The fetus is the most directly harmed by teratogens because it is the stage of prenatal development where the organs and systems are forming and are most vulnerable to external influences. The zygote is the earliest stage of development, and while it can be affected by teratogens, it is not as developed as the fetus. The embryo is the stage between the zygote and fetus, and while it is also susceptible to harm from teratogens, the fetus is at a more advanced stage of development and therefore more directly affected.

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  • 31. 

    If a parent grounds a child from the computer after they fail a test, which of the following best describes the type of conditioning?

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Positive punishment

    • D.

      Negative punishment

    Correct Answer
    D. Negative punishment
    Explanation
    Negative punishment is the best description for the given scenario. Negative punishment involves removing a desirable stimulus or privilege in order to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again. In this case, the parent is removing the child's access to the computer as a consequence of failing a test, with the intention of reducing the chances of the child failing again in the future.

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  • Current Version
  • Jan 25, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 13, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Britstott
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