How Well Do You Know About Heart Failure? Trivia Quiz

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How Well Do You Know About Heart Failure? Trivia Quiz - Quiz

How well do you know about heart failure? Most people are of the notion that heart failure involves the heart-stopping to beat for no reason, but in a real sense, heart failure occurs as a result of the heart not getting enough blood to pump to the other organs or lacking the force required to pump out the blood. Take this trivia quiz and test your understanding of this condition.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _________ = volume ejected during contraction (systole).

    • A.

      Stroke Volume (SV)

    • B.

      Cardiac Output (CO)

    • C.

      Cardiac Index (CI)

    • D.

      Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

    • E.

      Mean Arterial Pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. Stroke Volume (SV)
    Explanation
    The term "stroke volume" refers to the volume of blood that is ejected from the heart during each contraction or systole. It represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle and into the systemic circulation with each heartbeat. This measurement is important in assessing the overall function and efficiency of the heart, as a higher stroke volume indicates a stronger and more effective contraction. Therefore, stroke volume is the correct answer to the given question.

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  • 2. 

    _________ = SV x HR (in L/min).

    • A.

      Stroke Volume (SV)

    • B.

      Cardiac Output (CO)

    • C.

      Cardiac Index (CI)

    • D.

      Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

    • E.

      Mean Arterial Pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Cardiac Output (CO)
    Explanation
    The equation given, SV x HR (in L/min), represents the calculation for Cardiac Output (CO). Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute and is determined by the Stroke Volume (SV) multiplied by the Heart Rate (HR). Therefore, the correct answer is Cardiac Output (CO).

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  • 3. 

    _________ = CO + BSA.

    • A.

      Stroke Volume (SV)

    • B.

      Cardiac Output (CO)

    • C.

      Cardiac Index (CI)

    • D.

      Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

    • E.

      Mean Arterial Pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. Cardiac Index (CI)
    Explanation
    The equation CO + BSA refers to the calculation of Cardiac Index (CI), which is a measure of the cardiac output adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute, and BSA takes into account the size of the individual's body. Therefore, the equation CO + BSA is used to calculate the Cardiac Index, which provides a more accurate measure of the heart's efficiency in pumping blood per unit of body surface area.

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  • 4. 

    _________ = pressure LV is pumping against

    • A.

      Stroke Volume (SV)

    • B.

      Cardiac Output (CO)

    • C.

      Cardiac Index (CI)

    • D.

      Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

    • E.

      Mean Arterial Pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
    Explanation
    Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) is the correct answer because it represents the resistance that the left ventricle (LV) is pumping against. SVR is a measure of the resistance in the systemic circulation, which includes the blood vessels throughout the body. When the SVR is high, it means that there is increased resistance, and the LV has to work harder to pump blood against this resistance. Therefore, SVR is directly related to the pressure that the LV is pumping against.

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  • 5. 

    _________ = CO x SVR

    • A.

      Stroke Volume (SV)

    • B.

      Cardiac Output (CO)

    • C.

      Cardiac Index (CI)

    • D.

      Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

    • E.

      Mean Arterial Pressure

    Correct Answer
    E. Mean Arterial Pressure
    Explanation
    The given equation states that Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is equal to Cardiac Output (CO) multiplied by Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR). Mean Arterial Pressure represents the average pressure in the arteries during a cardiac cycle and is influenced by both the amount of blood pumped by the heart (Cardiac Output) and the resistance encountered by the blood flow in the blood vessels (Systemic Vascular Resistance). Therefore, this equation shows the relationship between these two factors in determining Mean Arterial Pressure.

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  • 6. 

    ____________ is amount of blood returning to heart prior to contraction (stroke volume dependant).

    • A.

      Preload

    • B.

      Afterload

    • C.

      Contractility

    • D.

      Ejection Fraction

    Correct Answer
    A. Preload
    Explanation
    Preload refers to the amount of blood that is returned to the heart before it contracts. It is directly related to the stroke volume, which is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. The greater the preload, the greater the stretch on the heart muscle fibers, leading to a more forceful contraction and an increased stroke volume. Therefore, preload is an important factor in determining the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart and is dependent on the stroke volume.

