General Biology Test #1 Ecology

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General Biology Test #1 Ecology - Quiz

Multiple Choice choose the BEST answer


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Study the Figure below and answer the question that follows.What term describes a level of organization that contains only one species

    • A.

      Ecosystem

    • B.

      Community

    • C.

      Population

    • D.

      Biome

    • E.

      Organism

    Correct Answer
    C. Population
    Explanation
    A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interact with each other. It is a level of organization that contains only one species because it focuses on a specific group of organisms belonging to the same species. In contrast, an ecosystem includes multiple populations of different species interacting with each other, a community includes multiple populations of different species living in the same area, a biome refers to a large geographic area with similar climate and vegetation, and an organism refers to an individual living being.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is ordered correctly from largest to smallest

    • A.

      Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome

    • B.

      Ecosystem, biome, community, population, organism

    • C.

      Biome, ecosystem, community, population, organism

    • D.

      Biome, ecosystem, population, community, organism

    Correct Answer
    C. Biome, ecosystem, community, population, organism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is biome, ecosystem, community, population, organism. This is the correct order from largest to smallest in terms of ecological organization. A biome is a large geographical area characterized by specific climate and vegetation. An ecosystem is a smaller unit within a biome, consisting of all the living organisms and their interactions with the non-living environment. A community is a group of different populations of organisms living in the same area and interacting with each other. A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area. An organism is an individual living being.

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  • 3. 

    How do the activities of a keystone species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem

    • A.

      They increase biodiversity.

    • B.

      They decrease biodiversity

    • C.

      They have no effect on biodiversity.

    • D.

      Biodiversity remains the same but the species change.

    Correct Answer
    A. They increase biodiversity.
    Explanation
    The activities of a keystone species have a positive impact on biodiversity in an ecosystem. Keystone species play a crucial role in maintaining the balance and stability of an ecosystem. They often have a disproportionate effect on their environment compared to their abundance. By controlling the population of other species or influencing their behavior, keystone species promote a diverse range of species within the ecosystem. This leads to an increase in biodiversity as different species are able to thrive and coexist in the presence of the keystone species.

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  • 4. 

    What term describes a consumer?

    • A.

      Heterotroph

    • B.

      Autotroph

    • C.

      Producer

    • D.

      Chemosynthetic

    Correct Answer
    A. Heterotroph
    Explanation
    A heterotroph is an organism that obtains its energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms or organic matter. This term accurately describes a consumer because consumers rely on consuming other organisms or organic matter to obtain the energy and nutrients they need to survive. Autotrophs, on the other hand, are organisms that can produce their own energy through processes like photosynthesis. Producers are typically autotrophs that produce organic compounds that serve as food for other organisms. Chemosynthetic organisms are autotrophs that obtain energy from inorganic substances.

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  • 5. 

    What kind of organism provides the basis for an ecosystem's energy

    • A.

      Heterotroph

    • B.

      Autotroph

    • C.

      Consumer

    • D.

      Scavenger

    Correct Answer
    B. Autotroph
    Explanation
    Autotrophs, such as plants, are the organisms that provide the basis for an ecosystem's energy. They are able to produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, converting sunlight or inorganic compounds into organic molecules. These autotrophs are at the bottom of the food chain and serve as a source of energy for all other organisms in the ecosystem, including heterotrophs (which obtain energy from consuming other organisms), consumers (which feed on other organisms), and scavengers (which feed on dead organisms).

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  • 6. 

    Study the Figure below and answer the question that follows. Where does most of the energy in an ecosystem originate?

    • A.

      Organisms

    • B.

      Soil

    • C.

      Food

    • D.

      Sunlight

    • E.

      Chemicals

    Correct Answer
    D. Sunlight
    Explanation
    Most of the energy in an ecosystem originates from sunlight. Sunlight is the primary source of energy for most ecosystems as it is captured by plants through photosynthesis. Plants convert sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose, which is then passed on to other organisms in the food chain. These organisms, in turn, utilize this energy for their growth, reproduction, and other metabolic activities. Therefore, sunlight is the ultimate source of energy that drives the functioning of ecosystems.

