Gld Ch. 10 T2(Blood)

48 Questions | Total Attempts: 54

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Blood Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    1. Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
    • A. 

      Increased hemoglobin in the blood

    • B. 

      Decreased hematocrit

    • C. 

      Increased risk of hemostasis

    • D. 

      Decreased osmotic pressure of the blood

  • 2. 
    2. What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells?
    • A. 

      Leucopenia

    • B. 

      Neutropenia

    • C. 

      Pancytopenia

    • D. 

      Erythrocytosis

  • 3. 
    3. Capillary walls consist of:
    • A. 

      Multiple endothelial layers.

    • B. 

      A thick layer of smooth muscle.

    • C. 

      Two or three epithelial layers.

    • D. 

      A single endothelial layer.

  • 4. 
    4. Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize:
    • A. 

      Heparin.

    • B. 

      Prothrombin.

    • C. 

      Amino acids.

    • D. 

      Bilirubin.

  • 5. 
    5. Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
    • A. 

      Contains A and B antibodies.

    • B. 

      Contains A and B antigens.

    • C. 

      Contains A and B antigens.

    • D. 

      Contains A and B antigens.

  • 6. 
    6. What are the two circulations that comprise the overall circulatory system?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary and systemic circulations

    • B. 

      Peripheral and central circulations

    • C. 

      Cardiovascular and lymphatic circulations

    • D. 

      Cardiopulmonary and peripheral circulations

  • 7. 
    7. Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the:
    • A. 

      Shortened life span of the erythrocytes.

    • B. 

      Lower metabolic rate.

    • C. 

      Loss of protein and electrolytes.

    • D. 

      Smaller amount of recycled iron available.

  • 8. 
    8. What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?
    • A. 

      A defective gene inherited from both parents

    • B. 

      A chronic bacterial infection

    • C. 

      Bone marrow depression

    • D. 

      An autoimmune reaction

  • 9. 
    9. Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Hypochromic, microcytic

    • B. 

      Normochromic, normocytic

    • C. 

      Elongated, sickle-shaped

    • D. 

      Megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells

  • 10. 
    10. What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Persistent hyperbilirubinemia

    • B. 

      Increasing acidosis affecting metabolism

    • C. 

      Vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination

    • D. 

      Multiple small vascular occlusions affecting peripheral nerves

  • 11. 
    11. Jaundice is one typical sign of:
    • A. 

      Sickle cell anemia.

    • B. 

      Aplastic anemia.

    • C. 

      Iron deficiency anemia.

    • D. 

      Acute leukemia.

  • 12. 
    12. What are the typical early general signs and symptoms of anemia?
    • A. 

      Chest pain, palpitations

    • B. 

      Jaundice, stomatitis

    • C. 

      Pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue

    • D. 

      Bradycardia, heat intolerance

  • 13. 
    13. What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?
    • A. 

      Lack of folic acid for DNA synthesis

    • B. 

      Frequent microinfarcts in the tissues

    • C. 

      Deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis and metabolism

    • D. 

      Elevated bilirubin levels in blood and body fluids

  • 14. 
    14. Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Pancytopenia

    • B. 

      Hypochlorhydria

    • C. 

      Leukocytosis

    • D. 

      Multiple infarcts

  • 15. 
    15. Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?
    • A. 

      An immune reaction in the stomach would destroy the vitamin.

    • B. 

      Digestive enzymes would destroy the vitamin.

    • C. 

      The vitamin irritates the gastric mucosa.

    • D. 

      The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood.

  • 16. 
    16. Why do abnormally low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?
    • A. 

      Decreased production of erythrocytes

    • B. 

      Shorter life span of erythrocytes

    • C. 

      Abnormal structure of hemoglobin chains

    • D. 

      Deficit of folic acid

  • 17. 
    17. What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?
    • A. 

      Painful joints and skeletal deformity

    • B. 

      Abdominal discomfort and splenomegaly

    • C. 