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  • 7. 

    ____________ is amount of resistance that ventricle must overcome (stroke volume dependant).

    • A.

      Preload

    • B.

      Afterload

    • C.

      Contractility

    • D.

      Ejection Fraction

    Correct Answer
    B. Afterload
    Explanation
    Afterload refers to the amount of resistance that the ventricle must overcome in order to eject blood during systole. It is determined by factors such as arterial pressure and vascular resistance. A higher afterload means that the ventricle has to work harder to overcome the resistance, which can lead to increased workload on the heart and potential cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, afterload is an important factor in determining stroke volume, as it affects the ventricle's ability to pump blood efficiently.

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  • 8. 

    ____________ is physical capability to pump volume (stroke volume dependant).

    • A.

      Preload

    • B.

      Afterload

    • C.

      Contractility

    • D.

      Ejection Fraction

    Correct Answer
    C. Contractility
    Explanation
    Contractility refers to the ability of the heart muscle to contract and generate force. It is a measure of the strength of each individual contraction. In this context, contractility is described as the physical capability to pump volume, which means it determines the amount of blood that can be pumped out of the heart with each contraction. Preload refers to the amount of blood in the ventricles before contraction, afterload refers to the resistance the heart has to overcome to pump blood, and ejection fraction is a measure of the percentage of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.

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  • 9. 

    ____________ fraction of LVEDV ejected during systole (30% blood stays behind) (normal EF 60-70%); ________ = SV ÷ LVEDV (PCWP)

    • A.

      Preload

    • B.

      Afterload

    • C.

      Contractility

    • D.

      Ejection Fraction

    Correct Answer
    D. Ejection Fraction
    Explanation
    Ejection fraction is the fraction of left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) that is ejected during systole. It is a measure of the heart's efficiency in pumping blood. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 60-70%. This means that 60-70% of the blood in the left ventricle is pumped out with each heartbeat, while the remaining 30-40% stays behind. Ejection fraction is an important indicator of cardiac function and can help diagnose and monitor heart conditions.

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  • 10. 

    What is the normal PCWP (This number gives us the pressure and thus the volume of blood entering the LV during systole)?

    • A.

      6-12 mmHg

    • B.

      5-10 mmHg

    • C.

      6-15 mmHg

    • D.

      5-15 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 6-12 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal PCWP (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) is typically between 6-12 mmHg. This measurement provides information about the pressure and volume of blood entering the left ventricle during systole. It is an important indicator of the function and efficiency of the heart.

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  • 11. 

    ____________: Dilation of left ventricle = loss of muscle strength = inability to forcefully expel all blood from LV; “congestive” heart failure - fluid typically backs up to pulmonary system.

    • A.

      Systolic Heart Failure

    • B.

      Diastolic Heart Failure

    Correct Answer
    A. Systolic Heart Failure
    Explanation
    Systolic heart failure is the correct answer because the given explanation states that the dilation of the left ventricle leads to a loss of muscle strength. This loss of muscle strength results in the inability to forcefully expel all the blood from the left ventricle. This condition is known as systolic heart failure, where the heart is unable to contract effectively and pump blood out to the body. The explanation also mentions that congestive heart failure typically causes fluid to back up into the pulmonary system, which is a characteristic of systolic heart failure.

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  • 12. 

    ____________: Thickening of LV tissue = smaller volume for blood to fill = less blood is pumped out; Edema is more likely to accumulate in peripheral areas.

    • A.

      Systolic Heart Failure

    • B.

      Diastolic Heart Failure

    Correct Answer
    B. Diastolic Heart Failure
    Explanation
    Diastolic heart failure refers to a condition where the heart muscle becomes stiff and rigid, making it difficult for the ventricles to relax and fill with blood during diastole. This leads to a smaller volume available for blood to fill in the left ventricle, resulting in a decreased amount of blood being pumped out of the heart. The thickening of the left ventricular tissue contributes to this reduced filling capacity. As a result, the blood may back up into the peripheral areas, causing edema to accumulate.