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  • 7. 

    Which organism is not paired correctly with its feeding relationship?  

    • A.

      Rabbit-carnivore

    • B.

      Fungus-decomposer

    • C.

      Human-omnivore

    • D.

      Millipede-detritivore

    Correct Answer
    A. Rabbit-carnivore
    Explanation
    The feeding relationship between a rabbit and a carnivore is not paired correctly because rabbits are herbivores, not carnivores. Carnivores are animals that primarily feed on meat, while herbivores primarily feed on plants.

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  • 8. 

    What organism is in the second trophic level in the following food chain: producer-herbivore-omnivore-carnivore?

    • A.

      Carnivore

    • B.

      Herbivore

    • C.

      Omnivore

    • D.

      Producer

    Correct Answer
    B. Herbivore
    Explanation
    In a food chain, the trophic level refers to the position of an organism in the chain based on its source of energy. The first trophic level consists of producers, which are usually plants that produce their own food through photosynthesis. The second trophic level consists of herbivores, which are animals that feed on plants. Since the question states that the second trophic level organism is in the food chain "producer-herbivore-omnivore-carnivore," the correct answer is herbivore.

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  • 9. 

    How does energy flow in a food chain?

    • A.

      From the lowest trophic level to the highest

    • B.

      From the highest trophic level to the lowest

    • C.

      From the sun to the producer

    • D.

      From the consumer to the producer

    Correct Answer
    A. From the lowest trophic level to the highest
    Explanation
    Energy flows in a food chain from the lowest trophic level to the highest. This means that energy is transferred from the primary producers (such as plants) to the primary consumers (such as herbivores), then to the secondary consumers (such as carnivores), and so on. The reason for this flow is that each trophic level obtains energy by consuming organisms from the level below it. As energy is transferred through each level, some of it is lost as heat or used for metabolic processes, resulting in a decrease in available energy as you move up the food chain.

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  • 10. 

    What happens to a food web's energy at each link?

    • A.

      Some is stored within the organism; the rest is lost to the environment

    • B.

      All is stored within the organism.

    • C.

      All is dissipated into the environment

    • D.

      Some is stored within the organism; the rest reverts back to the producer.

    Correct Answer
    A. Some is stored within the organism; the rest is lost to the environment
    Explanation
    In a food web, energy is transferred from one organism to another through the consumption of food. However, not all of the energy is transferred efficiently. Some of the energy is stored within the organism and used for its own growth, reproduction, and other metabolic processes. This stored energy is then passed on to the next organism in the food web when it is consumed. However, a significant portion of the energy is lost as heat or used for the organism's own respiration and movement, and is therefore not available for transfer to the next trophic level. This energy that is lost to the environment is usually in the form of heat or waste products.

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  • 11. 

    What occurs during the process of nitrogen fixation?

    • A.

      Ammonium is converted to nitrate.

    • B.

      Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia

    • C.

      Ammonia is converted to ammonium.

    • D.

      Nitrates are converted to organic compounds.

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia
    Explanation
    During the process of nitrogen fixation, nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia. This process is carried out by certain bacteria and archaea, known as nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These microorganisms have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form, such as ammonia. This conversion is essential for plants and other organisms to obtain nitrogen, which is a crucial nutrient for their growth and development. Ammonia can then be further transformed into other nitrogen compounds, such as ammonium ions or nitrates, which can be taken up by plants and used for various metabolic processes.

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  • 12. 

    How does oxygen enter the atmosphere in the oxygen cycle?

    • A.

      Plants release oxygen to the atmosphere as a waste product of photosynthesis

    • B.

      Animals release oxygen to the atmosphere as a waste product of photosynthesis.

    • C.

