Horticulture

88 Questions
Horticulture Quizzes & Trivia

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To maintain the highest quality fruit and vegetables for post harvest storage one needs to reduce the levels of nitrogen fertilization at toward the end of the production cycle

True

False

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    To maintain the highest quality fruit and vegetables for post harvest storage one needs to reduce the levels of nitrogen fertilization at toward the end of the production cycle
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    The major advantage of green roofs in urban areas is the retention of rain water
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    Which plants are most ofeten used on green roofs due to their tolerance to extreme heat and drought
    • A. 

      Native grasses

    • B. 

      Bulb crops

    • C. 

      Herbaceous perennials that go dormant in the winter

    • D. 

      Sedums and other suculents

  • 4. 
    This plant has a mycorrhizza fungus associated with its roots, to aid in the uptake of nutrients, as the plant does not form root hairs
    • A. 

      Rasberries

    • B. 

      Cranberries

    • C. 

      Blueberries

    • D. 

      Strawberris

  • 5. 
    The best time to prune a shrub which flowers for a week to ten days in mid- April would be
    • A. 

      Late march

    • B. 

      Late april

    • C. 

      July

    • D. 

      November

  • 6. 
    Fruits and vegetables that are sensitive to ethylene are stored under which of the following conditions to extend their storage life
    • A. 

      High oxygen levels

    • B. 

      Low oxygen levels

    • C. 

      Low carbon diozed levels

    • D. 

      High nitrogen levels

  • 7. 
    Cutting an entire shrub back to 6 inches above the ground is called _______ pruning
    • A. 

      Stubbing

    • B. 

      Renewal

    • C. 

      Heading back

    • D. 

      Rejuvenation

  • 8. 
    Extensive Green Roofs have media layers greater than 6 inches and often have small trees and shurbs planted on them
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    Strawberries are generally mulched during the winter in this climate to
    • A. 

      Keep the soil dry in the winer

    • B. 

      Prevent the soil from freezing

    • C. 

      Reduce frost heaving of the plants

    • D. 

      Reduce sunscald

  • 10. 
    Cranberries are grown in wet areas as they are aquatic plants that require their roots to be submerged in water
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Winter chilling requirements for temperate zone frue trees is based on
    • A. 

      Total number of hourse below freezing

    • B. 

      Total number of hourse between 32 and 45 degress F

    • C. 

      Total number of hours above 60 degrees F

    • D. 

      Temperate zone tree fruites do not have a chilling requirement

  • 12. 
    Cut flowers with high internal____ levels will last longer than those with low levels
    • A. 

      Nitrogen

    • B. 

      Calcium

    • C. 

      Carbohydrate

    • D. 

      Ethylene

  • 13. 
    Dormancy caused by external conditions is called
    • A. 

      Endodormancy

    • B. 

      Ecodormancy

    • C. 

      Physical dormancy

    • D. 

      Cold induced dormancy

  • 14. 
    Which of the following is not a technique used to increase production of a small space garden
    • A. 

      Intercropping

    • B. 

      Single row planting

    • C. 

      Wide row planting

    • D. 

      Vertical training

  • 15. 
    Which of the following internal plant hormone prevents dormant buds from prematurely growing during warm spells in the winter
    • A. 

      Gibberellin

    • B. 

      Absicic acid

    • C. 

      Ethylene

    • D. 

      Auxin

  • 16. 
    Vegetables such as tomatoes require high levels of nitrogen fertilizer to produce the best quality fruit
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Dwarf apple trees are most often produced by grafting and or budding
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    A tree with wide branch (crotch) angles will have stronger branch structure than one with narrow branch angles
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Hedges are best maintained when they are pruned so that the
    • A. 

      Top is wider than the bottom

    • B. 

      Bottom is wider than the top

    • C. 

      The sides are perpendicular to the top and bottom

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 20. 
    The fruiting stems (canes) of raspberries are called
    • A. 

      Floricanes

    • B. 

      Primocanes

    • C. 

