Genetic Vocabulary Flashcard Test A

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| By John Mitchell
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John Mitchell
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Genetic Vocabulary Flashcard Test A - Quiz

Welcome to the electronic frontier biology classroom of the 21st century. This testing instrument will cover introduction to genetics vocabulary for biology classes. The flashcards can be accessed on Mitchell's Cosmic Adventure science web site under Biology TERMS & FLASHCARDS. I wish you GOOD LUCK on earning high marks!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____ is the science of genes, heredity, and variations in living organisms.

    • A.

      Biology

    • B.

      Genetics

    • C.

      Heredity

    • D.

      Zoology

    • E.

      Astrobiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Genetics
    Explanation
    Genetics is the science that studies genes, heredity, and variations in living organisms. It focuses on the inheritance of traits from one generation to another and how genes are responsible for the characteristics and traits of individuals. By studying genetics, scientists can understand how traits are passed down through generations, how genetic disorders occur, and how variations in genes contribute to the diversity of life forms.

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  • 2. 

    _____ is the passing of traits to offspring from it's parents or ancestors?  (Please enter your single answer in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    heredity
    Explanation
    Heredity is the passing of traits from parents or ancestors to their offspring. It involves the transmission of genetic information, such as DNA, from one generation to the next. Through heredity, individuals inherit traits such as eye color, height, and certain diseases from their parents or ancestors. This process is essential for the continuation of species and the diversity of life.

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  • 3. 

    _____ _____was a German-Silesian scientist who gained fame as the founder of the new science of genetics.

    • A.

      Akerman, Susan

    • B.

      Allan, William

    • C.

      Mendel, Gregor

    • D.

      Aiport, Cecil A

    • E.

      Avery, Oswald

    Correct Answer
    C. Mendel, Gregor
    Explanation
    Gregor Mendel was a German-Silesian scientist who gained fame as the founder of the new science of genetics. He conducted experiments with pea plants and discovered the principles of inheritance, which laid the foundation for modern genetics. Mendel's work demonstrated the existence of dominant and recessive traits and introduced the concept of genetic inheritance through the passing of genes from parents to offspring. His discoveries were not widely recognized during his lifetime but later became the cornerstone of modern genetics.

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  • 4. 

    _____ _____ is a species of garden peas Mendel used in his genetic experiments.  (Please use the correct format for genus species organisms.)

    Correct Answer
    Pisum sativum
    Explanation
    Pisum sativum is the correct answer because it is the scientific name for the species of garden peas that Mendel used in his genetic experiments. The genus name is Pisum and the species name is sativum. This species of garden peas was important in Mendel's experiments as he discovered the principles of inheritance and laid the foundation for the field of genetics.

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  • 5. 

    A process by which pollen is transferred to achieve reproduction in plants is called a(n)_____.  (Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    pollination
    Explanation
    Pollination is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which pollen is transferred from the male reproductive organ (anther) to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of a flower, enabling fertilization and reproduction in plants. This process can occur through various means, such as wind, water, or through the assistance of animals (insects, birds, or mammals) that carry the pollen from one flower to another.

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  • 6. 

    Pollination is a process involving the transfer of pollen from one plant or the same plant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pollination is indeed a process that involves the transfer of pollen. This transfer can occur between different plants, known as cross-pollination, or within the same plant, known as self-pollination. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 7. 

    What male reproductive structures in flowering plants produce pollen?  (Please enter your answer in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    anther
    anthers
    Explanation
    The male reproductive structures in flowering plants that produce pollen are called anthers. Anthers are responsible for producing and releasing pollen grains, which contain the male gametes necessary for fertilization.

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  • 8. 

    Flowering plants have female reproductive structures called _____.

    • A.

      Anthers

    • B.

      Stigma

    • C.

      Petals

    • D.

      Sepals

    • E.

      Genes

    Correct Answer
    B. Stigma
    Explanation
    Flowering plants have female reproductive structures called stigma. The stigma is the sticky, receptive surface at the top of the pistil where pollen is deposited during pollination. It plays a crucial role in the fertilization process by capturing and recognizing pollen grains for successful reproduction. Anthers, on the other hand, are the male reproductive structures that produce and release pollen. Petals and sepals are not directly involved in reproduction but serve to attract pollinators and protect the reproductive organs. Genes, although important for determining plant characteristics, are not specific to female reproductive structures.

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  • 9. 

    _____ _____ occurs when pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of either that flower or another flower on the same plant.