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  • 13. 

    Systolic HF

    • A.

      Loss of muscle mass- ischemia, infarction

    • B.

      Volume overload- CKD, pregnancy (higher blood volume)

    • C.

      Pressure overload- HTN, pulmonary HTN

    • D.

      Dilated Cardiomyopathies- idiopathic, toxic, infx

    • E.

      Restrictive- HTN, hypertrophic CM, infiltrative disease (amyloid, sarcoid, SLE)

    • F.

      Constrictive- pericarditis (inflammation of pericard), tamponade (less space)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Loss of muscle mass- ischemia, infarction
    B. Volume overload- CKD, pregnancy (higher blood volume)
    C. Pressure overload- HTN, pulmonary HTN
    D. Dilated Cardiomyopathies- idiopathic, toxic, infx
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes different causes of systolic heart failure. Loss of muscle mass can occur due to ischemia or infarction, which can lead to impaired cardiac function. Volume overload can occur in conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or pregnancy, where there is an increased blood volume that the heart has to pump. Pressure overload can result from hypertension or pulmonary hypertension, causing the heart to work harder to pump blood. Dilated cardiomyopathies can be idiopathic (unknown cause), toxic (due to substances like alcohol or drugs), or infectious in nature. These conditions can all contribute to systolic heart failure.

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  • 14. 

    Diastolic HF

    • A.

      Loss of muscle mass- ischemia, infarction

    • B.

      Volume overload- CKD, pregnancy (higher blood volume)

    • C.

      Pressure overload- HTN, pulmonary HTN

    • D.

      Dilated Cardiomyopathies- idiopathic, toxic, infx

    • E.

      Restrictive- HTN, hypertrophic CM, infiltrative disease (amyloid, sarcoid, SLE)

    • F.

      Constrictive- pericarditis (inflammation of pericard), tamponade (less space)

    Correct Answer(s)
    E. Restrictive- HTN, hypertrophic CM, infiltrative disease (amyloid, sarcoid, SLE)
    F. Constrictive- pericarditis (inflammation of pericard), tamponade (less space)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that restrictive cardiomyopathies can be caused by hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Constrictive cardiomyopathies, on the other hand, can be caused by pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium) and tamponade (compression of the heart due to fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac).

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  • 15. 

    What is the correct compensatory mechanism starting with Decrease Cardiac Output--> Increase in SNS activity-->

    • A.

      Increase in hr, contractility--> vasoconstriction--> inc SVR (afterload)--> inc in CO

    • B.

      Increase in hr, contractility--> inc in CO--> vasoconstriction--> inc SVR (afterload)

    • C.

      Vasoconstriction--> inc SVR (afterload)-->Increase in hr, contractility--> inc in CO

    • D.

      Inc SVR (afterload)--> vasoconstriction--> Increase in hr, contractility--> inc in CO

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase in hr, contractility--> vasoconstriction--> inc SVR (afterload)--> inc in CO
    Explanation
    When there is a decrease in cardiac output, the body's compensatory mechanism kicks in to try and increase it. This is achieved by increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The SNS stimulates the heart to increase heart rate (hr) and contractility, which results in an increase in cardiac output. Additionally, vasoconstriction occurs, which leads to an increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or afterload. This increased afterload further enhances cardiac output. Therefore, the correct compensatory mechanism starting with Decrease Cardiac Output is Increase in hr, contractility --> vasoconstriction --> inc SVR (afterload) --> inc in CO.

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  • 16. 

    What is the correct compensatory mechanism starting with Decrease Cardiac Output--> decrease renal perfusion-->

    • A.

      Inc Angiotensin I,Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention --> Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output

    • B.

      Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output--> Inc Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention

    • C.

      Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> Inc Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output

    • D.