      Candy canes

    • D. 

      Fruiting spurs

  • 21. 
    To break bud dormancy of a northern apple variety compared to a southern variety requires
    • A. 

      Less hours of cold

    • B. 

      More hours of cold

    • C. 

      Longer day lengts

    • D. 

      Shorter day lengths

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is a useful function of ethylene in the horticultural industry
    • A. 

      Reduces fungal infections

    • B. 

      Increases the life of cut flowers

    • C. 

      Ripening of fruits such as bananas

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 23. 
    Which of the following materials will help increase the life of cut flowers
    • A. 

      A copper penny

    • B. 

      Citrus flavored soda

    • C. 

      Aspirin

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 24. 
    The fence surrounding the hort research center and green house on campus is used to control which of the following
    • A. 

      Woodchucks

    • B. 

      Deer

    • C. 

      Rabbits

    • D. 

      Students

  • 25. 
    The training of fruit trees to a wall is called
    • A. 

      Espalier

    • B. 

      Pollarding

    • C. 

      Bonsai

    • D. 

      Stooling

  • 26. 
    Blueberries require alkaline solis for best growth and fruit production
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    Carbon dioxide is the gas which caused rapid death of cut flowers
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    Spraying strawberry plants with water during freezing temperatures is one method of preventing damage to the blossoms during late spring frosts
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    When removing large tree brances one should
    • A. 

      Cut as close to the remaining branch as possible

    • B. 

      Cut just outside the branch collar

    • C. 

      Cut inside the branch collar

    • D. 

      Cut leaving a 2 inch stub

  • 30. 
    Which of the follwong would be the best location for a vegetable garden
    • A. 

      Morning sun

    • B. 

      Afternoon sun

    • C. 

      All day full sun

    • D. 

      All day semi shade

  • 31. 
    How do you tell the difference between a black raspberry and a true blackberry
    • A. 

      Blackberry vines live and bear fruit on the same stems for many years

    • B. 

      Black raspberries are produced only on one year old stems

    • C. 

      When harvesting blackberries the receptacle remains on the plant

    • D. 

      When harvesting black raspberries the receptacle remains on the plant

  • 32. 
    Overwintering greenhouses used for storing dormant container plants through the winter are covered with ____as it helps the day time temperatures lower
    • A. 

      Clear poly

    • B. 

      White poly

    • C. 

      70%shade cloth

    • D. 

      Black poly

  • 33. 
    Which of the following green house coverings would provide the greatest savings in heating costs
    • A. 

      Glass

    • B. 

      Double strenght glass

    • C. 

      Doublly layer polyethylen film

    • D. 

      Fiberglass

  • 34. 
    Which plant nutrietn is needed in the greatest amount for rapid vegetative growth of turf grasses
    • A. 

      Nitrogen

    • B. 

      Phosphorous

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Sulfur

  • 35. 
    The growing season for a given area is determined by
    • A. 

      The days between the last frost n the falla nd the last frost in the spring

    • B. 

      The days between the last frost in the spring and the first frost in the fall

  • 36. 
    Seeds are scarified to
    • A. 

      Disinfect the seeds before germination

    • B. 

      Break seed dormancy with a cold moist period

    • C. 

      Enable water to enter through a hard seed coat

    • D. 

      Improve long term storage of the seed

  • 37. 
    Which of the following nursery operations results in the greates amount of natural soil loss when the plants are sold
    • A. 

      Container

    • B. 

      Bare root

    • C. 

      Balled abd burlaped

    • D. 

      Pot in pot

  • 38. 
    Which of the follwong plant hormones is most commonly used to aid in the rooting of stem cuttings
    • A. 

      Ethylene

    • B. 

      GA

    • C. 

      IAA

    • D. 

      IBA

  • 39. 
    The best tree to use on the south side of a single story home in this climate to reduce heating and cooling costs would be
    • A. 

      Tall evergreen tree

    • B. 

      Tall decidous tree

    • C. 

