Hidden EP Quiz No.03

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Hidden EP Quiz No.03 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which characteristic of megalopolis descrtbes its tendency to develop a multi-nuclei or multi-nodal spatial pattern? 

    • A.

      Is an expansive urban region with over 10 million population (Giles Clarke)

    • B.

      Tends to be dependent on food, water, and energy supplies of its neighboring regions

    • C.

      Has complex form as 'mother city' breeds smaller offspring-cities in sprawling manner

    • D.

      Requires broad type of regional governance beyond the capacity and resources of a single LGU authority

    Correct Answer
    C. Has complex form as 'mother city' breeds smaller offspring-cities in sprawling manner
    Explanation
    The characteristic of megalopolis that describes its tendency to develop a multi-nuclei or multi-nodal spatial pattern is that it has a complex form as the 'mother city' breeds smaller offspring-cities in a sprawling manner. This means that the megalopolis consists of a central city that gives rise to several smaller cities or nodes that are interconnected and spread out across the region. This pattern of development allows for the distribution of population, resources, and economic activities throughout the megalopolis, creating a decentralized and interconnected urban network.

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  • 2. 

    This process deals with efficient placement of activities and land uses such as farms, settlements, industries, transport hubs, infrastructure, wilderness etc across a significantly large area broader than a single city or town. 

    • A.

      Watershed Planning

    • B.

      Area Development Planning

    • C.

      Regional Planning

    • D.

      Physical Planning

    Correct Answer
    C. Regional Planning
    Explanation
    Regional planning is the correct answer because it involves the efficient placement of activities and land uses across a larger area, encompassing multiple cities or towns. This type of planning takes into consideration various factors such as economic development, transportation, infrastructure, and environmental conservation to ensure the balanced and sustainable development of a region. Regional planning aims to optimize the use of resources and promote coordinated growth and development in a broader geographical context.

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  • 3. 

    Klaasen enumerates the criteria for creating planning regions as follows. Which criterion pertains to the role of a leading center or a complex of exporting firms or lead industries? 

    • A.

      Must be large enough to take investment decisions of an economic size

    • B.

      Must be able to supply its own industries with necessary labor

    • C.

      Should have a homogenous economic structure

    • D.

      Must contain at least one growth point

    • E.

      Must have a common approach to and awareness of its own problems

    Correct Answer
    D. Must contain at least one growth point
    Explanation
    The criterion that pertains to the role of a leading center or a complex of exporting firms or lead industries is "Must contain at least one growth point." This criterion suggests that a planning region should have a specific area or center that is experiencing growth and development, which can act as a driving force for the overall economic development of the region. This growth point can be a leading center with various exporting firms or industries that contribute significantly to the region's economy.

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  • 4. 

    Which is not a method to delineate a region? 

    • A.

      Force field analysis

    • B.

      Gravitational analysis

    • C.

      Factor analysis

    • D.

      Flow analysis

    • E.

      Ethno-lirguistic and socio-cultural profiling

    • F.

      Weighted index number method

    Correct Answer
    A. Force field analysis
    Explanation
    Force field analysis is not a method to delineate a region. Force field analysis is a technique used to analyze the forces that drive and restrain a particular situation or change. It is commonly used in organizational development and change management to identify the factors that support or hinder the desired outcome. In contrast, methods like gravitational analysis, factor analysis, flow analysis, ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural profiling, and weighted index number method are all used to delineate regions or analyze various aspects of a region.

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  • 5. 

    "High-growth regions with expanding economic activity will attract net migration from other parts of the country, thus favoring them further. Capital investments tend to have a similar effect: increased demand in expanding centers spur additional investments, which in turn will increase incomes and demand or cause a further round of investments." 

    • A.

      Cumulative Causation

    • B.

      Positive Reinforcement

    • C.

      Economic Modernization

    • D.

      Circuits of Capital

    Correct Answer
    A. Cumulative Causation
    Explanation
    The given passage describes a situation where high-growth regions with expanding economic activity attract net migration and capital investments. This creates a cycle of positive reinforcement, where the initial growth leads to increased demand and further investments, which in turn increase incomes and demand or cause another round of investments. This concept of a self-reinforcing cycle is known as cumulative causation, which best explains the scenario described in the passage.

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  • 6. 

    According to Gunnar Myrdal, 'forward linkage' refers to the 'development of external economies for an industry's products" while 'backward linkage' refers to 

    • A.

      Connection with lagging or backward enterprises in the rural countryside

    • B.

      Development of auxiliary industries to supply input

    • C.

      Attraction of capital and enterprises to exploit expanding demands

    • D.

      Expansion of service industries and others serving the local market

    Correct Answer
    B. Development of auxiliary industries to supply input
    Explanation
    According to Gunnar Myrdal, 'forward linkage' refers to the development of external economies for an industry's products. This means that it involves the establishment and growth of industries that support and provide inputs to the main industry. These auxiliary industries play a crucial role in supplying the necessary materials, components, and services needed for the production and functioning of the main industry. This development of auxiliary industries helps in enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the main industry, leading to overall economic growth and development.

