Growth And Development Test!

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Growth And Development Test! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to Piaget, conservation means the ability to:

    • A.

      Classify and subclassify.

    • B.

      Expand or alter schemes to apprehend a new stimulus.

    • C.

      Arrange a series of things according to anyone of several properties.

    • D.

      Adapt by organizing newer stimuli according to schemes in a child's repertoire.

    • E.

      Understand that objects or quantities remain the same despite a change in physical appearance.

    Correct Answer
    E. Understand that objects or quantities remain the same despite a change in physical appearance.
    Explanation
    Conservation, according to Piaget, refers to the understanding that objects or quantities remain the same despite a change in physical appearance. This means that a child with conservation skills can recognize that even if an object is changed in shape or size, its fundamental properties remain constant. This ability demonstrates the child's understanding of the concept of conservation and their cognitive development.

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  • 2. 

    The primary psychological task of school-age children is achieving which of the following?

    • A.

      Identity

    • B.

      Autonomy

    • C.

      Attachment

    • D.

      Competence

    • E.

      Individuation

    Correct Answer
    D. Competence
    Explanation
    The primary psychological task of school-age children is achieving competence. This refers to their ability to develop and demonstrate skills, knowledge, and abilities in various areas such as academics, sports, and social interactions. During this stage, children strive to master new skills and gain a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence. Competence is crucial for their overall development and prepares them for future challenges and responsibilities.

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  • 3. 

    According to Erikson's theories, which of the following psychological issues would be most salient for a 75-year-old person?

    • A.

      Appreciating the achievements of one's parents.

    • B.

      Establishing new interests.

    • C.

      Maintaining old friendships.

    • D.

      Creating a better world for others.

    • E.

      Finding meaning in what one has done.

    Correct Answer
    E. Finding meaning in what one has done.
    Explanation
    According to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the stage that corresponds to late adulthood (65 years and older) is called "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." During this stage, individuals reflect on their lives and evaluate whether they have achieved a sense of fulfillment and purpose. Finding meaning in what one has done is most salient for a 75-year-old person because they are likely to be reflecting on their life experiences and searching for a sense of meaning and purpose in their accomplishments. Appreciating the achievements of one's parents, establishing new interests, maintaining old friendships, and creating a better world for others may also be important, but finding personal meaning in one's own life is the most relevant psychological issue for a 75-year-old person according to Erikson's theories.

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  • 4. 

    A 5-year-old child is able to recall his address after being prompted to do so. According to Sigmund Freud, this information is stored at what level of the topographic model?

    • A.

      Conscious

    • B.

      Preconscious

    • C.

      Postconscious

    • D.

      Subconscious

    • E.

      Unconscious

    Correct Answer
    B. Preconscious
    Explanation
    According to Sigmund Freud's topographic model, the preconscious level is where information is stored that is not currently in conscious awareness but can be easily retrieved and brought into consciousness when prompted. In this case, the 5-year-old child is able to recall his address after being prompted, indicating that this information is stored at the preconscious level.

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  • 5. 

    A 13-year-old male patient tells the psychiatrist that "things are okay, but I'm tired of being the shortest boy in my class." He reports that many of the girls are taller than he is including his l2-year-old sister. Both of the patient's parents are tall. Which of the following is the most appropriate initial approach for the psychiatrist to take?

    • A.

      Reassure the patient that he is normal.

    • B.

      Refer the patient for a medical workup for short stature.

    • C.

      Discuss with the patient how height is not a reflection of worth.

    • D.

      Recommend to the patient a higher calorie diet with vitamins.

    • E.

      Review with the patient the typical course of puberty in males.

    Correct Answer
    E. Review with the patient the typical course of puberty in males.
    Explanation
    The most appropriate initial approach for the psychiatrist to take is to review with the patient the typical course of puberty in males. This is because the patient is concerned about his height and comparing himself to others. By discussing the typical course of puberty, the psychiatrist can provide reassurance and education about the normal variations in growth and development during adolescence. This approach can help address the patient's concerns and provide him with a better understanding of his own growth trajectory.

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  • 6. 

    Irreversibility:

    • A.

      Causality

    • B.

      Lethality

    • C.

      Universality

    • D.

      Inevitability

    • E.

      Irreversibility

    Correct Answer
    E. Irreversibility
    Explanation
    The term "irreversibility" refers to something that cannot be undone or reversed. In the context of the given options, "irreversibility" is the correct answer because it aligns with the concept of being unable to reverse a certain action or outcome. The other options, such as "causality," "lethality," "universality," and "inevitability," do not convey the same meaning of something being irreversible. Therefore, "irreversibility" is the most suitable choice among the given options.

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  • 7. 

    A 10-year-old child has an annual check-up. The child reports that he has started collecting basketball cards, an interest he shares with his father and his friends. The child is very excited because he is the only one in his peer group who owns several cards. The child states that things are okay at home and at school. His parents confirm that their child is doing well, although they feel that his grades could be higher. According to Erikson, which of the following developmental tasks are most relevant for this child?

    • A.