      Tree should be on the north side of the house

    • D. 

      Trees have no influence on heating and cooling costs of a home in this climate

  • 40. 
    The best time of year to seed a new lawn in this part of the country is
    • A. 

      Early spring

    • B. 

      Early summer

    • C. 

      Late summer or early fall

    • D. 

      Just before the ground freezes in the late fall

  • 41. 
    Which would be the best conditions to store seed that does not have a dormancy condition for sowing the following year
    • A. 

      In a sealed containger with damp potting soil at 70 degress

    • B. 

      In a sealed containger wtih damp potting soil at 40 degress

    • C. 

      In a dry sealed container at 70 degrees

    • D. 

      In a dry sealed container at 40 degrees

  • 42. 
    When back filling the planting hole for a newly planted container grown plant one should always mix in 25 % peat moss or other organic matter to help the roots get established in the new site
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 43. 
    How can you tell if a plant is a stem or a root
    • A. 

      Presence of secondary meristems

    • B. 

      Presence or absense of nodes

    • C. 

      Where the plant part is located

    • D. 

      The presence or absense of cholorophyll

  • 44. 
    When mowing turf, one should never cute more than one third of the toal height
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 45. 
    The caliper of a tree refers to
    • A. 

      The height of the tree

    • B. 

      The diameter of the trunk at 4.5 feet above the ground

    • C. 

      The length of the longest branch

    • D. 

      The size of the root ball

  • 46. 
    The size of the planting hole for a container grown tree or shrub should be
    • A. 

      Slightly larger than the diameter of the container

    • B. 

      Twice as deep as the container height

    • C. 

      The same size as the diameter of the container

    • D. 

      Two to three times as wide as the container

  • 47. 
    Greenhouse firms in the netherlands tend to be more efficient than green house operations in the US because in the Netherlands
    • A. 

      An individual grower produce many different plant species plants in many different sizes

    • B. 

      An individual grower produce single or very few different crop species of the same size

    • C. 

      Labor is cheaper

    • D. 

      There is less competition

  • 48. 
    What is the major advantage of pot in pot container production over above ground container production
    • A. 

      Less dependence on irrigation

    • B. 

      Reduced dependency on supplemental winter protection

    • C. 

      Easier for the consumer to plant

    • D. 

      Can use soil mixes that more resemble the native soil

  • 49. 
    One of the major problems with container produced trees is
    • A. 

      Circling roots

    • B. 

      Reduced cold hardiness

    • C. 

      Increased labor costs during harvesting

    • D. 

      All the above

  • 50. 
    A plant propogated by a leaf bud cutting requires the cutting to develop___to produce a new plant
    • A. 

      Only roots throught dedifferentiation

    • B. 

      Only shoots through dedifferentiation

    • C. 

      Both roots and shoots through dedifferentiation

    • D. 

      Seeds

  • 51. 
    Which of the following irrigation systems would be the most effficietn, in regards to water use, when producing container grown plants
    • A. 

      Hand watering

    • B. 

      Overhead sprinkler

    • C. 

      Drip systems

    • D. 

      Ebb and flow systems

  • 52. 
    Asexual methods of propogation are used to maintain or produce specific plant clones of woody plants
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    A plastic bag is used to cover cuttings while they root to
    • A. 

      Kieep the media warmer

    • B. 

      Prevent lose of plant nutrients

    • C. 

      Increase the air temperature

    • D. 

      Increase the humidity around the cuttings

  • 54. 
    A well landscaped home will typically increase the value of the property by
    • A. 

      Less than 5%

    • B. 

      5 to 15%

    • C. 

      15 to 25%

    • D. 

      Over 25%

  • 55. 
    A tree shaded lanscape is often 20 to 25 degrees cooler than a landscape without trees
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    Chrysanthemums are pinched to
    • A. 

      Reduce the number of days until flowering

    • B. 

      Produce a taller plant

    • C. 

      To increase the number of flowers

    • D. 