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  • 7. 

    'Residentiary services' refers to domestic living-related services such as housing, grocery, catering, recreation, etc while 'services that cut across varied types of firms such as security, banking, insurance, courier services, etc are called 

    • A.

      Logistical

    • B.

      Financial

    • C.

      Diagonal

    • D.

      Interlocal

    • E.

      Messengerial

    • F.

      Transborder

    Correct Answer
    C. Diagonal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "diagonal." In the given question, it is stated that "residentiary services" refer to domestic living-related services, while "services that cut across varied types of firms" are referred to as "diagonal." The term "diagonal" is commonly used to describe something that crosses or intersects different types or categories. In this context, it is used to describe services that span across various industries or sectors, such as security, banking, insurance, and courier services.

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  • 8. 

    Which thrust of regional planning addresses core-periphery, center-hinterland economic exchange & spatial integration? 

    • A.

      Enforce urban growth control such as greenbelts or analogous schemes to protect the natural environment

    • B.

      Cultivate a role for each component-settlement such as administrative center, manufacturing hub, tourism, zone, etc

    • C.

      Develop transport corridors in 'hub and spokes design' with major infrastructure reaching out to population centers

    • D.

      Resist development in flood plains or on earthquake fault zones by utilizing these areas as parks. farms, buffers, etc

    Correct Answer
    A. Enforce urban growth control such as greenbelts or analogous schemes to protect the natural environment
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Develop transport corridors in 'hub and spokes design' with major infrastructure reaching out to population centers." This thrust of regional planning focuses on improving connectivity and accessibility between different population centers, promoting economic exchange and spatial integration. It involves the development of transport corridors in a hub and spokes design, with major infrastructure reaching out to population centers, allowing for easier movement of goods, services, and people. This approach aims to enhance economic growth and development in both core and peripheral regions, promoting balanced regional development.

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  • 9. 

    A region that is defined by common physical features such as resource base, lake, coast, ecosystem is called 'natural or ecological region'; while that which is defined by extent of economic connectedness or market exchange is called a "functional region"; that which is created by law regardless of natural or economic commonality is called 

    • A.

      Homogenous region

    • B.

      formal region

    • C.

      Historic region

    • D.

      Virtual region

    Correct Answer
    B. formal region
    Explanation
    A formal region is a region that is created by law regardless of natural or economic commonality. It is defined by administrative or political boundaries rather than physical or economic characteristics. This means that the boundaries of a formal region are determined by legal or governmental decisions, rather than by natural or economic factors.

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  • 10. 

    'Industrial dispersal' began with Memorandum Circular dated Dec 16, 1973 which banned establishment of additional medium and heavy industries in the national capital within a 50 kilometer radius from 

    • A.

      Rizal Monument, Luneta

    • B.

      Malacariang Palace

    • C.

      Bonifacio Monument

    • D.

      Quezon Memorial Circle

    Correct Answer
    A. Rizal Monument, Luneta
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Rizal Monument, Luneta. The memorandum circular dated Dec 16, 1973 banned the establishment of additional medium and heavy industries within a 50 kilometer radius from the Rizal Monument in Luneta. This was a measure taken to disperse industrialization away from the national capital and promote development in other areas.

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  • 11. 

    The first export processing zone in the Philippines which became operational in 1972 was 

    • A.

      Bataan EPZ

    • B.

      Mactan EPZ

    • C.

      Baguio EPZ

    • D.

      Zamboanga de Ayala EPZ

    • E.

      Phividec Misamis Oriental

    Correct Answer
    A. Bataan EPZ
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bataan EPZ. This was the first export processing zone in the Philippines that became operational in 1972. Export processing zones are designated areas where companies can set up manufacturing and production facilities to export goods. Bataan EPZ played a significant role in attracting foreign investments and promoting economic growth in the Philippines.

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  • 12. 

    Although theoretically flawed, "Super-Region" as conceived by the administration of Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo sought to build upon perceived comparative advantage of a cluster of territories such as agri-processing, tourism, commodity logistics chain, or cyber-services. Which 'super-region' ought to focus on 'agri-business'? 

    • A.

      Northern Luzon Quadrangle

    • B.

      Metro Luzon Urban Beltway

    • C.

      CALABARZON Industrial Heartland

    • D.

      Central Philippines (Visayas, Palawan and parts of Mindanao)

    • E.

      Subic - Clark Freeport complex

    • F.

      Bangsa Moro Juridical Authority

    Correct Answer
    A. Northern Luzon Quadrangle
    Explanation
    The Northern Luzon Quadrangle should focus on 'agri-business'. This is because the question asks which 'super-region' ought to focus on 'agri-business', and the Northern Luzon Quadrangle is the only option that mentions a specific industry, which is agri-processing. Therefore, it can be inferred that the Northern Luzon Quadrangle is the correct answer.

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  • 13. 

    Under the 'super-region' concept of the PGMA administration, Central Luzon as part of the Mega Manila 'Extended Urban Region', would focus on 

    • A.