      Inc Renin--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output--> Inc Angiotensin I,Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention --> Angiotensinogen release

    Correct Answer
    C. Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> Inc Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output
    Explanation
    When there is a decrease in cardiac output, it leads to a decrease in renal perfusion. This decrease in renal perfusion triggers the release of angiotensinogen, which then stimulates the production and release of renin. Renin, in turn, leads to an increase in angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and the retention of sodium and water. This increase in angiotensin II and aldosterone causes vasoconstriction and further water and sodium retention. Additionally, the increase in preload (LVEDV) due to the retention of water and sodium leads to an increase in cardiac output. Therefore, the correct compensatory mechanism starting with a decrease in cardiac output is angiotensinogen release, followed by an increase in renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, sodium and water retention, an increase in preload (LVEDV), and ultimately an increase in cardiac output.

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  • 17. 

    What is the correct compensatory mechanism starting with Decrease Cardiac Output--> Ventricular Dilation-->

    • A.

      Inc Angiotensin I,Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention --> Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output

    • B.

      Inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output

    • C.

      Angiotensinogen release--> inc Renin--> Inc Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output

    • D.

      Inc Renin--> inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output--> Inc Angiotensin I,Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, Na and H2O retention --> Angiotensinogen release

    Correct Answer
    B. Inc LVEDV (Preload)--> inc Cardiac Output
    Explanation
    Decreased cardiac output leads to ventricular dilation, which in turn increases left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), also known as preload. An increase in preload causes an increase in cardiac output. This compensatory mechanism helps to maintain adequate blood flow to meet the body's demands despite the initial decrease in cardiac output.

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  • 18. 

    Net effects in HF: Vasoconstriction SVR, stimulates NE release from adrenals, stimulates aldosterone release, constriction efferent arteriole to maintain perfusion pressure.

    • A.

      Angiotensin II

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Natriuretic Peptides

    • E.

      Arginine Vasopressin

    Correct Answer
    A. Angiotensin II
    Explanation
    Angiotensin II has several net effects in HF. It causes vasoconstriction of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), which helps to maintain perfusion pressure. It also stimulates the release of norepinephrine from the adrenals, which further increases SVR. Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone, which leads to sodium and water retention, contributing to fluid overload in HF. Overall, angiotensin II plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of HF by promoting vasoconstriction, fluid retention, and increased SVR.

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  • 19. 

    Plays a central role in compensation: Increases SNS activity, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, increase contractility; Stimulates renin activity and production of angiotensin increases the risk for arrhythmias and stimulates apoptosis; Contributes to ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling.

    • A.

      Angiotensin II

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Natriuretic Peptides

    • E.

      Arginine Vasopressin

    Correct Answer
    B. Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine plays a central role in compensation by increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, which leads to tachycardia (increased heart rate), vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), and increased contractility of the heart. It also stimulates renin activity and production of angiotensin, which increases the risk for arrhythmias and stimulates apoptosis (programmed cell death). Additionally, norepinephrine contributes to ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of the heart muscle) and remodeling. Therefore, norepinephrine is involved in various mechanisms that help the body compensate for physiological imbalances.

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  • 20. 

    Plays a key role in Na and H2O retention, and CARDIAC REMODELING. Key roles: Production of interstitial cardiac fibrosis through collagen deposition (Decreased systolic function and/or increased stiffness), Increases target organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling, Induction of pro-inflammatory state, increased oxidative stress, wasting of soft-tissue and bone, secondary hyperparathyroidism, mineral/micronutrient hemostasis alterations, Increased risk of arrhythmias

    • A.

      Angiotensin II

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Natriuretic Peptides

    • E.

      Arginine Vasopressin

    Correct Answer
    C. Aldosterone
    Explanation
    Aldosterone plays a key role in Na and H2O retention, which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It also contributes to cardiac remodeling by promoting the production of interstitial cardiac fibrosis through collagen deposition. This can lead to decreased systolic function and increased stiffness of the heart. Aldosterone also increases target organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling, induces a pro-inflammatory state, and increases oxidative stress. It can cause wasting of soft tissue and bone, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and alterations in mineral/micronutrient hemostasis. Additionally, aldosterone increases the risk of arrhythmias.

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  • 21. 

