Human Anatomy Chapter 3 Cells

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Human Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Look in the mirror and you’ll see a wonderful human being with hopes and dreams, and a personality that sets you apart from everybody else. Have you ever wanted to peer under the hood and take a look at what’s going on beneath the surface level, however? Take the following quiz on Human Anatomy to find out a little more about how our bodies run – today we’ll be discussing cells!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Cells are the basic unit of life

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cells are indeed the basic unit of life. All living organisms are composed of cells, whether they are single-celled organisms like bacteria or complex multicellular organisms like humans. Cells have the ability to perform all the necessary functions for life, such as obtaining energy, reproducing, and responding to their environment. They are the building blocks of tissues, organs, and ultimately, entire organisms. Without cells, life as we know it would not exist.

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  • 2. 

    Cell Membrane

    Correct Answer
    seperates intracellular material from extracellular material
    Explanation
    The cell membrane acts as a barrier, separating the intracellular material (inside the cell) from the extracellular material (outside the cell). It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing for selective permeability. This separation is essential for maintaining the internal environment of the cell and regulating the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and signals with the external environment.

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  • 3. 

    Structures inside a typical cell

    Correct Answer
    nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membane, organelles, ribosomes, rer, ser, mitochondria, lysosomes, golgi apparatus, centrioles
    Explanation
    The given answer lists the structures that are commonly found inside a typical cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, containing the genetic material. The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the cell and holds the organelles. The cell membrane acts as a barrier, controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Organelles are specialized structures that perform specific functions within the cell. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) and SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) are involved in protein and lipid synthesis, respectively. Mitochondria produce energy for the cell. Lysosomes break down waste materials. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins. Centrioles play a role in cell division.

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  • 4. 

    Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    Control center of the cell
    Explanation
    The nucleus is the control center of the cell because it contains the cell's genetic material, DNA. It regulates all the activities of the cell by controlling the synthesis of proteins through the process of transcription and translation. It also plays a crucial role in cell division, as it is responsible for the replication and distribution of the genetic material to daughter cells. Additionally, the nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope that separates it from the cytoplasm, providing further control and protection for the cell's genetic information.

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  • 5. 

    Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    gel like substance inside the cell membrane but outside of the nucleus
    Explanation
    The cytoplasm refers to the gel-like substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains various organelles, such as mitochondria and ribosomes, as well as dissolved nutrients and molecules necessary for cellular processes. The cytoplasm acts as a medium for the movement of organelles and the transportation of materials within the cell. It also plays a vital role in supporting cellular structures and providing a suitable environment for biochemical reactions to occur.

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  • 6. 

    Organelles

    Correct Answer
    little organs located in cytoplasm and inclusion bodies
    Explanation
    Organelles are small structures found within the cytoplasm of a cell. They are often referred to as "little organs" because they perform specific functions that are essential for the cell's survival and overall functioning. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Inclusion bodies, on the other hand, are non-living substances that can be found within the cytoplasm of some cells. They are often composed of accumulated proteins or other materials. Therefore, the correct answer implies that organelles are both "little organs" located in the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies.

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  • 7. 

    Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    power plant of the cell, most of bodies ATP's are made here
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are often referred to as the power plant of the cell because they are responsible for producing most of the cell's ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy for cellular processes. ATP is generated through a process called cellular respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria. Therefore, the statement that mitochondria are the power plant of the cell and that most of the body's ATP is made here is accurate.

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  • 8. 

    Ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    concerned with protein synthesis, attaches to endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are cellular structures that are responsible for protein synthesis. They can be found either freely floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When ribosomes are attached to the ER, they form a complex called the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). This association allows the ribosomes to directly transfer the newly synthesized proteins into the ER for further processing and modification. Therefore, the statement "concerned with protein synthesis, attaches to endoplasmic reticulum" accurately describes the role and location of ribosomes in the cell.

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  • 9. 

