Human Biology Test!

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Human Biology Test! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which blood vessel carries blood from all parts of the body to the heart?

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Vena cava

    • C.

      Anterior cardiac vein

    • D.

      Right coronary artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Vena cava
    Explanation
    The vena cava is the correct answer because it is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body back to the heart. There are two types of vena cava: the superior vena cava, which brings blood from the upper body, and the inferior vena cava, which brings blood from the lower body. Together, they ensure that all the blood in the body is returned to the heart for oxygenation and circulation.

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  • 2. 

    Arteries have thick walls.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Arteries have thick, muscular walls, whereas veins have thin, muscular walls.

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  • 3. 

    Which blood vessel carries blood from the lungs to the heart?

    • A.

      pulmonary vein

    • B.

      Pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Hepatic artery

    • D.

      Hepatic vein

    Correct Answer
    A. pulmonary vein
    Explanation
    The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. After blood is oxygenated in the lungs, it is transported back to the heart through the pulmonary veins. From there, it is pumped to the rest of the body to deliver oxygen and nutrients. The pulmonary artery, on the other hand, carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. The hepatic artery carries oxygenated blood to the liver, while the hepatic vein carries deoxygenated blood away from the liver.

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  • 4. 

    The blood flows with low pressure in veins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The blood flows with low pressure in veins, whereas the blood flows with high pressure in arteries.

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  • 5. 

    Which blood vessel carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body?

    • A.

      Vena cava

    • B.

      Anterior cardiac vein

    • C.

      Right coronary veins

    • D.

      Aorta

    Correct Answer
    D. Aorta
    Explanation
    The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all parts of the body.

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  • 6. 

    Transmite sound impulse to the brain.

    • A.

      Myelin sheath

    • B.

      Sinus cavity

    • C.

      Auditory nerve

    • D.

      Parathyroid gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Auditory nerve
    Explanation
    The auditory nerve is responsible for transmitting sound impulses from the ear to the brain. It connects the cochlea, which is the part of the inner ear that detects sound vibrations, to the brainstem. The auditory nerve carries electrical signals generated by the cochlea to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. Without the auditory nerve, the brain would not receive the signals necessary for hearing. The myelin sheath is a protective covering around nerve fibers, the sinus cavity is a hollow space in the skull, and the parathyroid gland is involved in regulating calcium levels in the body, none of which are directly related to transmitting sound impulses.

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  • 7. 

    A group of cells that gives off or secretes chemicals. 

    • A.

      Artery

    • B.

      Vein

    • C.

      Gland

    • D.

      Pore

    Correct Answer
    C. Gland
    Explanation
    A gland is a group of cells that releases or secretes chemicals. Glands are responsible for producing and releasing substances such as hormones, enzymes, and sweat. They play a crucial role in various bodily functions and can be found throughout the body. Glands can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, including endocrine glands, exocrine glands, and mixed glands.

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  • 8. 

    The master gland controls many bodily functions.

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Pituitary

    • C.

      Thalamus

    • D.

      Pancrease

    Correct Answer
    B. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland, also known as the master gland, controls many bodily functions by producing and releasing hormones that regulate other endocrine glands in the body. It is located at the base of the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus, which helps regulate its hormone production. The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in growth, reproduction, metabolism, and various other physiological processes, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 9. 

    These glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and bones. 

    • A.

      Parathyroid

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Adrenal gland

    • D.

      Testes

    Correct Answer
    A. Parathyroid
    Explanation
    The parathyroid glands are responsible for regulating the levels of calcium in the blood and bones. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which increases the amount of calcium in the blood when levels are low. PTH stimulates the release of calcium from the bones and increases the absorption of calcium from the intestines. This helps to maintain the balance of calcium in the body, which is important for various physiological processes such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and bone health.

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  • 10. 

    A male sperm or female ova or egg sex cell.

    • A.

      Gonad

    • B.

      Gamete

    • C.

      Zygote

    • D.

      Ovary

    Correct Answer
    B. Gamete
    Explanation
    A gamete is a male sperm or female ova or egg sex cell. It is the reproductive cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization to form a zygote. The other options, gonad refers to the organ that produces gametes, ovary specifically refers to the female gonad that produces eggs, and zygote is the result of the fusion of two gametes. Therefore, gamete is the correct answer as it accurately represents the male and female sex cells involved in reproduction.

