MCQ: Human Biology Test Quiz

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| By Funkytrunks22
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Quizzes Created: 12 | Total Attempts: 14,818
Questions: 27 | Attempts: 423

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MCQ: Human Biology Test Quiz - Quiz



Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    This binds to Calcium.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer
    D. Troponin
    Explanation
    Troponin is a protein complex found in muscle tissue that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It binds to calcium ions, which triggers the movement of tropomyosin, allowing myosin to bind to actin and initiate muscle contraction. Therefore, the statement "This binds to Calcium" refers to troponin's ability to bind with calcium ions, which is essential for muscle contraction to occur.

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  • 2. 

    This binds to myosin before a contraction occurs.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer
    E. ADP/ATP
    Explanation
    ADP/ATP binds to myosin before a contraction occurs. ADP is released from myosin after a power stroke, causing myosin to bind to actin. ATP then binds to myosin, causing it to detach from actin. The hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate provides the energy for the power stroke and allows the cycle to continue, leading to muscle contraction.

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  • 3. 

    This changes shape to move actin.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer
    B. Myosin
    Explanation
    Myosin is a protein that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It interacts with actin, another protein, to generate the force required for muscle movement. Myosin changes shape to bind to actin, forming cross-bridges that allow the sliding of actin filaments past myosin filaments. This movement is powered by the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP, providing the necessary energy for muscle contraction. Tropomyosin and troponin are regulatory proteins involved in controlling the interaction between actin and myosin, while ADP/ATP are molecules that provide energy for the myosin-actin interaction.

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  • 4. 

    This causes myosin to become energized.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer
    E. ADP/ATP
    Explanation
    ADP/ATP is the correct answer because ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the primary source of energy for muscle contraction. When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate, the released energy is used to energize myosin, a protein involved in muscle contraction. This energized myosin then interacts with actin, tropomyosin, and troponin to initiate muscle contraction. Therefore, the presence of ADP/ATP is crucial for myosin to become energized and for muscle contraction to occur.

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  • 5. 

    This winds around actin.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer
    C. Tropomyosin
    Explanation
    Tropomyosin is a protein that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It is known to wind around the actin filaments, which are the thin filaments in muscle fibers. Tropomyosin helps regulate muscle contraction by blocking the binding sites on actin, preventing the interaction with myosin. When the muscle is stimulated, troponin, another protein, binds to tropomyosin, causing a conformational change that allows myosin to bind to actin and initiate muscle contraction. Therefore, the given correct answer, Tropomyosin, is supported by its role in winding around actin and regulating muscle contraction.

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  • 6. 

    This binds to myosin during a contraction.

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Myosin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Troponin

    • E.

      ADP/ATP

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Actin
    E. ADP/ATP
    Explanation
    During a muscle contraction, myosin binds to actin. Actin is a protein that forms thin filaments in muscle cells. Myosin, on the other hand, is a motor protein that uses ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to generate force and move along the actin filaments. ADP (adenosine diphosphate) is a byproduct of ATP hydrolysis, and ATP is required for myosin to detach from actin and prepare for the next contraction. Therefore, actin and ADP/ATP are both involved in the binding and movement of myosin during muscle contractions.

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  • 7. 

    The inside of the shaft of a long bone is filled with:

    • A.

      Spongy Bone

    • B.

      Cartilage

    • C.

      Bone Marrow

    • D.

      Synovial Fluid

    • E.

      Blood

    Correct Answer
    C. Bone Marrow
    Explanation
    The inside of the shaft of a long bone is filled with bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found in the center of bones. It is responsible for producing red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. Red bone marrow is involved in the production of blood cells, while yellow bone marrow consists mainly of fat cells. Bone marrow plays a crucial role in the body's immune system and the formation of new blood cells.

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  • 8. 

    The tendon which is attached to the movable bone is attached to the:

    • A.

      End of the Bone

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Origin

    • D.

      Joint

    • E.

      Ligament

    Correct Answer
    B. Insertion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Insertion." In anatomy, the term "insertion" refers to the attachment of a muscle tendon to the movable bone. The tendon connects the muscle to the bone, allowing for movement and contraction. In this case, the question is asking about the tendon attached to the movable bone, so the correct answer would be "Insertion."

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  • 9. 

    The waste product urea is formed in the:

    • A.

      Bowman's Capsule

    • B.

      Collecting Tubule

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Gall Bladder

    • E.

      Red Blood Cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    Urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver. It is produced as a result of the breakdown of proteins during metabolism. The liver plays a crucial role in the detoxification and elimination of waste products from the body. Urea is then transported to the kidneys through the bloodstream, where it is filtered and excreted in the urine. Therefore, the liver is responsible for the formation of urea.

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  • 10. 

    A specific immune response means that:

    • A.

      Only specific cuts or wounds are protected

    • B.

      Activated B cells are produced but memory B cells are not produced

    • C.

      The response is towards a specific antigen

    • D.

      Antibodies are produced only by T cells rather than B cells

    • E.