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Correct Answer
    rough and smooth, rough containes ribosomes where protein is synthesized and smooth is the site of steroid synthesis
    Explanation
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes found in eukaryotic cells. It is divided into two regions: rough ER and smooth ER. The rough ER contains ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis. This means that the rough ER is involved in the production of proteins. On the other hand, the smooth ER is involved in the synthesis of lipids and steroids, including the production of steroids such as cholesterol. Therefore, the rough ER is the site of protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is the site of steroid synthesis.

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  • 10. 

    Golgi Apparatus

    Correct Answer
    puts the finishing touches on the newly synthesized protein
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids that are synthesized in the cell. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and then modifies them by adding carbohydrates or lipids to create functional proteins. It also sorts the proteins into vesicles and transports them to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell. Therefore, it can be said that the Golgi apparatus puts the finishing touches on the newly synthesized protein by modifying and packaging it for its proper function.

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  • 11. 

    Lysosomes

    Correct Answer
    housekeepers
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are organelles found in cells that function as housekeepers. They are responsible for breaking down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances through the process of hydrolysis. This helps to maintain the cleanliness and overall health of the cell. Lysosomes contain various enzymes that are capable of breaking down different types of molecules. They also play a role in recycling cellular components and are involved in processes such as autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, lysosomes act as the cell's housekeepers, ensuring proper waste management and cellular maintenance.

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  • 12. 

    Cytoskeleton

    Correct Answer
    provides shape and support to the cell
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that provides structural support and shape to the cell. It helps to maintain the cell's shape, anchor organelles in place, and provide mechanical strength. The cytoskeleton also plays a role in cell movement, cell division, and intracellular transport. Overall, the cytoskeleton is essential for maintaining the integrity and functionality of the cell.

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  • 13. 

    Centrioles

    Correct Answer
    help seperate the chromosomes during mitosis
    Explanation
    Centrioles are cylindrical structures found in animal cells that play a crucial role in cell division. During mitosis, centrioles help in the formation of the spindle fibers, which are responsible for separating the chromosomes. The spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and pull them apart, ensuring that each daughter cell receives the correct number of chromosomes. Therefore, centrioles are essential for the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis.

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  • 14. 

    Cilia

    Correct Answer
    short hair like projections on the outer surface of the cell
    Explanation
    Cilia are short hair-like projections found on the outer surface of cells. These structures are responsible for various functions, such as moving fluid or mucus across the cell surface, aiding in the movement of cells themselves, and sensing the environment. Cilia are composed of microtubules and are typically found in large numbers on the cell surface. Their hair-like structure allows them to create a wave-like motion, facilitating their functions. Overall, cilia play a crucial role in cellular movement and communication.

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  • 15. 

    Flagella

    Correct Answer
    long hairlike structures on the outside of the cell that help the cell move
    Explanation
    Flagella are long hairlike structures found on the outside of a cell that aid in cell movement. They are whip-like appendages that can rotate or wave back and forth, propelling the cell forward or creating a current that helps the cell move in its environment. Flagella are commonly found in single-celled organisms such as bacteria and protozoa, as well as in some multicellular organisms like sperm cells. These structures play a crucial role in allowing cells to navigate and respond to their surroundings, facilitating various biological processes.

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  • 16. 

    Structures on the cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    cilia, flagella
    Explanation
    Cilia and flagella are structures found on the cell membrane. Cilia are short, hair-like projections that cover the surface of certain cells and are involved in movement. They help in the movement of substances across the cell surface or in the movement of the cell itself. Flagella, on the other hand, are longer whip-like structures that are involved in cell movement. They are usually found in single or pairs and help in the movement of the entire cell. Both cilia and flagella play important roles in cellular locomotion and the movement of substances in and out of the cell.

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  • 17. 

    What to compartments is a cell divided into?