      Hacienda farming

    • B.

      Meat processing

    • C.

      Commodity logistics chain

    • D.

      Cyber services

    • E.

      Tourism

    Correct Answer
    C. Commodity logistics chain
    Explanation
    Under the 'super-region' concept of the PGMA administration, Central Luzon as part of the Mega Manila 'Extended Urban Region' would focus on the commodity logistics chain. This means that the region would prioritize the development and improvement of the transportation, storage, and distribution of goods and products. This is important for economic growth as it ensures the efficient movement of commodities from producers to consumers, contributing to the overall development and competitiveness of the region.

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  • 14. 

    Of the so-called 'super-regions,' which one is being promoted as having the comparative advantage in 'tourism'? 

    • A.

      North Luzon

    • B.

      Central Philippines

    • C.

      Baguio & Cordillera Autonomous Region

    • D.

      Davao Silicon Gulf

    Correct Answer
    B. Central Philippines
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Central Philippines. This region is being promoted as having the comparative advantage in tourism.

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  • 15. 

    Under Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016, what is closest to the meaning of 'inclusive growth'? 

    • A.

      Compromise

    • B.

      Transactional

    • C.

      Equality

    • D.

      Beneficial to all particularly lagging groups

    • E.

      Only for the Yellow Army

    Correct Answer
    D. Beneficial to all particularly lagging groups
    Explanation
    Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016, 'inclusive growth' refers to a development strategy that aims to benefit all segments of society, especially those who are lagging behind. It focuses on reducing inequalities and ensuring that the benefits of economic growth are shared by all, including marginalized and disadvantaged groups. This approach seeks to create opportunities and improve the well-being of all individuals, regardless of their socio-economic status.

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  • 16. 

    The 'center-down' paradigm of neo-classical economics of the 1960s assumed that benefits from the national-level or macro economic growth trend to_____component regions and lower-level communities.

    • A.

      Cascade

    • B.

      Sprinkle around in spurts

    • C.

      Pour down

    • D.

      Trickle down

    Correct Answer
    D. Trickle down
    Explanation
    The 'center-down' paradigm of neo-classical economics in the 1960s believed that the benefits of national-level or macroeconomic growth would gradually trickle down to component regions and lower-level communities. This means that as the economy grows, the benefits and prosperity would eventually reach all levels of society, starting from the top and gradually reaching the bottom. This concept suggests that economic growth at the national level would eventually lead to improvements in living standards for everyone in society.

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  • 17. 

    In John Friedman's (1966, 1973) taxonomy of regions according to economic condition, which refers to 'fagging regions'? 

    • A.

      Core regions

    • B.

      Upward transitional areas

    • C.

      Resource frontier areas

    • D.

      Downward transitional areas

    • E.

      Special problem areas

    • F.

      Latifundio-minifundio

    Correct Answer
    E. Special problem areas
    Explanation
    In John Friedman's taxonomy of regions according to economic condition, 'special problem areas' refers to regions that face unique challenges or issues that hinder their economic development. These areas may have specific problems such as high unemployment rates, poverty, or lack of infrastructure. They require special attention and targeted interventions to overcome these problems and improve their economic condition.

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  • 18. 

    The phenomenon of 'urban primacy' mostly in Third World countries wherein a single metropolis corners a disproportionate share of a country's population, resources, and investments by reason of historical or political precedence, or as a result of foreign colonial influence, is also called "Manila imperialism" in the Philippines. 

    • A.

      It is desirable because of the efficient use of space and economies of scale.

    • B.

      It proves that benefits from agglomeration outweigh the disbenefits from congestion and overconcentration

    • C.

      It demonstrates that Third World countries remain as colonies of Western imperialist powers.

    • D.

      It shows polarization within a country and siphoning off of economic assets and human talent from hinterland

    Correct Answer
    D. It shows polarization within a country and siphoning off of economic assets and human talent from hinterland
    Explanation
    The phenomenon of 'urban primacy' refers to a situation where a single metropolis in a Third World country attracts a significant portion of the country's population, resources, and investments. This concentration of power and resources can lead to polarization within the country, with the metropolis benefiting at the expense of the hinterland. Economic assets and human talent are often drawn away from the less developed areas, exacerbating inequalities and hindering overall development. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as "Manila imperialism" in the Philippines, highlighting the historical and political factors that contribute to urban primacy.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not among the Philippine government strategies to attain 'concentrated decentralization'?

    • A.

      Regional industrial centers

    • B.

      Special economic zones

    • C.

      Growth corridors, growth triangles, growth polygons

    • D.

      Agora and agurbia

    Correct Answer
    D. Agora and agurbia
    Explanation
    The Philippine government has implemented various strategies to achieve 'concentrated decentralization', which aims to distribute economic growth and development across different regions. These strategies include the establishment of regional industrial centers, special economic zones, and growth corridors, triangles, and polygons. However, 'agora and agurbia' are not among these strategies. The term 'agora' refers to an ancient Greek marketplace, while 'agurbia' is not a recognized term. Therefore, the correct answer is agora and agurbia as they are not part of the Philippine government's strategies for concentrated decentralization.