    • A.

      Cross pollination

    • B.

      Self pollination

    • C.

      Antherial pollination

    • D.

      Genetic pollination

    • E.

      Heredity pollination

    Correct Answer
    B. Self pollination
    Explanation
    Self pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of either that flower or another flower on the same plant. This process allows for the transfer of genetic material within the same plant, leading to the production of offspring with similar traits to the parent plant. Self pollination can be advantageous in certain situations, such as when there are limited pollinators or when a plant wants to maintain specific genetic traits.

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  • 10. 

    Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther of the flower of one plant to the anther of the flower of the different plant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther of the flower of one plant to the stigma of the flower of a different plant, not to the anther of the flower of the different plant. This is a key distinction, as the transfer of pollen to the stigma is necessary for fertilization and the production of seeds. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 11. 

    When selected biological traits which are passed on to all generations when bred with another true breeding organism for the same traits is called a(n)_____ _____

    • A.

      Generation breeding

    • B.

      True breeding

    • C.

      Line breeding

    • D.

      Cross breeding

    • E.

      Stock breeeding

    Correct Answer
    B. True breeding
    Explanation
    True breeding refers to the process of breeding organisms that have the same traits and consistently pass them on to their offspring for multiple generations. This is achieved by crossing two true breeding organisms with the same traits. The resulting offspring will also be true breeding for those traits. This process is important in genetics and selective breeding as it helps to establish and maintain specific traits in a population.

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  • 12. 

    _____ generation refers to the parent organisms or strains in a particular genetic cross.

    • A.

      F

    • B.

      F1

    • C.

      F2

    • D.

      F3

    • E.

      P

    • F.

      G

    Correct Answer
    E. P
    Explanation
    The term "P" refers to the parent organisms or strains in a particular genetic cross. This is commonly used in genetics to denote the initial generation of individuals that are bred to create subsequent generations. The P generation is crucial in determining the genetic traits that are passed down to the offspring in the F1, F2, and subsequent generations.

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  • 13. 

    _____ generation is shorthand for the first filial generation. It is the first generation of offspring resulting from a particular genetic cross.

    • A.

      G

    • B.

      F

    • C.

      F1

    • D.

      F2

    • E.

      P

    Correct Answer
    C. F1
    Explanation
    F1 generation is the correct answer because it refers to the first filial generation. This generation is produced by crossing two parental (P) organisms. The F1 generation inherits one set of chromosomes from each parent, resulting in a combination of traits from both parents. It is the initial step in studying the inheritance patterns of specific traits and serves as the starting point for further generations, such as the F2 generation.

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  • 14. 

    _____ generation is shorthand for the second filial generation. It is the first generation of offspring resulting from a particular genetic cross or set of parents (F1).

    • A.

      G

    • B.

      F

    • C.

      F1

    • D.

      F2

    • E.

      P

    Correct Answer
    D. F2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is F2. In genetics, F2 generation refers to the second filial generation, which is the offspring resulting from a cross between two F1 individuals. The F1 generation is the first filial generation, which is the offspring resulting from a cross between two parental individuals (P generation). Therefore, the F2 generation is the next generation after the F1 generation.

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  • 15. 

    _____ is when the allele or genes that masks a trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes.

    • A.

      Dominant

    • B.

      Recessive

    • C.

      Factor

    • D.

      Heredity

    • E.

      Genetics

    Correct Answer
    A. Dominant
    Explanation
    Dominant is the correct answer because it refers to the allele or genes that mask a trait in the presence of a contrasting allele. In other words, if a dominant allele is present, it will always be expressed in the offspring, regardless of whether the other allele is dominant or recessive. This concept is a fundamental principle in genetics, where dominant traits are represented by uppercase letters and recessive traits by lowercase letters.

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  • 16. 

    A _____ _____ is a trait controlled by a recessive factor having no observable effect on an organism's appearance when paired with a dominant trait.   (Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    recessive trait
    Explanation
    A recessive trait is a characteristic that is controlled by a recessive factor, which means that it is only expressed when paired with another recessive trait. This trait does not have any observable effect on an organism's appearance when paired with a dominant trait. In other words, the dominant trait masks the expression of the recessive trait.

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  • 17. 

    The _____ states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.

    • A.

      Law of Genetics

    • B.

      Law of Segregation

    • C.

      Law of Independent Assortment

    • D.