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  • 11. 

    This occurs around the preteen and teen years in which males' and females' bodies mature so they are capable of creating new life.

    • A.

      Puberty

    • B.

      Menopause

    • C.

      Gestation

    • D.

      Ovulation

    Correct Answer
    A. Puberty
    Explanation
    Puberty is the correct answer because it is the period during which both males and females experience physical and hormonal changes that enable them to reproduce. It typically occurs during preteen and teen years when the body matures and becomes capable of sexual reproduction. This includes the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males. It is a crucial stage of development that prepares individuals for adulthood and the ability to create new life.

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  • 12. 

    The circulatory system is composed of...

    • A.

      The heart, the brain, and the lungs.

    • B.

      The brain, the heart, and the blood vessels.

    • C.

      The heart, blood, and blood vessels.

    • D.

      The heart, the brain, and the lungs.

    Correct Answer
    C. The heart, blood, and blood vessels.
    Explanation
    The circulatory system is responsible for transporting blood, oxygen, and nutrients throughout the body. It consists of the heart, which pumps the blood, the blood vessels, which carry the blood, and the blood itself. The brain and lungs are important organs, but they are not directly part of the circulatory system.

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  • 13. 

    When in the lungs, the __________ leaves the blood.

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Ammonia

    • C.

      Nitrogen

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    When in the lungs, carbon dioxide leaves the blood. This is because carbon dioxide is a waste product produced by cells during cellular respiration. It diffuses from the cells into the bloodstream, where it binds to hemoglobin and is transported to the lungs. In the lungs, carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood and into the alveoli, where it is then exhaled out of the body during breathing. Oxygen, on the other hand, enters the blood in the lungs, while ammonia and nitrogen do not play a significant role in gas exchange in the lungs.

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  • 14. 

    A sac shaped like an upside down pear with a thick lining and muscles in the pelvic area where a fertilized egg or zygote comes to grow into a baby.  Also called the womb.

    • A.

      Vagina

    • B.

      Uterus

    • C.

      Oviduct

    • D.

      Ovary

    Correct Answer
    B. Uterus
    Explanation
    The given description clearly matches the characteristics of the uterus. The uterus is a sac-shaped organ located in the pelvic area, with a thick lining and muscles. It is where a fertilized egg or zygote implants and grows into a baby during pregnancy. The term "womb" is also mentioned, which is another name for the uterus. Therefore, the correct answer is uterus.

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  • 15. 

    This is made up of the brain and spinal cord. 

    • A.

      Peripheral nervous system

    • B.

      Central nervous system

    • C.

      Enteric nervous system

    Correct Answer
    B. Central nervous system
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for processing and coordinating information received from the sensory organs and sending out commands to the rest of the body. The brain controls functions such as thinking, memory, and emotions, while the spinal cord relays messages between the brain and the rest of the body. The central nervous system plays a crucial role in regulating bodily functions and maintaining homeostasis. The peripheral and enteric nervous systems, on the other hand, are not made up of the brain and spinal cord, but rather consist of nerves that extend throughout the body and control voluntary and involuntary movements.

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  • 16. 

    Nerve cell

    • A.

      Nephrons

    • B.

      Neurons

    • C.

      Cerebrum

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurons
    Explanation
    Neurons are specialized cells that transmit information throughout the body. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting electrical signals, allowing for communication between different parts of the body. Nerve cells, nephrons, cerebrum, and cerebellum are all different terms or structures unrelated to the question. Therefore, the correct answer is neurons.

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  • 17. 

    The part of the brain in charge of thinking and memory.

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Medulla oblongata

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Groove

    Correct Answer
    A. Cerebrum
    Explanation
    The cerebrum is the part of the brain that is responsible for thinking and memory. It is the largest part of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres. The cerebrum controls our conscious thoughts, decision-making, problem-solving, and language processing. It also plays a crucial role in storing and retrieving memories.

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  • 18. 

    This part of the brain controls coordination and balance.