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  • 20. 

    According to Francois Perroux (1955), this phenomenon in economics refers to a propulsive or expanding firm/industry, or cluster of such firms/industries, which induces development of other firms/industries that are technically or functionally related to it, and stimulates prosperity of the locality or region through the flow of goods and services. 

    • A.

      Market town

    • B.

      Entrepot

    • C.

      Axis Mundi

    • D.

      Growth Pole

    • E.

      Ecozone

    Correct Answer
    D. Growth Pole
    Explanation
    Growth Pole refers to a phenomenon in economics where a firm, industry, or cluster of firms/industries acts as a propulsive force and encourages the development of other firms/industries that are related to it. This leads to the stimulation of prosperity in a specific locality or region through the flow of goods and services.

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  • 21. 

    Which is not an element of Special Economic Zone or ecozone under PEZA? 

    • A.

      Free trade zone

    • B.

      Financial banking center

    • C.

      Export processing zone

    • D.

      Industrial park or industrial estate

    Correct Answer
    B. Financial banking center
    Explanation
    A financial banking center is not considered an element of a Special Economic Zone or ecozone under PEZA. Special Economic Zones are designated areas that offer incentives and benefits to attract foreign investments and promote economic development. These zones typically include free trade zones, export processing zones, and industrial parks or estates. However, a financial banking center, while important for economic activities, is not typically categorized as a specific element of a Special Economic Zone.

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  • 22. 

    According to RA 7916 Sec 4, this refers to a tract of land of at least 50 contiguous hectares which is subdivided and developed according to a comprehensive plan under a unified continuous management and with provisions for basic infrastructure and utilities, with or without pre-built standard factory buildings (SFBs) 

    • A.

      Industrial corridor

    • B.

      Regional manufacturing hub

    • C.

      Export processing zone

    • D.

      Industrial estate

    Correct Answer
    D. Industrial estate
    Explanation
    According to RA 7916 Sec 4, an industrial estate refers to a tract of land of at least 50 contiguous hectares which is subdivided and developed according to a comprehensive plan under a unified continuous management and with provisions for basic infrastructure and utilities, with or without pre-built standard factory buildings (SFBs). This means that an industrial estate is an area specifically designed for industrial activities, with the necessary infrastructure and utilities in place to support manufacturing and other industrial operations. It may or may not include pre-built factory buildings.

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  • 23. 

    RA 7916 reiterates Sec. 12, Art XII of Philippine Constitution,"The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and locally produced goods and adopt measures that help make them competitive." What technical planning concept pertains most aptly to this? 

    • A.

      Inflow - outflow - backflow

    • B.

      Trickle up and trickle down

    • C.

      Economic nationalism or Filipinism

    • D.

      Forward linkages and backward linkages in production

    Correct Answer
    D. Forward linkages and backward linkages in production
    Explanation
    The concept of forward linkages and backward linkages in production pertains most aptly to the given statement. This concept refers to the interconnections between different stages of production within an economy. Forward linkages involve the connection between a company's production and the subsequent stages of distribution and consumption, while backward linkages refer to the connection between a company's production and the preceding stages of inputs and supplies. In the context of the statement, promoting the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials, and locally produced goods aligns with the idea of developing these linkages within the Philippine economy to make it more competitive.

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  • 24. 

    An industrial estate that is established to develop new industries is called "developmental" while an industrial estate meant to advance, improve or increase the level of industrial activjty particularly in poor regions is called

    • A.

      "specialized"

    • B.

      "ancillary"

    • C.

      "promotional"

    • D.

      "survival"

    • E.

      "subsistential"

    Correct Answer
    C. "promotional"
    Explanation
    A specialized industrial estate is typically focused on a specific industry or sector, such as technology or manufacturing. It aims to advance and improve the level of industrial activity within that specific area. On the other hand, a promotional industrial estate is established to attract and encourage new industries to set up operations, particularly in economically disadvantaged regions. It aims to increase the level of industrial activity and promote economic growth in those areas. Therefore, the term "promotional" best fits the description of an industrial estate meant to advance, improve, or increase the level of industrial activity particularly in poor regions.

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  • 25. 

    The following central variables except one were used by Alfred Weber, August Losch, Walter lsard, Melvin Greenhut and others, in so-called classical theories of industrial location. 

    • A.

      The costs of distributing and marketing finished goods to the end-user

    • B.

      Wages of labor

    • C.

      The costs of transporting raw materials to the factory

    • D.

      Perks and privileges for managers

    Correct Answer
    D. Perks and privileges for managers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "perks and privileges for managers." This answer is the odd one out because the other variables listed - the costs of distributing and marketing finished goods, wages of labor, and the costs of transporting raw materials - are all factors that these theorists considered in their classical theories of industrial location. However, perks and privileges for managers are not typically considered as central variables in these theories.

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  • 26. 