    ANP and BNP (it’s good) released in HF: counteracts these problems--> Balance effects of RAAS stimulation by causing natriuresis, diuresis, vasodilation, decreased aldosterone release, decreased hypertrophy, inhibition of SNS and RAAS; Measurement of blood levels predicts mortality and severity of HF (Normal < 100 pg/mL)

    • A.

      Angiotensin II

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Natriuretic Peptides

    • E.

      Arginine Vasopressin

    Correct Answer
    D. Natriuretic Peptides
    Explanation
    Natriuretic Peptides, including ANP and BNP, counteract the problems associated with heart failure by balancing the effects of RAAS stimulation. They cause natriuresis (excretion of sodium), diuresis (increased urine output), vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), decreased aldosterone release, decreased hypertrophy (enlargement of the heart), inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and inhibition of RAAS. Measurement of blood levels of Natriuretic Peptides can predict the severity of heart failure and mortality, with normal levels being less than 100 pg/mL.

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  • 22. 

    An important role in water/solute excretion. Release of AVP results in vasoconstriction and increased contractility through V1a, reabsorption of free water through V2.  In HF, increased AVP results in Renal free water reabsorption - volume overload, Increased arterial vasoconstriction, Stimulation of cardiac hypertrophy

    • A.

      Angiotensin II

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Natriuretic Peptides

    • E.

      Arginine Vasopressin

    Correct Answer
    E. Arginine Vasopressin
    Explanation
    Arginine Vasopressin, also known as AVP or antidiuretic hormone, plays an important role in water and solute excretion. When released, AVP causes vasoconstriction and increased contractility through V1a receptors, leading to increased arterial vasoconstriction. It also promotes the reabsorption of free water through V2 receptors, resulting in renal free water reabsorption and volume overload. In heart failure, there is an increased release of AVP, which contributes to the pathophysiology of the condition by causing volume overload, increased arterial vasoconstriction, and stimulation of cardiac hypertrophy.

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  • 23. 

    Decrease Mortality: ACEIs

    • A.

      Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling

    • B.

      Afterload reduction, remodeling

    • C.

      Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS

    • D.

      Prevention of remodeling

    • E.

      Preload/afterload reduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling." ACEIs (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors) are known to decrease mortality in patients with heart failure. This is achieved through their ability to reduce afterload on the heart, which is the force against which the heart has to pump blood. By reducing afterload, ACEIs help to improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping action and reduce the workload on the heart. Additionally, ACEIs have been shown to prevent or reverse ventricular remodeling, which is the structural and functional changes that occur in the heart in response to heart failure.

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  • 24. 

    Decrease Mortality: ARBs

    • A.

      Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling

    • B.

      Afterload reduction, remodeling

    • C.

      Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS

    • D.

      Prevention of remodeling

    • E.

      Preload/afterload reduction

    Correct Answer
    B. Afterload reduction, remodeling
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the use of ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) can decrease mortality by reducing afterload and preventing ventricular remodeling. Afterload reduction refers to the decrease in the pressure that the heart needs to overcome to pump blood out to the body. This can help improve the heart's efficiency and reduce strain on the heart muscle. Ventricular remodeling refers to the changes in the structure and function of the heart that occur in response to injury or disease. Preventing remodeling can help preserve the heart's function and prevent further complications. Therefore, afterload reduction and remodeling are key mechanisms through which ARBs can decrease mortality.

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  • 25. 

    Decrease Mortality: β-blockers

    • A.

      Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling

    • B.

      Afterload reduction, remodeling

    • C.

      Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS

    • D.

      Prevention of remodeling

    • E.

      Preload/afterload reduction

    Correct Answer
    C. Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS." This answer suggests that β-blockers can decrease mortality by improving chronotropy (heart rate) and reducing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. β-blockers are known to block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the heart, leading to a decrease in heart rate and cardiac output. By reducing sympathetic activity, β-blockers can also prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and improve overall cardiac function.

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  • 26. 

    Decrease Mortality: Aldosterone Antagonists

    • A.

      Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling

    • B.

      Afterload reduction, remodeling

    • C.

      Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS

    • D.

      Prevention of remodeling

    • E.