      It occurs only during specific times of the day

    Correct Answer
    C. The response is towards a specific antigen
    Explanation
    A specific immune response refers to the immune system's targeted and specific reaction towards a particular antigen. This means that the immune response is not generalized but rather focused on a specific foreign substance or pathogen. The immune system recognizes and responds to the specific antigen by producing antibodies or activating specific immune cells to eliminate the threat. This targeted response allows the immune system to effectively combat and neutralize the specific antigen, providing protection against specific infections or diseases.

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  • 11. 

    In clot formation ___________ is activated by clotting factors released from __________.

    • A.

      Histamine ; red blood cells

    • B.

      Fibrin ; histamine

    • C.

      Fibrin ; platelets

    • D.

      Antibodies ; macrophages

    • E.

      Antibodies ; B cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Fibrin ; platelets
    Explanation
    In clot formation, fibrin is activated by clotting factors released from platelets. Platelets play a crucial role in clot formation by releasing various clotting factors that initiate the formation of fibrin, which forms a mesh-like structure to stop bleeding.

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  • 12. 

    Inflammation at the site of a cut:

    • A.

      Is a specific defense mechanism

    • B.

      Involves macrophages

    • C.

      Involves antibodies

    • D.

      Usually is part of the secondary immune response

    • E.

      A and B are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Involves macrophages
    Explanation
    Inflammation at the site of a cut involves macrophages. Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in the inflammatory response. When a cut occurs, macrophages are recruited to the site to remove debris, dead cells, and pathogens. They also release chemical signals that attract other immune cells to the area and promote tissue repair. Therefore, the presence of macrophages is an important component of the inflammatory response.

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  • 13. 

    When a finger is cut, ___________ is the first to be released to help in defense.

    • A.

      Histamine

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Antibodies

    • E.

      Anti-diuretic hormones

    Correct Answer
    A. Histamine
    Explanation
    When a finger is cut, histamine is the first to be released to help in defense. Histamine is a chemical compound that is released by cells in response to injury or allergic reactions. It plays a crucial role in the immune response by causing blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, allowing immune cells to quickly reach the site of injury. This increased blood flow and permeability also lead to swelling, redness, and itching, which are common symptoms of inflammation. Therefore, the release of histamine helps to initiate the body's defense mechanism and promote healing.

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  • 14. 

    One main constituent of a clot is:

    • A.

      Red blood cells

    • B.

      Platelets

    • C.

      White blood cells

    • D.

      Macrophages

    • E.

      Either A or B is possible depending on where the clot is

    Correct Answer
    A. Red blood cells
    Explanation
    Red blood cells are one of the main constituents of a clot. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets and red blood cells come together to form a clot, which helps in stopping the bleeding. Platelets form a plug at the site of injury, and red blood cells get trapped within this plug, contributing to the formation of the clot. Therefore, red blood cells play a significant role in clot formation.

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  • 15. 

    One thing which helps make a vaccination work is:

    • A.

      A mast cell

    • B.

      Platelets

    • C.

      Memory B cells

    • D.

      Non-specific defense mechanisms

    • E.

      A slower response to a specific antigen the second time it invades the body

    Correct Answer
    C. Memory B cells
    Explanation
    Memory B cells are a crucial component in making a vaccination work. These cells are created after the initial exposure to a specific antigen, such as a pathogen. When the antigen re-enters the body, memory B cells recognize it and quickly produce large quantities of antibodies to neutralize the threat. This rapid response helps prevent the infection from spreading and causing illness. Memory B cells are a key aspect of the immune system's ability to provide long-term protection against future encounters with the same antigen.

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  • 16. 

    The primary target of HIV in the human is:

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B cell

    • C.

      Cytotoxic T cell

    • D.

      Helper T cell

    • E.

      Sperm cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Helper T cell
    Explanation
    HIV primarily targets Helper T cells. These cells play a crucial role in the immune system by coordinating the immune response and activating other immune cells. HIV infects Helper T cells by binding to specific receptors on their surface and entering the cell. Once inside, the virus hijacks the cell's machinery to replicate itself, eventually leading to the destruction of Helper T cells. This depletion of Helper T cells weakens the immune system, making the body more susceptible to infections and diseases.

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  • 17. 

    A cell which activates B cells.

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B Cell

    • C.

      Helper T Cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T Cell

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    C. Helper T Cell
    Explanation
    Helper T cells play a crucial role in activating B cells. When an antigen is presented to a helper T cell by an antigen-presenting cell, the helper T cell releases chemical signals called cytokines. These cytokines stimulate the B cell to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce antibodies against the specific antigen. Therefore, helper T cells are essential in initiating and coordinating the immune response by activating B cells.

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  • 18. 

    A cell that activates helper T cells.

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B Cell

    • C.

      Helper T Cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T Cell

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophage
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in activating helper T cells. They present antigens to the helper T cells, which triggers the activation of the immune response. Macrophages engulf and process foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, and then present fragments of these substances on their surface. When a helper T cell recognizes the antigen presented by the macrophage, it becomes activated and initiates an immune response to eliminate the pathogen. Therefore, the correct answer is macrophage.