      Initiative vs. guilt

    • B.

      Industry vs. inferiority

    • C.

      Identity vs. diffusion

    • D.

      Generativity vs. stagnation

    • E.

      Ego integrity vs. despair/disgust

    Correct Answer
    B. Industry vs. inferiority
    Explanation
    According to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the stage of industry vs. inferiority is most relevant for this child. This stage occurs during middle childhood, typically between the ages of 6 and 12. During this stage, children develop a sense of competence and mastery in their abilities. The child in the scenario is excited about his interest in collecting basketball cards and feels accomplished because he is the only one in his peer group who owns several cards. This demonstrates his desire to excel and achieve a sense of industry. The mention of his parents feeling that his grades could be higher also aligns with the theme of industry, as academic achievement is often a focus during this stage.

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  • 8. 

    A child can copy a square and cross, draw an 8-detail person, effectively use a dinner knife, speak in 7 to 8-word sentences, and knows the right and left hand. The child also has become very interested in peers, is learning the basic rules of soccer, is asking questions about sex, and has some understanding of money. What is the most likely age of this child?

    • A.

      3 years

    • B.

      5 years

    • C.

      8 years

    • D.

      11 years

    • E.

      14 years

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. 5 years
    C. 8 years
    Explanation
    both B & C are correct

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  • 9. 

    Animistic thinking is characteristic of which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

    • A.

      Concrete operations

    • B.

      Formal operations

    • C.

      Preoperational thought

    • D.

      Sensorimotor

    • E.

      Symbiosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Preoperational thought
    Explanation
    Preoperational thought is the correct answer because animistic thinking, which is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, is a characteristic of this stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. In the preoperational stage, children between the ages of 2 and 7 develop symbolic thinking and imagination, leading them to attribute human-like qualities to objects and believe that they have thoughts and intentions. This type of thinking gradually diminishes as children progress into the concrete operations stage.

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  • 10. 

    The pattern of a person's biological sexual characteristics is known as:

    • A.

      Sexual identity.

    • B.

      Gender identity.

    • C.

      Sexual orientation.

    • D.

      Phenotype differentiation.

    • E.

      Masculinization/feminization.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexual identity.
    Explanation
    The pattern of a person's biological sexual characteristics refers to their sexual identity. Sexual identity is determined by the physical attributes such as genitalia, chromosomes, and reproductive organs that a person is born with. It is different from gender identity, which is a person's internal sense of their own gender. Sexual orientation refers to a person's attraction to others, while phenotype differentiation refers to the development of physical traits. Masculinization/feminization refers to the process of developing masculine or feminine characteristics.

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  • 11. 

    In Vaillant's model of life-span development, which of the following is classified as a mature defense mechanism?

    • A.

      Humor

    • B.

      Denial

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Dissociation

    • E.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    A. Humor
    Explanation
    In Vaillant's model of life-span development, humor is classified as a mature defense mechanism. This is because humor allows individuals to cope with difficult or stressful situations in a healthy and adaptive way. It involves using wit, irony, or sarcasm to find amusement or comic relief in challenging circumstances, which can help to reduce anxiety and provide a more positive perspective. Unlike other defense mechanisms such as denial, projection, dissociation, or displacement, humor does not involve avoiding or distorting reality, but rather allows individuals to confront and navigate through adversity with resilience and emotional intelligence.

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  • 12. 

    A 2-year-old girl clings to her mother's leg when introduced to a new child in the neighborhood, refusing to join in play during the first visit. During the second visit, the child plays behind her mother, and on the third visit, she seems to continue her usual activities while warily eyeing the new child. Which of the following temperamental traits or constellations best describes this child's behavior?

    • A.

      Easy

    • B.

      Difficult

    • C.

      Slow-to-warm-up

    • D.

      Mixed temperament

    • E.

      Overactive

    Correct Answer
    C. Slow-to-warm-up
    Explanation
    The child's behavior of clinging to her mother's leg and being hesitant to join in play during the first visit, playing behind her mother during the second visit, and warily eyeing the new child during the third visit indicates a slow-to-warm-up temperament. Slow-to-warm-up children tend to be cautious and take time to adjust to new situations and people. They may initially show shyness or withdrawal but gradually become more comfortable over time. This description aligns with the child's behavior in the given scenario.

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  • 13. 

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is first evident at which stage of development?

    • A.

      In Utero

    • B.

      Immediately post-partum

    • C.

      At 1 month of age

    • D.

      At 3 months of age

    • E.

      At 1 year of age

    Correct Answer
    A. In Utero
    Explanation
    During the developmental stage of being in utero, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is first evident. This is the stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, increased brain activity, and dreaming. REM sleep is crucial for brain development and is particularly important during fetal development. Therefore, it is during the in utero stage that REM sleep first becomes apparent.

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  • 14. 

    According to classical psychoanalytic theory, which of the following factors primarily accounts for the polarization of same-sex peer groups?

    • A.

      Transient increase in homo-erotic drive energy

    • B.

      Identification with the parent of the same sex

    • C.