    When a firm locates close to sources of natural resources such as Pittsburg or Ruhr valley, it is called "materials­-oriented;" when a firm locates close to where there are large populations such as Shanghai or Tokyo, it is called --

    • A.

      Customer-friendly

    • B.

      Client-centered

    • C.

      Demographicaily-responsive

    • D.

      Market-oriented

    Correct Answer
    D. Market-oriented
    Explanation
    When a firm locates close to where there are large populations such as Shanghai or Tokyo, it is called "market-oriented." This means that the firm is strategically positioning itself near its target market in order to better serve and cater to the needs and demands of the customers. By being in close proximity to a large population, the firm can easily access its target market, understand their preferences, and effectively market and sell its products or services. This approach allows the firm to be more responsive and adaptable to the market dynamics and customer behavior, ultimately enhancing its competitive advantage.

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  • 27. 

    According to Walter lsard, firms or industries that are indifferent to the physical attributes of geographic location to carry out profitable business are called: 

    • A.

      Vagabond

    • B.

      Wanderlust

    • C.

      Itinerant

    • D.

      Footloose

    Correct Answer
    D. Footloose
    Explanation
    According to Walter Isard, firms or industries that are indifferent to the physical attributes of geographic location are called "footloose". This means that these firms can operate profitably in various locations without being constrained by factors such as proximity to resources or markets. They have the flexibility to choose their location based on other factors such as cost, infrastructure, or labor availability. This term highlights the freedom and mobility that these firms possess in their business operations.

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  • 28. 

    An American car company breaks up its production process because of high wage cost of unionized Iabor in Detroit and moves its manufacturing plants to China where labor costs are low and sources of refined metals are close by. What theory of firm location likely underpins this decision? 

    • A.

      Market-Oriented Approach by August Losch

    • B.

      Least Cost Approach by Alfred Weber

    • C.

      Profit-Maximizing Approach by Walter lsard

    • D.

      Organizational Theory (Segmentation & Mergers)

    Correct Answer
    B. Least Cost Approach by Alfred Weber
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Least Cost Approach by Alfred Weber. This theory suggests that firms will locate their production facilities in places where they can minimize costs, particularly labor costs. In this case, the American car company is moving its manufacturing plants to China because labor costs are lower there compared to Detroit. This decision aligns with the principle of minimizing costs to maximize profits, which is the central idea behind the Least Cost Approach.

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  • 29. 

    A Swedish computer company relocates to Silicon Valley, California, where despite high wage costs, IT companies boast of highest IQ points per square-meter of floorspace, and have vibrant linkages with topnotch universities to create state-of-the-art technologies. What theory of firm location is operational here? 

    • A.

      Theory of Human Capital

    • B.

      Profit Maximizing Approach

    • C.

      Satisficing Theory

    • D.

      Behavioral Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Theory of Human Capital
    Explanation
    The theory of human capital is operational in this scenario. This theory suggests that firms are attracted to locations where they can find a highly skilled and educated workforce. In this case, the IT companies in Silicon Valley are known for having a high concentration of individuals with high IQs and strong linkages with universities. The Swedish computer company is likely relocating to take advantage of the human capital available in Silicon Valley, which can contribute to the creation of state-of-the-art technologies.

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  • 30. 

    Despite global economic recession and decline of demand for luxury goods, a watch company decides to stay put in Switzerland because of its secure market niche and proven track record in producing Rolex timepieces. What theory of firm location is likely at work here? 

    • A.

      Comparative Advantage

    • B.

      Profit Maximizing Approach

    • C.

      Satisficing Theory

    • D.

      Behavioral Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Comparative Advantage
    Explanation
    The theory of comparative advantage suggests that a firm should locate its operations in a country or region where it can produce goods or services at a lower opportunity cost compared to other locations. In this case, the watch company decides to stay in Switzerland because it has a secure market niche and a proven track record in producing Rolex timepieces. This implies that Switzerland has a comparative advantage in producing luxury watches, making it the ideal location for the company despite the global economic recession and decline in demand for luxury goods.

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  • 31. 

    In 1970, the Presidential Advisory Council on Public Works and Community Development and the UP Institute of Environmental Planning together drafted the first-ever national physical framework plan that attempted to address spatial inequity or imbalance among regions using the concept of 

    • A.

      Integrated area development

    • B.

      Growth pole/growth center

    • C.

      Selective territorial closure

    • D.

      New society

    Correct Answer
    B. Growth pole/growth center
    Explanation
    The correct answer is growth pole/growth center. In 1970, the Presidential Advisory Council on Public Works and Community Development and the UP Institute of Environmental Planning collaborated to create the first national physical framework plan. This plan aimed to tackle spatial inequity or imbalance between regions by implementing the concept of growth pole/growth center. The growth pole/growth center strategy focuses on developing specific areas or regions as centers of economic growth and development. By concentrating resources and investments in these growth poles/centers, the plan aimed to stimulate economic development and reduce regional disparities.

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  • 32. 