      Law of Heredity

    Correct Answer
    B. Law of Segregation
    Explanation
    The Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during the formation of gametes, specifically during meiosis. This means that each gamete carries only one allele for each trait. This separation occurs randomly, ensuring genetic diversity. During fertilization, the gametes randomly unite, resulting in the combination of alleles from both parents. This law, proposed by Gregor Mendel, explains the inheritance patterns of traits in offspring.

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  • 18. 

    The _____ states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.

    • A.

      Law of Genetics

    • B.

      Law of Segregation

    • C.

      Law of Independent Assortment

    • D.

      Law of Heredity

    Correct Answer
    C. Law of Independent Assortment
    Explanation
    The Law of Independent Assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that the inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of another trait. Each allele has an equal chance of being passed on to the offspring, regardless of the other alleles present. This law is one of the fundamental principles of genetics and was proposed by Gregor Mendel based on his experiments with pea plants.

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  • 19. 

    Genetics is the study of the molecular processes underlying gene function and structure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Genetics is not solely focused on the molecular processes underlying gene function and structure. While these processes are certainly an important aspect of genetics, the field also encompasses the study of inheritance, variation, and the traits that are passed down from one generation to another. Additionally, genetics involves the study of how genes interact with each other and the environment to influence an organism's traits and development. Therefore, the statement that genetics is solely the study of molecular processes is false.

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  • 20. 

    Gregor Mendel laid the foundation for the modern understanding of inheritance with his research. Indeed, the _____ he discovered are genes, which come in pairs.

    • A.

      Factors

    • B.

      Genes

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Factors
    Explanation
    Gregor Mendel's research led to the discovery of factors that are now known as genes. Genes are the units of heredity that come in pairs and are responsible for passing on traits from one generation to the next. Mendel's work with pea plants allowed him to observe the patterns of inheritance and develop the principles of genetics. These principles formed the foundation for the modern understanding of inheritance and genetics.

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  • 21. 

    An alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome is called a(n)_____.   (Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    allele
    Explanation
    An allele refers to an alternative form of a gene that is found at a specific location on a specific chromosome. Alleles occur in pairs, with one allele inherited from each parent, and they can vary in their DNA sequence, resulting in different traits or characteristics.

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  • 22. 

    What is the correct scientific name for corn?

    • A.

      Zea rubra

    • B.

      Zea mays

    • C.

      Zea pomifera

    • D.

      Cercis canadensis

    • E.

      Abies concolor

    Correct Answer
    B. Zea mays
    Explanation
    Zea mays is the correct scientific name for corn. This name is derived from the genus Zea, which includes all species of corn, and the species name mays specifically refers to the cultivated variety of corn. The scientific name is used to accurately identify and classify the plant species, and in this case, Zea mays is the accepted name for corn in the scientific community.

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  • 23. 

    The _____ is the fundamental genetic makeup of an organism. It consists of the alleles inherits from it's parents.

    • A.

      Phenotype

    • B.

      Genotype

    • C.

      Hyperotype

    • D.

      Genetics

    Correct Answer
    B. Genotype
    Explanation
    The genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an organism, which consists of the alleles inherited from its parents. This includes all the genes and genetic information that an organism carries, determining its traits and characteristics. The genotype is responsible for the development of the phenotype, which is the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism.

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  • 24. 

    _____ is an organism's physical appearance as determined by the genes present.

    • A.

      Genotype

    • B.

      Phenotype

    • C.

      Genetics

    • D.

      Allele

    • E.

      Test-cross

    Correct Answer
    B. Phenotype
    Explanation
    Phenotype refers to an organism's physical appearance, which is determined by the genes present. It includes characteristics such as the color of hair, eyes, and skin, as well as other physical traits. The genotype, on the other hand, refers to the genetic makeup of an organism, which includes all the genes it possesses. Genetics is the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics. Allele is a variant form of a gene, and a test-cross is a breeding experiment used to determine the genotype of an organism.

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  • 25. 

    _____ is a condition having the same alleles at a particular gene locus on homologous chromosomes.  (Please enter your answer in case sensitive form.)

    Correct Answer
    Homozygous
    Explanation
    Homozygous refers to a condition where an individual has the same alleles at a specific gene locus on both homologous chromosomes. In other words, both copies of the gene are identical. This can result in the expression of a recessive trait if both alleles are recessive or a dominant trait if both alleles are dominant. Homozygosity increases the likelihood of passing on specific traits to offspring and is important in genetic inheritance and breeding.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
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