      Avoidance of identification with the parent of the opposite sex

    • D.

      Decrease in libidinal energy directed toward members of the opposite sex

    • E.

      Utilization of defense mechanisms to avoid sexual impulses

    Correct Answer
    E. Utilization of defense mechanisms to avoid sexual impulses
    Explanation
    According to classical psychoanalytic theory, the polarization of same-sex peer groups primarily occurs due to the utilization of defense mechanisms to avoid sexual impulses. In this theory, individuals may use defense mechanisms such as repression or denial to suppress their sexual impulses towards members of the same sex. This repression leads to the formation of same-sex peer groups as a way to avoid confronting these impulses.

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  • 15. 

    Piaget's major contribution to development was a theory that explains which of the following phenomena?

    • A.

      Environmental influences on learning and behavior

    • B.

      Unconscious influences on behavior and actions

    • C.

      Individuals' emotional separation from caretakers

    • D.

      How individuals learn about and understand the world

    • E.

      The ways in which individuals acquire physical and motor skills

    Correct Answer
    D. How individuals learn about and understand the world
    Explanation
    Piaget's major contribution to development was his theory of cognitive development, which focused on how individuals learn about and understand the world. Piaget proposed that children actively construct their knowledge through interactions with their environment, and that cognitive development occurs in stages as they acquire new mental structures and abilities. His theory emphasized the importance of children's active exploration and experimentation in their learning process, as well as the role of assimilation and accommodation in their understanding of new information. Overall, Piaget's theory revolutionized our understanding of cognitive development and provided insights into how individuals learn and make sense of the world around them.

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  • 16. 

    Semiconsciously diverting attention from a conflict in order to minimize discomfort is an example of:

    • A.

      Repression

    • B.

      Rationalization

    • C.

      Suppression

    • D.

      Intellectualization

    • E.

      Reaction formation

    Correct Answer
    C. Suppression
    Explanation
    Suppression is the act of consciously pushing unwanted thoughts, feelings, or impulses out of awareness in order to reduce discomfort. In this case, the individual is semiconsciously diverting their attention from a conflict to minimize discomfort. This means that they are aware of the conflict but are choosing to ignore it or avoid thinking about it. Suppression is a defense mechanism that allows individuals to temporarily cope with distressing emotions or conflicts.

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  • 17. 

    Children demonstrate a preference for the human voice and speech over other sounds at which age?

    • A.

      Birth

    • B.

      2 months

    • C.

      4 months

    • D.

      6 months

    • E.

      8 months

    Correct Answer
    A. Birth
    Explanation
    From birth, children demonstrate a preference for the human voice and speech over other sounds. This is because they are exposed to the sound of their mother's voice while in the womb, which creates a sense of familiarity and comfort. Additionally, the human voice contains important social cues and emotional information that infants are attuned to, making it more interesting and engaging for them compared to other sounds.

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  • 18. 

    According to Kohlberg, moral judgments made by older school-age children are based largely on which of the following?

    • A.

      Peer modeling

    • B.

      Avoiding punishment

    • C.

      Maintaining relationships

    • D.

      Contingent reinforcement

    • E.

      Pleasing those in authority

    Correct Answer
    E. Pleasing those in authority
    Explanation
    Kohlberg believed that older school-age children base their moral judgments largely on pleasing those in authority. This means that they prioritize following rules and meeting the expectations of authority figures such as parents, teachers, or other adults in their lives. They may view authority figures as having the ultimate say in what is right or wrong, and therefore, their moral judgments are influenced by the desire to gain approval and avoid disapproval from those in authority.

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  • 19. 

    The most important feature of postnatal brain development is an increase in which of the following?

    • A.

      Number of neurons

    • B.

      Number of glial cells

    • C.

      Number of dendritic and axonal processes

    • D.

      Quantity of neurotransmitters available in the central nervous system

    • E.

      Vascularization of cortical structures

    Correct Answer
    C. Number of dendritic and axonal processes
    Explanation
    During postnatal brain development, the number of dendritic and axonal processes increases. This refers to the growth and branching of the extensions of neurons that allow them to communicate and form connections with other neurons. This increase in dendritic and axonal processes is crucial for the development of neural circuits and the establishment of functional connections in the brain. It allows for the transmission of signals and the integration of information, which is essential for cognitive processes and overall brain function.

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  • 20. 

    Masturbation in adults as viewed by contemporary psychiatry is best described as:

    • A.

      Normal only if a sexual relationship with a partner is unavailable.

    • B.

      A cause of mental illness.

    • C.

      Psychopathological only if it is compulsive.

    • D.

      Normal only if accompanied by fantasies of heterosexual coitus.

    • E.

      Always a symptom of some form of sexual maladjustment.

    Correct Answer
    C. Psychopathological only if it is compulsive.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "psychopathological only if it is compulsive." This means that according to contemporary psychiatry, masturbation is considered abnormal or problematic only if it becomes compulsive, meaning that it is done excessively and interferes with daily functioning or causes distress. In other words, occasional or moderate masturbation is seen as a normal and healthy sexual behavior in adults.

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