    The declared strategy of the national government since the 1980s to promote greater complementarity between agriculture and industry sectors and between urban and rural places is called

    • A.

      Import Substitution Industrialization

    • B.

      Export Oriented Industrialization (EOI)

    • C.

      Countrywide urban-Rural Linkages (CURL)

    • D.

      Balanced Agro-Industrial Development Strategy (BAIDS)

    Correct Answer
    D. Balanced Agro-Industrial Development Strategy (BAIDS)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Balanced Agro-Industrial Development Strategy (BAIDS). This strategy refers to the national government's plan to promote a balanced development between the agriculture and industry sectors, as well as between urban and rural areas. It aims to create a mutually beneficial relationship between agriculture and industry, where agricultural products can be processed and added value can be created, leading to economic growth and development. This strategy emphasizes the importance of integrating agriculture and industry to achieve a balanced and sustainable development in both urban and rural areas.

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  • 33. 

    "Development process should be redefine in such a way that urban development promotes rural development while rural development supports urban development." (John Friedman)

    • A.

      Agropolis / agropolitan approach

    • B.

      Rurban interlink

    • C.

      Agro-based countryside development

    • D.

      Michael Lipton model

    Correct Answer
    A. Agropolis / agropolitan approach
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "agropolis / agropolitan approach". The agropolis or agropolitan approach refers to a development strategy that aims to integrate urban and rural areas by promoting agricultural activities and rural development in close proximity to urban centers. This approach recognizes the interdependence between urban and rural areas and seeks to leverage the strengths of both to achieve balanced and sustainable development. By redefining the development process in this way, urban development can support rural development through investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure, while rural development can support urban development by providing a skilled workforce and access to resources. This approach helps to bridge the gap between urban and rural areas and promote inclusive and equitable development.

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  • 34. 

    This sub-national development approach of government from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s refers to the necessary combination of agricultural, industrial, and institutional activities in mutually reinforcing manner - fostering the growth of viable market towns or mid-size cities that offer broad services and amenities meant to achieve both stability of population movement and agro-industrial growth; closely tied to, and integrated with, efficient agricultural production. 

    • A.

      Autonomous Autarchic Development

    • B.

      Integrated Area Development

    • C.

      Endogenous Self-Reliant Development

    • D.

      Selective Territorial Closure

    Correct Answer
    B. Integrated Area Development
    Explanation
    Integrated Area Development refers to the sub-national development approach of the government from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s. It involves combining agricultural, industrial, and institutional activities in a mutually reinforcing manner. The goal is to foster the growth of viable market towns or mid-size cities that offer broad services and amenities. This approach aims to achieve both stability of population movement and agro-industrial growth. It is closely tied to and integrated with efficient agricultural production.

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  • 35. 

    As conceptualized in 1989, the private-led "Agro-Industrial Development Area (AIDA)" scheme analogous to Japan's "One Town One Product" model would cluster several villages to carry out the following components except:

    • A.

      Family farm school or folk school

    • B.

      Small-scale agro-processing industries

    • C.

      Rural development center

    • D.

      Roll-on-roll-off (RORO) port

    Correct Answer
    D. Roll-on-roll-off (RORO) port
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "roll-on-roll-off (RORO) port". The other components mentioned - family farm school or folk school, small-scale agro-processing industries, and rural development center - are all part of the private-led "Agro-Industrial Development Area (AIDA)" scheme. This scheme aims to cluster several villages together and promote rural development through various initiatives such as education, agro-processing industries, and development centers. However, a roll-on-roll-off (RORO) port is not mentioned as one of the components of this scheme.

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  • 36. 

    RA 8550 Fisheries Code defines it is a band of dry land and adjacent ocean space in which terrestrial processes and uses, as well as oceanic processes and uses directly affect each other; its geographic extent has a landmark limit of one (1) kilometer from the shoreline at high tide to a seaward limit of 200 meters isobath. 

    • A.

      Seashore land

    • B.

      Foreshore land

    • C.

      Coastal Zone

    • D.

      Aqua Marine Zone

    Correct Answer
    C. Coastal Zone
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Coastal Zone because according to RA 8550 Fisheries Code, the Coastal Zone is defined as a band of dry land and adjacent ocean space where terrestrial and oceanic processes and uses directly affect each other. Its geographic extent is from one kilometer from the shoreline at high tide to a seaward limit of 200 meters isobath.

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  • 37. 

    This refers to the part of a seashore which is alternately covered by the ebb and flow of tide, technically, to a string of land margining a body of water, between the low-water line usually at the seaward margin of a low tide terrace and the upper limit of wave wash at high tide usually marked by a beach scarp or berm. 

    • A.

      Seaside

    • B.

      Seaboard

    • C.

      Foreshore

    • D.

      Seagrass bed

    • E.

      Beachfront

    Correct Answer
    C. Foreshore
    Explanation
    The correct answer is foreshore because it refers to the part of a seashore that is alternately covered by the ebb and flow of tide. It is the area between the low-water line at low tide and the upper limit of wave wash at high tide.

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  • 38. 