      All the above

  • 57. 
    A tuber is composed mostly of stem tissue
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 58. 
    Which of the following plant hormone combinations would favor shoot development for plants being produced in tissue culture
    • A. 

      High auxin, low cytokinin

    • B. 

      Low auxin, low cytokinin

    • C. 

      Low auxin, high cytokinin

    • D. 

      High auxin, no cytokinin

  • 59. 
    The method of propagation used for the amaryllis bulbs propagated in class is called
    • A. 

      Layering

    • B. 

      Division

    • C. 

      Twin scaling

    • D. 

      Leaf cutting

  • 60. 
    Which of the following techniques is best for mulching newly planted trees
    • A. 

      A mound of wood chips piled up on the trunk of the tree and spreading out a couple feet from the base of the tree

    • B. 

      A layer of composed bark 2 to 3 inches deep forming a 3 to 4 foot circle around the base of the tree and a few inches away from the trunk

    • C. 

      A 4 foot circle of mulch 6 to 8 inches deep surrounding the base of the tree

  • 61. 
    High tunnels are used to extend the growing season and to produce higher quality crops
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Native plants will always grow better than introduced plants in our modern landscapes here in PA
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    Cation exchange capacity is associated with micelles of clay and humus because
    • A. 

      They have a positive charge

    • B. 

      Their metabolic rate is very high

    • C. 

      They have a neutral charge

    • D. 

      They have a negative charge

  • 64. 
    What does the term deciduous mean
    • A. 

      A succulent plant without true wood

    • B. 

      A plant that is hardly in the tropics

    • C. 

      A plant that loses its leaves for at least part of the year

    • D. 

      A plant that requires acid soil for best growth

  • 65. 
    How can you easily tell if a plant part is a root or a stem
    • A. 

      By looking for chlorophyll, stem tissue will always be a little green

    • B. 

      Whether the plant part is growing above or below ground

    • C. 

      By looking for root hairs

    • D. 

      The presence of nodes and internodes

  • 66. 
    When a plant does not recover from a lack of water it is called PWP. what does this stand for
    • A. 

      Perfect wilting point

    • B. 

      Peaches with pits

    • C. 

      Permanent wilting point

    • D. 

      Plastids without promise

  • 67. 
    Apical dominance can be broken by
    • A. 

      Spraying the plant with auxin

    • B. 

      Removing the terminal bud

    • C. 

      Removing the lateral buds

    • D. 

      Using a fertilizer with high levels of nitrogen

  • 68. 
    When a strawberry plant produces runners
    • A. 

      They are reproducing asexually

    • B. 

      They have responses similar to joggers who get their second wind

    • C. 

      They are beginning to flower

    • D. 

      They are about to move the mother plant to a more suitable site for nutrient uptake

  • 69. 
    What conditions best favor long term commercial storage of fresh apples
    • A. 

      High oxygen and low carbon dioxide levels

    • B. 

      High temperature and low oxygen levels

    • C. 

      Low temperature, low oxygen, and high carbon dioxide levels

    • D. 

      Low temperature, high oxygen, and low carbon dioxide levels

  • 70. 
    What is a multiple fruit
    • A. 

      Any fruit commonly solid in quantity

    • B. 

      A fruit that develops from a single flower with multiple pistils on a common recptacle

    • C. 

      A fruit that develops from many individual flowers that grow in close proximity on a common receptacle

    • D. 

      A fruit that is eaten by many different animal species

  • 71. 
    Evergreens
    • A. 

      Never lose their leaves

    • B. 

      Lose all of their leaves each autumn

    • C. 

      Lose some older leaves each summer, but retain the newest leaves for at least one year

    • D. 

      Leaves are always needle like

  • 72. 
    Why is latin used for scientific classification
    • A. 

      Linnaeus spoke only latin

    • B. 

      Latin is a dead language that doesn't change

    • C. 

      Linnaeus was obsessed with sex and latin is a romantic language

  • 73. 
    What is the difference between dioecious and monoecious
    • A. 