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Cerebellum

    • C.

      Occipital

    • D.

      Temporal

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebellum
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance. It is responsible for maintaining posture, coordinating movements, and ensuring smooth and accurate motor control. It receives information from the sensory systems, such as the inner ear and muscles, and integrates this information to help regulate and adjust motor activity. Damage to the cerebellum can result in difficulties with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills.

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  • 19. 

    The part of the brain in charge of involuntary actions such as breathing, heartbeat.

    • A.

      Medulla oblongata

    • B.

      Cerebrum

    • C.

      Occipital

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    A. Medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is the correct answer because it is the part of the brain that controls involuntary actions such as breathing and heartbeat. It is located at the base of the brainstem and serves as a crucial connection between the spinal cord and higher brain regions. The medulla oblongata contains various vital centers that regulate essential functions necessary for survival, including respiration, cardiovascular activity, and digestion. Damage to this region can have severe consequences on these involuntary actions, highlighting its importance in maintaining basic bodily functions.

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  • 20. 

    The cell body of a neuron.

    • A.

      Soma

    • B.

      Myelin sheat

    • C.

      Node of ranvier

    • D.

      Synapse

    Correct Answer
    A. Soma
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "soma." The soma, also known as the cell body, is the main part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles. It is responsible for maintaining the overall functioning of the neuron and integrating incoming signals from the dendrites. The soma also plays a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical impulses along the axon.

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  • 21. 

    A filament that arises from the neuron cell body and extends for micrometers. A cluster of them form a tree.

    • A.

      Soma

    • B.

      Dendrite

    • C.

      Axon

    • D.

      Glia

    Correct Answer
    B. Dendrite
    Explanation
    Dendrites are filaments that arise from the neuron cell body and extend for micrometers. They form a cluster and resemble a tree-like structure. Dendrites receive signals from other neurons and transmit them towards the cell body, allowing for communication between neurons. The given description perfectly matches the characteristics of dendrites, making it the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    Helping cell of the brain

    • A.

      Dendrite

    • B.

      Glia

    • C.

      Axons

    • D.

      Macrophage

    Correct Answer
    B. Glia
    Explanation
    Glia, also known as neuroglia or simply glial cells, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons in the brain. They are often referred to as the "helping cells" of the brain because they play a crucial role in maintaining the overall health and functioning of neurons. Glia perform various functions such as insulating and nourishing neurons, regulating the chemical environment, and repairing damaged tissue. Unlike neurons, glia are not involved in transmitting electrical signals, but they are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Therefore, glia is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 23. 

    Which type of muscle is responsible for peristalsis along the digestive tract?

    • A.

      Cardiac

    • B.

      Skeletal

    • C.

      Smooth

    • D.

      Voluntary

    Correct Answer
    C. Smooth
    Explanation
    Smooth muscle is responsible for peristalsis along the digestive tract. Peristalsis is the coordinated, wave-like contraction and relaxation of muscles that propels food through the digestive system. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the digestive organs, such as the stomach, intestines, and esophagus. Unlike skeletal muscle, which is under voluntary control, smooth muscle is involuntary and contracts and relaxes automatically. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and is responsible for its rhythmic contractions, while skeletal muscle is attached to bones and is responsible for voluntary movements.

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  • 24. 

    The sac that holds the testes.

    • A.

      Vas deferens

    • B.

      Scrotum

    • C.

      Cowper's gland

    • D.

      Placenta

    Correct Answer
    B. Scrotum
    Explanation
    The scrotum is the correct answer because it is the sac that holds the testes. The scrotum is a pouch of skin located outside the body that houses and protects the testes, which are responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. The scrotum helps regulate the temperature of the testes, keeping them slightly cooler than the rest of the body to ensure proper sperm production.

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  • 25. 

    A gland that makes some of the parts of semen.

    • A.

      Prostate

    • B.

      Vas deferens

    • C.

      Scrotum

    • D.

      Cervix

    Correct Answer
    A. Prostate
    Explanation
    The prostate gland is responsible for producing some of the components of semen. It is a small gland located below the bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate gland produces a fluid that helps nourish and transport sperm during ejaculation. This fluid, along with sperm from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. Therefore, the prostate gland is the correct answer as it plays a crucial role in the production of semen.