    Correct Answer
    nucleus, cytoplasm
    Explanation
    A cell is divided into compartments called the nucleus and cytoplasm. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, containing the genetic material and regulating cell activities. The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled region outside the nucleus, where various cellular processes occur. These compartments play different roles in maintaining cell function and allowing for specialized functions within the cell.

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  • 18. 

    Permeable/Semi-Permeable Membrane

    Correct Answer
    decides what will enter and leave the cell
    Explanation
    The permeable/semi-permeable membrane refers to a type of membrane that allows certain substances to pass through while restricting others. This membrane acts as a barrier for the cell, selectively determining what can enter and leave. It regulates the movement of molecules and ions, maintaining the cell's internal environment and preventing the entry of harmful substances. By controlling the passage of materials, the permeable/semi-permeable membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's homeostasis and ensuring its proper functioning.

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  • 19. 

    What is the cell membrane made of?

    Correct Answer
    phospholipids and proteins
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is composed of phospholipids and proteins. Phospholipids form a lipid bilayer, with their hydrophilic heads facing outward and their hydrophobic tails facing inward. This arrangement provides a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from its external environment. Proteins are embedded within this lipid bilayer, serving various functions such as transport of molecules across the membrane, cell signaling, and structural support. Together, phospholipids and proteins make up the main components of the cell membrane, allowing it to maintain its integrity and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell.

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  • 20. 

    Nuclear Membrane

    Correct Answer
    contains large pores that allow free movement of certain substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
    Explanation
    The nuclear membrane is a double-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. It contains large pores that allow for the movement of certain substances, such as RNA and proteins, between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These pores regulate the transport of molecules in and out of the nucleus, ensuring that essential molecules can freely move between the two compartments. This allows for important cellular processes such as gene expression and protein synthesis to occur efficiently.

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  • 21. 

    Nucleoplasm

    Correct Answer
    fills the nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleoplasm is a gel-like substance that fills the nucleus of a cell. It contains various components, such as chromatin, nucleolus, and nuclear bodies. This fluid medium provides support and allows for the movement of molecules within the nucleus. It also plays a crucial role in gene expression and the regulation of DNA replication and repair. Overall, the nucleoplasm fills the nucleus and provides an environment for essential cellular processes to occur.

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  • 22. 

    Describe the 2 layers of the mitochondrial membrane

    Correct Answer
    the outer layer is smooth, the inner layer has many folds and is called cristae
    Explanation
    The mitochondrial membrane is composed of two layers: the outer layer and the inner layer. The outer layer is smooth, meaning it lacks any significant folds or protrusions. On the other hand, the inner layer is characterized by numerous folds, which are called cristae. These cristae greatly increase the surface area of the inner membrane, allowing for more efficient energy production through cellular respiration.

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  • 23. 

    RER

    Correct Answer
    rough endoplasmic reticulum, sand paper appearance and contains ribosomes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is rough endoplasmic reticulum. This organelle has a sandpaper-like appearance due to the presence of ribosomes on its surface. These ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, making the rough endoplasmic reticulum involved in the production and transport of proteins within the cell.

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  • 24. 

    Name the passive transport mechanisms

    Correct Answer
    osmosis, diffusion, faciliated diffusion, filtration
    Explanation
    Passive transport mechanisms are processes that do not require energy expenditure by the cell. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion is the passive movement of molecules across a membrane with the help of transport proteins. Filtration is the movement of solutes across a membrane due to a pressure gradient.

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  • 25. 

    Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    Explanation
    Diffusion is the process by which molecules or particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This occurs due to the random motion of particles, which causes them to spread out and become evenly distributed. The driving force behind diffusion is the concentration gradient, which is the difference in concentration between two areas. As particles move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, they aim to achieve equilibrium, where the concentration is equal throughout. This process is essential for various biological and physical processes, such as the exchange of gases in the lungs and the distribution of nutrients in cells.

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  • 26. 

    Faciliated Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    helper molecule
  • 27. 

    Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    movement of water from an area with more water to an area with less
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the process of water molecules moving from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. This movement occurs in an attempt to equalize the concentration of solute on both sides of the membrane. Therefore, the correct answer is the movement of water from an area with more water to an area with less water.

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  • 28. 

    Filtration

    Correct Answer
    movement of water and dissolved substances from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
    Explanation
    Filtration is the process of separating solids from liquids or gases by passing them through a porous material or a filter. In the context of water and dissolved substances, filtration refers to the movement of these substances through a filter or a membrane from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. This pressure gradient allows for the separation of particles or molecules based on their size or solubility.

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  • 29. 

    Active Transport Mechanisms

    Correct Answer
    active transport pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis
    Explanation
    Active transport mechanisms are processes that require energy to move molecules or ions across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient. Active transport pumps, such as sodium-potassium pumps, use energy to transport ions across the membrane. Endocytosis is a process where the cell engulfs substances by forming a vesicle around them. Exocytosis is the opposite process, where substances are released from the cell by fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane. These three mechanisms are examples of active transport processes that enable the cell to transport molecules or ions across the membrane, maintaining homeostasis and allowing for various cellular functions.

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  • 30. 

    Active Transport Pumps

    Correct Answer
    movement of a substance uphill (from an area of low pressure to an area of high pressure)
    Explanation
    Active transport pumps are proteins located in the cell membrane that use energy to transport substances against their concentration gradient, from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This process requires the input of energy, usually in the form of ATP, to move molecules uphill and against their natural tendency to diffuse down their concentration gradient. By doing so, active transport pumps maintain the concentration gradients necessary for various cellular processes, such as nutrient uptake and waste removal.

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  • 31. 

    Endocytosis

    Correct Answer
    taking in or ingestion of substances by the cell membrane
    Explanation
    Endocytosis refers to the process by which a cell takes in or ingests substances through its cell membrane. This process involves the formation of a vesicle, which surrounds the substance and brings it into the cell. Endocytosis is essential for various cellular functions, such as nutrient uptake, removal of waste materials, and regulation of cell signaling. By allowing the cell to internalize external molecules, endocytosis plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's homeostasis and ensuring its proper functioning.

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  • 32. 

    Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis is part of endocytosis... what do they do?

    Correct Answer
    engulf solids, engulf liquids
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are both processes of endocytosis, where cells engulf substances from their external environment. Phagocytosis specifically refers to the engulfment of solid particles, such as bacteria or cellular debris, by specialized cells called phagocytes. Pinocytosis, on the other hand, involves the engulfment of liquid or dissolved substances by cells. These processes are vital for the cell's ability to take in nutrients, eliminate waste, and defend against pathogens.

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  • 33. 

    Exocytosis

    Correct Answer
    secretion of cell products out of the cell
    Explanation
    Exocytosis refers to the process in which cell products are released or secreted out of the cell. This involves the fusion of vesicles containing the cell products with the cell membrane, leading to the release of the contents outside the cell. Exocytosis is an essential mechanism for various cellular functions, including the release of hormones, neurotransmitters, and digestive enzymes. It allows cells to communicate with each other, regulate physiological processes, and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 34. 

    Equilibrium

    Correct Answer
    the point at which no further net diffusion occurs
    Explanation
    The term "equilibrium" refers to a state in which there is no longer any net diffusion happening. This means that the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration has reached a balance, and there is no overall change in concentration. At this point, the rate of diffusion in one direction is equal to the rate of diffusion in the opposite direction, resulting in no net movement of particles.

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  • 35. 

    Tonicity

    Correct Answer
    the ability of a solution to effect the volume and pressure within a cell
    Explanation
    Tonicity refers to the ability of a solution to influence the volume and pressure within a cell. It describes the relative concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell and how it affects the movement of water across the cell membrane. A solution can be hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic, depending on its concentration compared to the cell's cytoplasm. In hypertonic solutions, the concentration of solutes is higher outside the cell, causing water to move out of the cell, leading to cell shrinkage. In hypotonic solutions, the concentration of solutes is lower outside the cell, causing water to move into the cell, leading to cell swelling or bursting. In isotonic solutions, the concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside the cell, resulting in no net movement of water.