      Monoeciou plnats have both staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant whereas dioecious plants have only staminate or pistillate flowers on individual plants

    • B. 

      Monoecious plants have only a single food storage organ in their seeds

    • C. 

      Monoecious plants are herbaceous and dioecious plants are woody

    • D. 

      Monoecious plants live only one year and dioecious plants live for only 2 years

  • 74. 
    The use of fans and helicopters to control frost is based on the principle that
    • A. 

      Keeping the plant cool is good fo its stomates

    • B. 

      Warm air accumulates near the soil

    • C. 

      Rapid air movement raises the humidity around the plant

    • D. 

      Mixing the warm air above with the cold air at the surface raises the temperature surrounding the plants

  • 75. 
    A pistil is
    • A. 

      The site of pollen production

    • B. 

      The male portion of a flower

    • C. 

      The female portion of a flower

    • D. 

      Is found only in hermaphroditic flowers

  • 76. 
    Why do bananas not ripen on their route from the tropics to europe or america
    • A. 

      They do ripen, but the sailors eat them to prevent Scurvy

    • B. 

      The sea water air make the fruit remain green

    • C. 

      Ventilation prevents ethylene build up and initiating the ripening process

    • D. 

      Bananas have been genetically engineered so that they will not ripen until 21 days after harvesting

  • 77. 
    A root or shoot arising from any place other than the seed is called
    • A. 

      Adventitious

    • B. 

      Axillary

    • C. 

      Accessory

    • D. 

      Fortuitious

  • 78. 
    Vernalization is the process whereby
    • A. 

      A plant goes through a specific cold period prior to flowering

    • B. 

      A plant flowers better after receiving long day treatments

    • C. 

      Vernals appear from the nodes

    • D. 

      A plant flowers after receiving short days and long nights

  • 79. 
    The ABA levels in the buds of termperate zone trees would be the highest in
    • A. 

      Summer

    • B. 

      Fall

    • C. 

      Winter

    • D. 

      Level does not change throughout the year

  • 80. 
    Which soil pH would be considered the most alkaline
    • A. 

      4.5

    • B. 

      5.3

    • C. 

      6.5

    • D. 

      7.2

  • 81. 
    Plant hardiness zone maps consist of different zones based on
    • A. 

      The number of frost free days

    • B. 

      The average coldest temperature

    • C. 

      The number of days below 41 degrees F

    • D. 

      The lowest recorded temperature

  • 82. 
    To raise the soil pH and lower the acidity one would
    • A. 

      Add ground limestone

    • B. 

      Add sulfur

    • C. 

      Add nitrogen

    • D. 

      Add vinegar

  • 83. 
    Which soil would have the greatest plant available water
    • A. 

      Heavy clay loam

    • B. 

      Loam

    • C. 

      Sandy loam

    • D. 

      Pure sand

  • 84. 
    For the plant with the scientific name of Betula nigra 'Heritage', nigra is he ___
    • A. 

      Genus

    • B. 

      Specifc epithet

    • C. 

      Cultivar

    • D. 

      Species

  • 85. 
    Growing degree days are
    • A. 

      Number of degrees accumulated above a base tempe

    • B. 

      Number of degrees accumulated below a base temp

    • C. 

      Number of hours below a base temp

    • D. 

      The average temp for a growing season

  • 86. 
    If you were having tubers for dinner, you would be eating
    • A. 

      Extra long hot dogs

    • B. 

      A TV dinner

    • C. 

      Potatoes

    • D. 

      Onion rings

  • 87. 
    Compaction of a soil which results in poor drainage and root growth is due to the breaking of the structural components of a soil into smaller sizes
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 88. 
    An apple growing in the state of Washington that has a different physical appearance from the same apple cultivar growing here in PA is the result of its ___difference
    • A. 

      Genotypic

    • B. 

      Chilling requirement

    • C. 

      Phenotypic

    • D. 

      Parthenocarpy