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  • 26. 

    When we breathe in the diaphragm 

    • A.

      Moves down away from the lungs

    • B.

      Moves side to side

    • C.

      Does not move

    • D.

      Moves up toward the lungs

    Correct Answer
    A. Moves down away from the lungs
    Explanation
    During inhalation, the diaphragm, which is a dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the lungs, contracts and moves downwards. This downward movement creates more space in the chest cavity, allowing the lungs to expand and fill with air. As a result, the diaphragm moves away from the lungs, facilitating the intake of oxygen.

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  • 27. 

      Where is the parietal lobe located?

    • A.

      Behind the forehead

    • B.

      Behind the frontal lobe

    • C.

      In the rear of the brain

    • D.

      Beside the cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    B. Behind the frontal lobe
    Explanation
    The parietal lobe is located behind the frontal lobe. It is one of the four main lobes of the brain and is responsible for processing sensory information, such as touch, temperature, and spatial awareness. The frontal lobe, on the other hand, is located at the front of the brain and is involved in functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and motor control.

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  • 28. 

    Part of the brain stem that controls breathing

    • A.

      Midbrain

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Respiratory system

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    B. Medulla
    Explanation
    The medulla is a part of the brain stem that controls various vital functions, including breathing. It contains the respiratory centers that regulate the rate and depth of breathing. The medulla receives information from sensors in the body that detect the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, and it adjusts the breathing rate accordingly to maintain a proper balance. Therefore, the medulla is responsible for the control and coordination of the respiratory system.

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  • 29. 

    Body temperature is measured by...

    • A.

      Thalamus

    • B.

      Hypothalamus

    • C.

      Setpoint

    • D.

      Neurons

    Correct Answer
    D. Neurons
    Explanation
    Neurons are responsible for measuring body temperature. These specialized cells transmit electrical signals throughout the body, including the hypothalamus, which is the region of the brain that regulates body temperature. Neurons in the hypothalamus receive information from temperature sensors located throughout the body and send signals to various organs and systems to maintain the body's temperature within a narrow range. Therefore, neurons play a crucial role in measuring and regulating body temperature.

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  • 30. 

    Steroids are secreted by____glands

    • A.

      Pituitary gland

    • B.

      Adrenal glands

    • C.

      Ovaries

    • D.

      Thymus gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Adrenal glands
    Explanation
    Steroids are secreted by the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. These steroids play important roles in regulating metabolism, immune function, blood pressure, and reproductive processes. The pituitary gland, ovaries, and thymus gland also produce hormones, but they are not primarily responsible for secreting steroids.

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  • 31. 

    Flight/fight response of the body is due to the effect of____hormones.

    • A.

      Parathyroid

    • B.

      Epinephrine/norepinephrine

    • C.

      Adrenocorticosteroids

    • D.

      Pitutary

    Correct Answer
    B. Epinephrine/norepinephrine
    Explanation
    The flight/fight response of the body is triggered by the release of epinephrine/norepinephrine hormones. These hormones are released by the adrenal glands in response to a perceived threat or stress. They increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, preparing the body for a physical response to the threat. This response is part of the body's natural survival mechanism, allowing it to react quickly and effectively in dangerous situations.

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  • 32. 

    Which hormone is believed to regulate sleep?

    • A.

      Melatonin

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Calcitonin

    • D.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    A. Melatonin
    Explanation
    Melatonin is a hormone that is believed to regulate sleep. It is produced by the pineal gland in the brain and helps to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin levels naturally rise in the evening, signaling to the body that it is time to sleep. It helps to promote sleep by reducing alertness and promoting relaxation. Melatonin supplements are commonly used to treat sleep disorders such as insomnia and jet lag.

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  • 33. 

    The chemical messengers released by endocrine glands are called____

    • A.

      Neurons

    • B.

      Exorcrine glands

    • C.

      Enzymes

    • D.