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  • 36. 

    Isotonic Solution

    Correct Answer
    has the same concentration as intracellular fluid
    Explanation
    An isotonic solution refers to a solution that has the same concentration of solutes as the intracellular fluid. This means that the concentration of solutes inside the cell and in the surrounding solution is balanced, resulting in no net movement of water across the cell membrane. In an isotonic solution, the cell maintains its shape and size without gaining or losing water. Therefore, an isotonic solution with the same concentration as intracellular fluid would not cause any osmotic effects on the cell.

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  • 37. 

    Hypotonic Solution

    Correct Answer
    causes cell to burst
    Explanation
    A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes compared to the inside of the cell. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water will move into the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to swell and potentially burst. This is because the higher concentration of water outside the cell creates a gradient that drives water into the cell to equalize the concentration. As a result, the increased water uptake causes the cell to expand and potentially rupture.

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  • 38. 

    Hypertonic Solution

    Correct Answer
    causes cell to shrink or crenate
    Explanation
    A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration compared to the cell's cytoplasm. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water molecules move out of the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to lose water and shrink. This shrinkage of the cell membrane is known as cell crenation.

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  • 39. 

    Interphase

    Correct Answer
    g1, s, g2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is g1, s, g2. This sequence refers to the three stages of interphase in the cell cycle. G1 (Gap 1) is the first stage where the cell grows and prepares for DNA replication. S (Synthesis) is the second stage where DNA replication occurs. G2 (Gap 2) is the final stage where the cell continues to grow and prepares for cell division. These stages are crucial for the proper functioning and division of cells.

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  • 40. 

    Phase G1

    Correct Answer
    cell carries normal activities and begins to make the dna and other substances needed for cell division
    Explanation
    During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, the cell is in its normal state and carries out its regular functions. At this stage, the cell also starts to synthesize DNA and other necessary substances required for cell division. This includes the replication of the genetic material and the production of proteins and enzymes needed for the subsequent phases of the cell cycle.

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  • 41. 

    Phase S

    Correct Answer
    cell duplicates its chromosomes, thereby making enough dna for the2 cells
    Explanation
    During the S phase of the cell cycle, the cell undergoes DNA replication. This means that the cell duplicates its chromosomes, resulting in two identical sets of DNA. This process ensures that each resulting cell will have enough DNA to carry out its functions.

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  • 42. 

    G2

    Correct Answer
    final phase of cell division, it includes the synthesis of enzymes and other protein needed for mitosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that G2 is the final phase of cell division and it involves the synthesis of enzymes and other proteins required for mitosis. This means that during G2, the cell prepares itself for the process of mitosis by producing the necessary components. G2 serves as a checkpoint to ensure that all the necessary conditions are met before proceeding to mitosis. The synthesis of enzymes and proteins is crucial for the proper functioning and progression of mitosis.

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  • 43. 

    Metastasis

    Correct Answer
    spreading of cancer cells
    Explanation
    Metastasis refers to the process by which cancer cells spread from the primary tumor to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These cells can travel to distant organs or tissues, forming secondary tumors. This phenomenon is a hallmark of malignant cancers and is responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Therefore, the correct answer "spreading of cancer cells" accurately describes the concept of metastasis.

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  • 44. 

    Stem Cells

    Correct Answer
    relatively undifferentiated or unspecialized cells whose only function is the production of unspecialized cells
    Explanation
    Stem cells are a type of cells that are relatively undifferentiated or unspecialized, meaning they have not yet developed into specific cell types. Their primary function is to produce more unspecialized cells, which can then differentiate into different types of cells in the body. This ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types makes stem cells crucial for growth, development, and tissue repair in organisms.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
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  • May 06, 2009
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