Geol 1340 Exam 3

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Geol 1340 Exam 3 - Quiz

Practice for Geology Exam 3


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Earth's overall density is calculated to be 5.52 grams per cubic centimeter. However, crustal rocks only give densities around 2.9 grams per cubic centimeter. Where is the excess density?
    • A. 

      Iron in Earth's core

    • B. 

      Water stored in the oceans

    • C. 

      Increasing pressures increase the density of mantle rocks at depth

    • D. 

      The larger circumference of Earth at the equator relative to the poles means that the highest density occurs at zero degrees latitude

  • 2. 
    Which of the following statements regarding heat flow on Earth is TRUE?
    • A. 

      Heat is transferred from Earth's interior towards the surface mainly by radiation.

    • B. 

      Heat is transferred from Earth's interior towards the surface mainly by conduction.

    • C. 

      Heat flow, as measured on Earth's surface, is higher along mid-ocean ridges and other volcanically active regions but lower within the interiors of stable continents.

    • D. 

      Heat flow, as measured on Earth's surface, is the same everywhere.

  • 3. 
    For the figure below, which letter corresponds to the epicenter of the earthquake?
    • A. 

      Site A

    • B. 

      Site B

    • C. 

      Site C

    • D. 

      Site D

  • 4. 
    The figure below illustrates the motion of ____________
    • A. 

      Surface waves

    • B. 

      P-waves

    • C. 

      S-waves

    • D. 

      Refracted waves

  • 5. 
    The bending of seismic waves when passing through Earth's interior is called _________
    • A. 

      Refraction

    • B. 

      Reflection

    • C. 

      Diffraction

    • D. 

      Deflection

  • 6. 
    The bending of seismic waves when passing through Earth's interior is due to changes in wave ____________ when encountering different Earth materials.
    • A. 

      Temperature

    • B. 

      Type

    • C. 

      Velocity

    • D. 

      Magnitude

  • 7. 
    The Moho is the boundary between the ________ and _________
    • A. 

      Asthenosphere/mesosphere

    • B. 

      Mesosphere/outer core

    • C. 

      Outer core/inner core

    • D. 

      Crust/upper mantle

  • 8. 
    What happens to S-waves as they pass through the asthenosphere?
    • A. 

      S-waves change into P-waves

    • B. 

      S-waves slow down because of the presence of a few percent partial melt

    • C. 

      S-waves cannot penetrate through the asthenosphere

    • D. 

      S-waves speed up because of an increase in density of mantle rocks

  • 9. 
    What happens to P- and S-waves when encountering transition zones at 400 km and 700 km depths?
    • A. 

      P- and S-waves are reflected back to the surface.

    • B. 

      The two transition zones prevent P- and S-waves from reaching the lower mantle.

    • C. 

      They slow down because mantle material is softened at these depths.

    • D. 

      They speed up due to density increases in mantle rock resulting from phase changes in minerals.

  • 10. 
    What changes in P- and S-waves occur when encountering the outer core that lead scientists to conclude that this layer is composed of liquid iron?
    • A. 

      P-waves slow down while S-waves speed up when passing through the outer core.

    • B. 

      Both P- and S-waves are prevented from passing through the outer core.

    • C. 

      S-waves cannot pass through the outer core while P-waves slow down significantly when passing through this layer.

    • D. 

      Both P- and S-waves increase in velocity when passing through the outer core.

  • 11. 
    The upper mantle is composed largely of a rock called ___________
    • A. 

      Peridotite

    • B. 

      Andesite

    • C. 

      Granite

    • D. 

      Basalt

  • 12. 
    P-wave shadow zones are regions on Earth's surface where...
    • A. 

      Only P-waves are detected by seismometers.

    • B. 

      Only P-waves are generated by earthquakes.

    • C. 

      S-waves change into P-waves.

    • D. 

      No P-waves are detected by seismometers.

  • 13. 
    Circulation of liquid iron in the outer core is thought to be responsible for Earth's _____________
    • A. 

      Heat flow

    • B. 

      Magnetic field

    • C. 

      Gravity

    • D. 

      Rotation

  • 14. 
    Which of the following statements is true for minerals?
    • A. 

      Minerals are mostly created through the activities of organisms.

    • B. 

      Atoms within the crystal structure of a mineral are usually disorganized and randomly distributed.

    • C. 

      The minerals quartz and halite are considered separate minerals because of differences in crystal sizes

    • D. 

      A given mineral has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition.

  • 15. 
    Which of the following statements regarding silicate minerals is false?
    • A. 

      All silicate minerals have silicon and oxygen in their chemical formula.

    • B. 

      Silicate tetrahedra can bond with cations but not with other tetrahedra.

    • C. 

      The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.

    • D. 

      Silicate minerals are the most abundant minerals in Earth's crust.

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is NOT a silicate mineral?
    • A. 

      Mica

    • B. 

      Pyroxene

    • C. 

      Hematite

    • D. 

      Plagioclase feldspar

    • E. 

      Quartz

  • 17. 
    The mineral calcite belongs to which of the following mineral groups?
    • A. 

      Halides

    • B. 

      Sulfates

    • C. 

      Oxides

    • D. 

      Silicates

    • E. 

      Carbonates

  • 18. 
    What distinguishes the native element minerals from the other mineral groups?
    • A. 

      Native element minerals are all soft and easily scratched

    • B. 

      Native element minerals only form ionic bonds

    • C. 

      Native element minerals are bonded to sulfur

    • D. 

      Native element minerals are comprised of only one element

  • 19. 
    Which of the following pairs of minerals belong to the same mineral group?
    • A. 

      Mica and gold

    • B. 

      Quartz and halite

    • C. 

      Gypsum and anhydrite

    • D. 

      Calcite and olivine

  • 20. 
    According to the Rock Cycle, which of the following is the first stage in converting a metamorphic rock into a sedimentary rock?
    • A. 

      Uplift and exposure

    • B. 

      Lithification

    • C. 

      Burial to greater depths

    • D. 

      Increase the temperature

  • 21. 
    Which of the following statements regarding the Rock Cycle is FALSE?
    • A. 

      Any rock type can be uplifted and exposed to weathering agents.

    • B. 

      Sedimentary rocks can convert into metamorphic rocks if the temperature and pressure conditions are right.

    • C. 

      Only igneous rocks can be uplifted and exposed to weathering.

    • D. 

      Igneous rocks can bypass the weathering stage and convert directly into metamorphic rocks.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following statements regarding cooling rates of magma is TRUE?
    • A. 

      An igneous pluton forms from lava that is extruded onto Earth's surface and cools quickly.

    • B. 

      Lava erupted on Earth's surface cools very slowly when exposed to the atmosphere.

    • C. 

      Magma crystallizing deep in the crust cools slowly and forms large crystals.

    • D. 

      Fast cooling rates of magma produce large crystals.

  • 23. 
    What is the dominant igneous intrusion illustrated below?
    • A. 

      Batholith

    • B. 

      Sill

    • C. 

      Dike

    • D. 

      Volcanic neck

  • 24. 
    A magma rich in dissolved gases will produce...
    • A. 

      Only plutonic rocks with large crystals.

    • B. 

      Explosive eruptions and volcanic ash.

    • C. 

      Quiet eruptions and fluid lava.

    • D. 

      Mild eruptions that crystallize into mafic igneous rocks only.

  • 25. 
    A light-colored igneous rock with abundant quartz and potassium feldspar is probably ________ in composition.
    • A. 

      Felsic

    • B. 

      Intermediate

    • C. 

      Ultramafic

    • D. 

      Mafic

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