      Hormones

    Correct Answer
    D. Hormones
    Explanation
    Endocrine glands release chemical messengers called hormones. Hormones are produced by these glands and are secreted directly into the bloodstream. They travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs where they regulate various bodily functions. Neurons are nerve cells that transmit electrical signals, not chemical messengers. Exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts, not into the bloodstream. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions and are not specifically related to the function of endocrine glands.

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  • 34. 

    What is NOT a function of the endocrine System?

    • A.

      Controls differentiation of reprodoctive system and CNS in devolping fetus

    • B.

      Helps maintain homeostasis and internal envrionment, initiates corrective adapative responses to emergencies

    • C.

      Controls physiological parameters of the body

    • D.

      Coordinates male and female reproductive system

    Correct Answer
    C. Controls physiological parameters of the body
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for producing and secreting hormones that regulate various physiological processes in the body. It helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the internal environment and initiating adaptive responses to emergencies. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in coordinating the male and female reproductive systems. However, controlling physiological parameters of the body is not a function of the endocrine system.

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  • 35. 

    What does NOT describe the PNS?

    • A.

      Consists of nerves that carry impulses between the CNS and the receptors or effectors

    • B.

      Afferent and efferent fibers

    • C.

      Somatic and Autonomic divisions of the nervou system

    • D.

      Consists of the brain and spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    D. Consists of the brain and spinal cord
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Consists of the brain and spinal cord." This statement does not describe the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) because the PNS consists of nerves that carry impulses between the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the receptors or effectors. The brain and spinal cord are part of the CNS, not the PNS. The PNS includes afferent and efferent fibers, as well as the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.

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  • 36. 

    What makes a cell target of a particular hormone?

    • A.

      The presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

    • B.

      The location of the gland that secretes the hormone

    • C.

      The site where the hormone is secreted

    • D.

      The chemical properties of the hormone

    Correct Answer
    A. The presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
    Explanation
    A cell becomes a target of a particular hormone when it has a receptor for that hormone. Receptors are proteins located on the surface or inside the cell that bind to specific hormones, allowing the hormone to exert its effects on the cell. The presence of a receptor determines whether a cell can respond to a specific hormone or not. The location of the gland that secretes the hormone, the site of hormone secretion, and the chemical properties of the hormone are not directly related to a cell becoming a target of that hormone.

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  • 37. 

    These are all hypothalamic hormones except:

    • A.

      Lutenizing hormone (LH)

    • B.

      Anitdiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • C.

      Thyrptropin releasing hormone (TRH)

    • D.

      Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

    Correct Answer
    A. Lutenizing hormone (LH)
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating various hormones in the body. LH is not produced by the hypothalamus, but rather by the pituitary gland. ADH, TRH, and PIH are all hypothalamic hormones that are involved in regulating water balance, stimulating the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, and inhibiting the release of prolactin, respectively. Therefore, LH is the only hormone listed that is not produced by the hypothalamus.

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  • 38. 

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Kidneys

    • C.

      Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

    • D.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    B. Kidneys
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the kidneys. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. Its main function is to regulate the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys, thus reducing urine production and conserving water in the body. This hormone acts on the kidneys by increasing the permeability of the collecting ducts, allowing more water to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. Therefore, ADH plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and preventing dehydration.

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  • 39. 

    ___is not a steroid hormone.

    • A.

      Cortisol

    • B.

      Aldosterone

    • C.

      Insulin

    • D.

      Progesterone

    Correct Answer
    C. Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is not a steroid hormone because it is a peptide hormone. Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol and are lipid-soluble, while insulin is a protein hormone that is water-soluble. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Unlike cortisol, aldosterone, and progesterone, which are all steroid hormones involved in various physiological processes, insulin acts through a different mechanism and is not classified as a steroid hormone.

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  • 40. 

    How do neurons communicate?

    • A.

      Chemical methods

    • B.

      Electrical methods

    • C.

      Combination of both

    Correct Answer
    C. Combination of both
    Explanation
    Neurons communicate through a combination of both chemical and electrical methods. Electrical signals, known as action potentials, are generated within the neuron and travel along its axon. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters then cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the receiving neuron, transmitting the signal. This combination of electrical and chemical processes allows for the efficient and precise communication between neurons in the nervous system.

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