    Under RA 8550, what is the extent of municipal waters of a seaside town as measured from its shoreline? 

    • A.

      7 km

    • B.

      10 km

    • C.

      15 km

    • D.

      20 km

    Correct Answer
    C. 15 km
    Explanation
    Under RA 8550, the extent of municipal waters of a seaside town as measured from its shoreline is 15 km. This means that the town has jurisdiction over the waters up to a distance of 15 km from its shoreline. This law grants the town the authority to manage and protect these waters, including the regulation of fishing activities and the conservation of marine resources within this area.

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  • 39. 

    Under RA 8550 Fisheries Code of 1998, if the total width of water body between two seaside municipalities is less than 30 km, each one's municipal waters is determined by using

    • A.

      Comparative sizes of fishing population

    • B.

      A median line on common water body

    • C.

      Preponderance of maritime and aquatic activities

    • D.

      Ratio and proportion according to length of shoreline

    Correct Answer
    B. A median line on common water body
    Explanation
    Under RA 8550 Fisheries Code of 1998, if the total width of water body between two seaside municipalities is less than 30 km, each one's municipal waters is determined by using a median line on the common water body. This means that a line is drawn in the middle of the water body, dividing it equally between the two municipalities. This ensures that both municipalities have an equal share of the water body and can exercise their rights and responsibilities in managing their respective municipal waters.

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  • 40. 

    Philippines is one of 18 mega-diverse countries which together contain two-thirds of the world's biodiversity. Philippines has over 30% of Southeast Asia's coral reef cover, a square kilometer of which can produce between 30 to 40 metric tons of seafood annually. Which area is considered among the most serious hotspots in rapid coral reef destruction? 

    • A.

      Sulu

    • B.

      Boracay

    • C.

      Palawan

    • D.

      Mindoro

    Correct Answer
    A. Sulu
    Explanation
    The Sulu area is considered among the most serious hotspots in rapid coral reef destruction. This is because the Sulu Sea, located in the Sulu area, has experienced extensive coral reef degradation due to various factors such as overfishing, destructive fishing practices, pollution, and climate change. These factors have led to a significant decline in the health and biodiversity of the coral reefs in the Sulu area, making it one of the most threatened regions for coral reef destruction.

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  • 41. 

    According to 1997 study on 775 coral formations by Dr Edgardo Gomez, Dr Helen Yap of UP Marine Science Institute, 30% of total Philippine coral reef cover is dead, 39% dying, 25% in fair condition, how much remains in excellent condition?

    • A.

      approximately 5%

    • B.

      Approx. 8%

    • C.

      Approx. 26%

    • D.

      Approx. 31 %

    Correct Answer
    A. approximately 5%
    Explanation
    According to the information provided in the study, 30% of the coral reef cover is dead, 39% is dying, and 25% is in fair condition. The remaining percentage, which is not mentioned in the question, would be the percentage in excellent condition. Since the sum of the percentages mentioned is 94%, the percentage remaining in excellent condition would be approximately 6%. Therefore, the given answer of approximately 5% is the closest option.

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  • 42. 

    The following are illegal and destructive forms of fishing in Philippine marine waters, except one. 

    • A.

      Use of crude, traditional, or artisanal gadgets

    • B.

      use of dynamites and other explosives

    • C.

      Use of fine mesh nets

    • D.

      Muro-ami

    • E.

      Use of cyanide on reef-based or pelagic species

    • F.

      Use of beach seine and bottom-scouring trawls

    Correct Answer
    A. Use of crude, traditional, or artisanal gadgets
    Explanation
    The use of crude, traditional, or artisanal gadgets is not considered illegal or destructive forms of fishing in Philippine marine waters. These methods may refer to traditional fishing practices that have been used by local communities for generations. While they may not be as efficient or sustainable as modern fishing techniques, they are not explicitly prohibited or harmful to the marine ecosystem. On the other hand, the other options listed, such as the use of dynamites and other explosives, fine mesh nets, muro-ami, cyanide, beach seine, and bottom-scouring trawls, are all recognized as illegal and destructive fishing methods that can cause significant damage to marine habitats and species populations.

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  • 43. 

    Wilson (1992) estimated that 90% habitat loss of an area results in 50% reduction of number of species Under RA 9174 "Wildlife Resources Conservation & Protection Act", a species or sub-species that faces high risk of extinction in the immediate future is called 

    • A.

      Acutely Threatened Species

    • B.

      Critically Endangered Species

    • C.

      Species Vulnerable to Extinction

    • D.

      Rapidly Vanishing Species

    Correct Answer
    B. Critically Endangered Species
    Explanation
    Wilson (1992) estimated that 90% habitat loss of an area results in a 50% reduction in the number of species. This suggests that when a species or sub-species faces a high risk of extinction in the immediate future, it can be classified as "Critically Endangered." This term reflects the severe threat to the survival of the species due to factors such as habitat loss. Therefore, the correct answer is "Critically Endangered Species."

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  • 44. 