      Excessive bleeding and recurrent infections

    • D. 

      Palpitations and chest pain

  • 18. 
    18. Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle cell anemia?
    • A. 

      The red blood cells are abnormally large.

    • B. 

      Increased hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs.

    • C. 

      Erythrocytes change to sickle shape when hypoxia occurs.

    • D. 

      HbS is unable to transport oxygen.

  • 19. 
    19. Which of the following applies to sickle cell trait?
    • A. 

      Most hemoglobin is in the form of HgS

    • B. 

      Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia.

    • C. 

      Painful sickling crises with multiple infarctions occur frequently.

    • D. 

      A child’s skeletal growth is delayed.

  • 20. 
    20. What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?
    • A. 

      Several amino acids in the globin chains have been replaced by substitute amino acids.

    • B. 

      More than four globin chains are found in the erythrocytes.

    • C. 

      The iron molecule is displaced in hemoglobin.

    • D. 

      There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.

  • 21. 
    21. Which of the following can result from a malabsorption problem?
    • A. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • B. 

      Sickle cell anemia

    • C. 

      Thalassemia major

    • D. 

      Pernicious anemia

  • 22. 
    22. In individuals with pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:
    • A. 

      Vitamin B12.

    • B. 

      Intrinsic factor or parietal cells.

    • C. 

      Mucus-producing glands.

    • D. 

      Hydrochloric acid.

  • 23. 
    23. In cases of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated as a result of:
    • A. 

      Increased blood volume.

    • B. 

      Frequent infarcts in the coronary circulation.

    • C. 

      Congested spleen and bone marrow.

    • D. 

      Increased renin and aldosterone secretions.

  • 24. 
    24. Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:
    • A. 

      Excessive hemolysis.

    • B. 

      Leucopenia.

    • C. 

      Increased bleeding.

    • D. 

      Hemoglobin deficit.

  • 25. 
    25. Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?
    • A. 

      It is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

    • B. 

      There is usually a total lack of factor VIII in the blood.

    • C. 

      Males and females can be carriers.

    • D. 

      Hematomas and hemarthroses are common.

  • 26. 
    26. Which of the following occurs when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?
    • A. 

      Increased thrombocytes and blood clotting

    • B. 

      Hemolysis with loss of blood cells

    • C. 

      Massive sepsis and hemorrhage

    • D. 

      Multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors

  • 27. 
    27. Which of the following substances acts as an anticoagulant?
    • A. 

      Prothrombin

    • B. 

      Heparin

    • C. 

      Fibrinogen

    • D. 

      Vitamin K

  • 28. 
    29. Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:
    • A. 

      The number of white blood cells is decreased.

    • B. 

      Many circulating leukocytes are immature.

    • C. 

      Severe anemia interferes with the immune response.

    • D. 

      Decreased appetite and nutritional intake reduce natural defenses.

  • 29. 
    30. Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?
    • A. 

      Deficit of calcium ions

    • B. 

      Impaired production of prothrombin and fibrinogen

    • C. 

      Decreased platelets

    • D. 

      Dysfunctional thrombocytes

  • 30. 
    31. Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include:
    • A. 

      Exposure to radiation.

    • B. 

      Certain fungal and protozoal infections.

    • C. 

      Familial tendency.

    • D. 

      Cigarette smoking.

  • 31. 
    32. Von Willebrand disease is caused by:
    • A. 

      Defective erythrocytes that become deformed in shape, causing occlusions.

    • B. 

      Excessive lymphocytes that do not mature.

    • C. 

      Absence of a clotting factor that helps platelets clump and stick.

    • D. 

      A lack of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency.

  • 32. 
    33. Thrombophilia can result in conditions such as:
    • A. 

      Severe chronic kidney disease.

    • B. 

      Peripheral vascular disease.

    • C. 

      Deficient calcium levels in the long bones.

    • D. 