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  • 19. 

    A cell that produces and releases antibodies.

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B Cell

    • C.

      Helper T Cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T Cell

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    B. B Cell
    Explanation
    A B cell is a type of white blood cell that produces and releases antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help the immune system identify and neutralize foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses. B cells are an essential part of the adaptive immune response and play a crucial role in the defense against infections. They are responsible for the production of specific antibodies that can recognize and bind to antigens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. B cells also have the ability to develop into memory cells, which provide long-term immunity against previously encountered pathogens.

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  • 20. 

    A cell that would be part of both non-specific and specific responses.

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B Cell

    • C.

      Helper T Cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T Cell

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophage
    Explanation
    A macrophage is a type of immune cell that plays a crucial role in both non-specific and specific immune responses. It is a part of the non-specific response as it can phagocytose and destroy pathogens indiscriminately. Additionally, macrophages also participate in the specific immune response by presenting antigens to helper T cells, which then activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells to mount a targeted immune response against specific pathogens. Therefore, a macrophage can be considered a cell that is involved in both non-specific and specific immune responses.

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  • 21. 

    A cell that ingests an antigen but does not produce memory cells.

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      B Cell

    • C.

      Helper T Cell

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T Cell

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophage
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that are responsible for engulfing and digesting foreign particles, including antigens. They play a crucial role in the initial immune response by presenting the antigens to other immune cells, such as helper T cells and B cells. However, unlike B cells and T cells, macrophages do not have the ability to produce memory cells. Memory cells are long-lived immune cells that remember specific antigens and provide a faster and stronger immune response upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen. Therefore, the given answer, "Macrophage," is the correct choice as it fits the description of a cell that ingests an antigen but does not produce memory cells.

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  • 22. 

    Amylase for starch breakdown comes from here.

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestine

    • D.

      Pancreas

    • E.

      Gall Bladder

    Correct Answer
    D. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas is responsible for producing and secreting amylase, an enzyme that aids in the breakdown of starch. Amylase helps to break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars that can be easily absorbed by the body. While the liver, stomach, small intestine, and gall bladder all play important roles in digestion, the pancreas specifically produces amylase for the breakdown of starch.

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  • 23. 

    A site in which digestion of all four types of polymers would occur.

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestine

    • D.

      Pancreas

    • E.

      Gall Bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Small Intestine
    Explanation
    The small intestine is the correct answer because it is the primary site where digestion of all four types of polymers (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) occurs. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion of fats. The pancreas also plays a role in digestion by producing enzymes that break down all types of polymers. However, the stomach primarily digests proteins, while the small intestine is responsible for the digestion of all four types of polymers.

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  • 24. 

    The site where absorption of nutrients to the blood occurs.

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestine

    • D.

      Pancreas

    • E.

      Gall Bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Small Intestine
    Explanation
    The small intestine is the site where absorption of nutrients to the blood occurs. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption in the digestive system. The small intestine has a large surface area due to its numerous folds and finger-like projections called villi, which greatly increase its capacity to absorb nutrients. It contains specialized cells called enterocytes that line its walls and have microvilli, further increasing the surface area for absorption. These cells absorb nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals from the digested food and transfer them into the bloodstream for distribution to the rest of the body.

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  • 25. 

    Secretes bicarbonate.

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestine

    • D.

      Pancreas

    • E.

      Gall Bladder

    Correct Answer
    D. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas secretes bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is an alkaline substance that helps neutralize the acidic chyme (partially digested food) that enters the small intestine from the stomach. This neutralization is important for proper digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. The pancreas also produces digestive enzymes that aid in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

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  • 26. 

    Forms bile salts.

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestine

    • D.

      Pancreas

    • E.

      Gall Bladder

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Liver
    E. Gall Bladder
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for producing bile, which is a greenish-yellow fluid that helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Bile is then stored and concentrated in the gall bladder. Bile salts are components of bile that aid in the emulsification and digestion of fats in the small intestine. Therefore, both the liver and gall bladder play a crucial role in the formation and storage of bile salts.

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  • 27. 

    HCl secreted from the cells of the stomach functions to:

    • A.

      Raise the acidity of the stomach (= lowers pH)

    • B.

      Changes pepsin to pepsinogen

    • C.

      Stimulate the epiglottis to cover the trachea when swallowing

    • D.

      All of A, B, and C are correct

    • E.

      A and B are correct, C is incorrect

    Correct Answer
    A. Raise the acidity of the stomach (= lowers pH)
    Explanation
    HCl secreted from the cells of the stomach functions to raise the acidity of the stomach, which in turn lowers the pH. This is important for the digestion process as it helps to activate enzymes, such as pepsin, which break down proteins. The increased acidity also helps to kill bacteria and other pathogens that may be present in the food. Therefore, the correct answer is that raising the acidity of the stomach is the main function of HCl secretion.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 20, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Funkytrunks22
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