Practice for Geology Exam 3
Iron in Earth's core
Water stored in the oceans
Increasing pressures increase the density of mantle rocks at depth
The larger circumference of Earth at the equator relative to the poles means that the highest density occurs at zero degrees latitude
Heat is transferred from Earth's interior towards the surface mainly by radiation.
Heat is transferred from Earth's interior towards the surface mainly by conduction.
Heat flow, as measured on Earth's surface, is higher along mid-ocean ridges and other volcanically active regions but lower within the interiors of stable continents.
Heat flow, as measured on Earth's surface, is the same everywhere.
Outer core/inner core
S-waves change into P-waves
S-waves slow down because of the presence of a few percent partial melt
S-waves cannot penetrate through the asthenosphere
S-waves speed up because of an increase in density of mantle rocks
P- and S-waves are reflected back to the surface.
The two transition zones prevent P- and S-waves from reaching the lower mantle.
They slow down because mantle material is softened at these depths.
They speed up due to density increases in mantle rock resulting from phase changes in minerals.
P-waves slow down while S-waves speed up when passing through the outer core.
Both P- and S-waves are prevented from passing through the outer core.
S-waves cannot pass through the outer core while P-waves slow down significantly when passing through this layer.
Both P- and S-waves increase in velocity when passing through the outer core.
Only P-waves are detected by seismometers.
Only P-waves are generated by earthquakes.
S-waves change into P-waves.
No P-waves are detected by seismometers.
Minerals are mostly created through the activities of organisms.
Atoms within the crystal structure of a mineral are usually disorganized and randomly distributed.
The minerals quartz and halite are considered separate minerals because of differences in crystal sizes
A given mineral has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition.
All silicate minerals have silicon and oxygen in their chemical formula.
Silicate tetrahedra can bond with cations but not with other tetrahedra.
The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.
Silicate minerals are the most abundant minerals in Earth's crust.
Native element minerals are all soft and easily scratched
Native element minerals only form ionic bonds
Native element minerals are bonded to sulfur
Native element minerals are comprised of only one element
Mica and gold
Quartz and halite
Gypsum and anhydrite
Calcite and olivine
Uplift and exposure
Burial to greater depths
Increase the temperature
Any rock type can be uplifted and exposed to weathering agents.
Sedimentary rocks can convert into metamorphic rocks if the temperature and pressure conditions are right.
Only igneous rocks can be uplifted and exposed to weathering.
Igneous rocks can bypass the weathering stage and convert directly into metamorphic rocks.
An igneous pluton forms from lava that is extruded onto Earth's surface and cools quickly.
Lava erupted on Earth's surface cools very slowly when exposed to the atmosphere.
Magma crystallizing deep in the crust cools slowly and forms large crystals.
Fast cooling rates of magma produce large crystals.
Only plutonic rocks with large crystals.
Explosive eruptions and volcanic ash.
Quiet eruptions and fluid lava.
Mild eruptions that crystallize into mafic igneous rocks only.
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