      Preload/afterload reduction

    Correct Answer
    D. Prevention of remodeling
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Prevention of remodeling." Aldosterone antagonists are medications that work by blocking the effects of aldosterone, a hormone that can cause remodeling of the heart. Remodeling refers to changes in the structure and function of the heart, which can occur after a heart attack or in certain heart conditions. By preventing remodeling, aldosterone antagonists can help decrease mortality and improve outcomes in patients with heart disease. This is why prevention of remodeling is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 27. 

    Decrease Mortality: ISMN/Hydralazine

    • A.

      Afterload reduction, Ventricular remodeling

    • B.

      Afterload reduction, remodeling

    • C.

      Improve chronotropy, ↓ SNS

    • D.

      Prevention of remodeling

    • E.

      Preload/afterload reduction

    Correct Answer
    E. Preload/afterload reduction
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Preload/afterload reduction". Preload refers to the amount of blood that fills the ventricles of the heart before contraction, while afterload refers to the resistance the heart has to overcome to pump blood out of the ventricles. By reducing both preload and afterload, the workload on the heart decreases, allowing it to pump more efficiently. This can lead to a decrease in mortality as it helps improve cardiac function and reduces the strain on the heart.

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  • 28. 

    Loops are preferred BID Furosemide 40 mg to ________ of K+, check Mg

    Correct Answer
    20 mg
    Explanation
    Loops are preferred BID Furosemide 40 mg to 20 mg of K+ to check Mg. This means that loops, which are a type of diuretic medication, are preferred to treat a condition where there is excess potassium (K+) in the body. The dosage of Furosemide prescribed is 40 mg, and it is preferred over a dosage of 20 mg of potassium (K+). The purpose of checking Mg (magnesium) is not clear from the given information.

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  • 29. 

    Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) Adverse events:

    • A.

      Hypotension

    • B.

      Inc SCr

    • C.

      Inc K+

    • D.

      Angioedema

    • E.

      Rash

    • F.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • G.

      Gynecomastia

    • H.

      Hirsutism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hypotension
    B. Inc SCr
    C. Inc K+
    D. Angioedema
    E. Rash
    Explanation
    The given answer lists various adverse events associated with Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). These include hypotension (low blood pressure), increased serum creatinine (a marker of kidney function), increased potassium levels, angioedema (swelling under the skin), rash, metabolic acidosis (excess acid in the body), gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue in males), and hirsutism (excessive hair growth). These adverse events can occur as a result of taking ARBs and should be monitored and managed accordingly.

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  • 30. 

    Aldosterone Antagonists Adverse events:

    • A.

      Inc Mg

    • B.

      Inc SCr

    • C.

      Inc K+

    • D.

      Angioedema

    • E.

      Rash

    • F.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • G.

      Gynecomastia

    • H.

      Hirsutism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Inc Mg
    C. Inc K+
    F. Metabolic acidosis
    G. Gynecomastia
    H. Hirsutism
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the adverse events associated with aldosterone antagonists. These medications can cause an increase in magnesium levels, an increase in potassium levels, metabolic acidosis, gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue in males), and hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

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  • 31. 

    MOA:  increase cGMP --> increased NO --> venous dilation (inc preload)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Nitrates
    Explanation
    Nitrates are a class of drugs that work by increasing the levels of cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) in the body. This increase in cGMP leads to the production of more nitric oxide (NO), which in turn causes venous dilation. Venous dilation results in increased preload, or the amount of blood returning to the heart, ultimately leading to improved blood flow and reduced symptoms of conditions such as angina.

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  • 32. 

    MOA: inc contractility, inc  vagal tone, inc exercise capacity

    Correct Answer(s)
    digoxin
    Explanation
    Digoxin is a medication commonly used to treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation. It works by increasing the contractility of the heart muscle, which helps improve the pumping function of the heart. Additionally, digoxin increases vagal tone, which slows down the heart rate and can be beneficial in certain cardiac conditions. By enhancing contractility and reducing heart rate, digoxin can improve exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. Therefore, digoxin aligns with the stated MOA of increasing contractility, increasing vagal tone, and improving exercise capacity.

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