    Because land use changes affect a species' ability to migrate, __ are necessary to give species a route to reach their new habitats. 

    • A.

      Science Reserves & Ranches

    • B.

      Zoos & Botanical Gardens

    • C.

      Lifelines

    • D.

      Wildlife Corridors

    Correct Answer
    D. Wildlife Corridors
    Explanation
    Land use changes, such as urbanization or deforestation, can disrupt the natural habitats of species and hinder their ability to migrate to new areas. Wildlife corridors are necessary to provide a safe and connected route for species to reach their new habitats. These corridors are typically strips of land that connect fragmented habitats, allowing animals to move between different areas without facing barriers or obstacles. By establishing wildlife corridors, we can help preserve biodiversity and promote the survival of various species.

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  • 45. 

    The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) on March 3, 1973 has been helpful in protecting endangered animals and plants, of which the Philippines has over 800, by 

    • A.

      Listing all species that can be hunted, traded, and used commercially

    • B.

      Listing those species and products whose international trade is controlled

    • C.

      Funding projects for breeding endangered plants and animals

    • D.

      Preventing the hunting of whales and dolphins

    • E.

      Specifying prices for certain plant and animal products

    Correct Answer
    B. Listing those species and products whose international trade is controlled
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "listing those species and products whose international trade is controlled." The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) plays a crucial role in protecting endangered animals and plants by regulating their international trade. By listing species and products whose trade is controlled, CITES ensures that they are not overexploited or traded illegally. This helps in conserving biodiversity and preventing the extinction of endangered species.

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  • 46. 

    This refers to the totality of cultural properties preserved and developed through time and passed on for posterity. 

    • A.

      National patrimony

    • B.

      Customs & traditions

    • C.

      Patriotic legacy

    • D.

      Cultural heritage

    • E.

      Bequeaths & bequests

    Correct Answer
    D. Cultural heritage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cultural heritage. Cultural heritage refers to the totality of cultural properties that have been preserved and developed over time and are passed on to future generations. It includes customs, traditions, artifacts, buildings, and other aspects of a society's culture. This term encompasses the rich and diverse cultural legacy that is inherited from our ancestors and plays a crucial role in shaping our identity and understanding of the past.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is not a major Heritage Site in the Philippines as declared by UNESCO? 

    • A.

      Baroque churches of Manila, Sta. Maria, Paoay & Miag-ao

    • B.

      Tubattaha Reef Marine Park

    • C.

      Magellan's Cross in Cebu

    • D.

      Rice Terraces of the Philippines

    • E.

      Puerto Princesa Underground River

    • F.

      Historic Town of Vigan

    Correct Answer
    C. Magellan's Cross in Cebu
    Explanation
    Magellan's Cross in Cebu is not a major Heritage Site in the Philippines as declared by UNESCO. The other options listed are all recognized by UNESCO as major Heritage Sites in the Philippines.

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  • 48. 

    According to RA 10066 National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009, this refers to "historical sites or structures hallowed and revered for their history or association as declared by the National Historical Institute" 

    • A.

      Epochal Landmark

    • B.

      National Treasure

    • C.

      National Cultural Property

    • D.

      Historic Shrine

    • E.

      Sacred Place

    Correct Answer
    D. Historic Shrine
    Explanation
    According to RA 10066 National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009, a "historic shrine" refers to historical sites or structures that are hallowed and revered for their history or association as declared by the National Historical Institute. This means that a historic shrine is a site or structure that holds significant historical value and is recognized and protected by the government as a cultural heritage.

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  • 49. 

    Basic principle of Heritage Conservation which holds that historic structures and treasures should be utilized by preserving as much of their exteriors as possible while adopting more modern uses in their interiors. 

    • A.

      Total Makeover

    • B.

      Reconfigurative Renovation

    • C.

      Converted Property

    • D.

      Adaptive Re-use

    Correct Answer
    D. Adaptive Re-use
    Explanation
    Adaptive re-use is the correct answer because it aligns with the basic principle of Heritage Conservation mentioned in the question. Adaptive re-use refers to the practice of repurposing historic structures and treasures by preserving their exteriors while adapting their interiors for modern uses. This approach allows for the preservation of the historical significance and character of the structure while making it functional and relevant in the present day.

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  • 50. 

    Presidential Decree 2146 defines 'amenity areas' as those with high aesthetic values such as the following, except one. 

    • A.

      Outstanding landscapes, seascapes, and viewscapes

    • B.

      Planetarium, space observatory, and science centrum

    • C.

      Heritage sites and historic places

    • D.

      Municipal plazas and public parks

    Correct Answer
    B. Planetarium, space observatory, and science centrum
    Explanation
    Presidential Decree 2146 defines 'amenity areas' as those with high aesthetic values. The provided options include outstanding landscapes, seascapes, and viewscapes, heritage sites and historic places, and municipal plazas and public parks. These options all align with the definition of amenity areas as they are locations that have high aesthetic values. However, the option "planetarium, space observatory, and science centrum" does not fit the definition as these are not typically considered to have high aesthetic values.

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