      Excessive bleeding of hematomas.

  • 33. 
    34. Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving:
    • A. 

      Plasma cells.

    • B. 

      Granulocytes.

    • C. 

      Bone cells.

    • D. 

      Lymph nodes.

  • 34. 
    35. What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?
    • A. 

      Radiation

    • B. 

      Chemotherapy

    • C. 

      Surgery

    • D. 

      Immunotherapy

  • 35. 
    36. Which of the following statements applies to hemochromatosis. It is:
    • A. 

      Caused by excessive iron intake in the diet.

    • B. 

      Results from excessive hemolysis of RBCs.

    • C. 

      A metabolic error that leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs.

    • D. 

      An inherited defect that results in abnormal hemoglobin.

  • 36. 
    37. Thalassemia is caused by:
    • A. 

      A defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin.

    • B. 

      An abnormal form of heme.

    • C. 

      Abnormal liver production of amino acids and iron.

    • D. 

      Overproduction of hypochromic, microcytic RBCs.

  • 37. 
    38. Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:
    • A. 

      Frequent angina attacks.

    • B. 

      Certain types of anemia.

    • C. 

      Severe chronic bronchitis.

    • D. 

      Renal disease.

  • 38. 
    39. All of the following apply to vitamin K EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      It is used as an antidote for warfarin (Coumadin).

    • B. 

      The liver requires it to produce prothrombin.

    • C. 

      It is a fat-soluble vitamin.

    • D. 

      The bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin.

  • 39. 
    40. Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by:
    • A. 

      The presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

    • B. 

      Very low incidence in persons with Down syndrome.

    • C. 

      Little evidence of familial incidence.

    • D. 

      Transmission as a recessive gene.

  • 40. 
    41. Iron deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Certain vegetarian diets.

    • B. 

      Excessive menstrual flow.

    • C. 

      Malabsorption syndromes.

    • D. 

      Diabetes mellitus.

  • 41. 
    42. Which of the following applies to the leukemias?
    • A. 

      Chronic leukemias are more common in older people.

    • B. 

      AML is the most common childhood leukemia.

    • C. 

      Exposure to chemicals is not considered a predisposing factor.

    • D. 

      Lymphoid tissue produces abnormal leukocytes.

  • 42. 
    43. A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:
    • A. 

      Thalassemia.

    • B. 

      Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

    • C. 

      Myelodysplastic syndrome.

    • D. 

      Multiple myeloma.

  • 43. 
    44. Which of the following applies to erythropoietin?
    • A. 

      It is produced by the liver.

    • B. 

      It increases iron absorption for heme production.

    • C. 

      It stimulates production of red blood cells.

    • D. 

      Hypoxia stimulates the red bone marrow to produce erythropoietin.

  • 44. 
    45. Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?
    • A. 

      Bleeding time

    • B. 

      Coagulation time

    • C. 

      PTT time

    • D. 

      Prothrombin time

  • 45. 
    46. Which of the following applies to the condition disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
    • A. 

      It is usually a secondary complication.

    • B. 

      It is always initiated by excessive bleeding.

    • C. 

      It results in an inability of platelets to adhere.

    • D. 

      It is not life threatening.

  • 46. 
    47. In which blood dyscrasia does pancytopenia develop?
    • A. 

      Pernicious anemia

    • B. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • C. 

      Iron deficiency anemia

    • D. 

      Sickle cell anemia

  • 47. 
    48. Which of the following applies to the etiology of aplastic anemia? It is:
    • A. 

      Idiopathic in many cases.

    • B. 

      A genetic disorder.

    • C. 

      Predisposed by exposure to myelotoxins.

    • D. 

      Both A and C.

  • 48. 
    49. Microcytic and hypochromic erythrocytes are commonly found as a result of:
    • A. 

      Iron deficiency anemia.

    • B. 

      Polycythemia.

    • C. 

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    • D. 

      Hemophilia A.