      Oxygen enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide from photosynthesis

    • D.

      Plants release oxygen to the atmosphere as a waste product of cellular respiration.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plants release oxygen to the atmosphere as a waste product of photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Plants release oxygen to the atmosphere as a waste product of photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. The oxygen produced is released into the atmosphere as a byproduct. This process is crucial for maintaining the oxygen levels in the atmosphere, which is essential for the survival of all living organisms.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following does not return carbon to the atmosphere?

    • A.

      Decay of once-living things

    • B.

      Burning of fossil fuels

    • C.

      Formation of carbonate rocks

    • D.

      As waste from cellular respiration

    Correct Answer
    C. Formation of carbonate rocks
    Explanation
    Formation of carbonate rocks does not return carbon to the atmosphere because when carbon dioxide combines with calcium ions in water, it forms calcium carbonate, which then precipitates out of the water and accumulates as carbonate rocks. This process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it in the rocks, effectively sequestering carbon and preventing its release back into the atmosphere.

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  • 14. 

    In the ecosystem shown in the picture, which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor?\

    • A.

      Mushrooms

    • B.

      Tree roots

    • C.

      Sunlight

    • D.

      Fish

    Correct Answer
    C. Sunlight
    Explanation
    Sunlight is an example of an abiotic factor because it is a non-living component of the ecosystem. Abiotic factors are physical or chemical factors that influence the living organisms in an ecosystem. Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. It also affects temperature and provides energy for various ecological processes. Therefore, sunlight plays a crucial role in shaping the ecosystem and influencing the distribution and behavior of living organisms within it.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following organisms in this food web is a tertiary consumer?  

    • A.

      Deer

    • B.

      Snake

    • C.

      Rosebush

    • D.

      Wolf

    Correct Answer
    B. Snake
    Explanation
    In a food web, tertiary consumers are organisms that feed on secondary consumers. In this given food web, the snake is the only organism that feeds on another consumer, which is the deer. Therefore, the snake is the tertiary consumer in this food web.

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  • 16. 

    What effect might the removal of an estuary have on the surrounding environment?

    • A.

      Coastal areas would likely be more vulnerable to flooding

    • B.

      Biodiversity in the area would increase

    • C.

      The amount of nutrients in coastal waters would increase.

    • D.

      The removal of an estuary would have no effect on the surrounding environment.

    Correct Answer
    A. Coastal areas would likely be more vulnerable to flooding
    Explanation
    The removal of an estuary would likely make coastal areas more vulnerable to flooding. Estuaries act as natural buffers against storm surges and tidal waves by absorbing and dispersing the energy of these events. They also provide a natural storage area for excess water during heavy rainfall or high tides. Without an estuary, there would be less protection against these natural events, increasing the risk of flooding in the surrounding coastal areas.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is thought to contribute to global warming?

    • A.

      Increased levels of greenhouse gases emitted from human sources

    • B.

      Increased water vapor in the atmosphere

    • C.

      Decreased amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

    • D.

      Heat reflected from solar panels

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased levels of greenhouse gases emitted from human sources
    Explanation
    Increased levels of greenhouse gases emitted from human sources are thought to contribute to global warming. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to an increase in the average temperature of the planet. Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes, release large amounts of these greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, intensifying the greenhouse effect and causing global warming. This has significant impacts on climate patterns, sea levels, and ecosystems worldwide.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is an example of parasitism?

    • A.

      Bees gathering nectar from a patch of flowers

    • B.

      A barnacle living on the underside of a whale

    • C.

      A brown-headed cowbird laying its egg in a vireo's nest

    • D.

      A flea feeding on the blood of a dog

    Correct Answer
    D. A flea feeding on the blood of a dog
    Explanation
    Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another organism, known as the host. In this case, a flea feeding on the blood of a dog is an example of parasitism. The flea benefits by obtaining nourishment from the dog's blood, while the dog is harmed as the flea feeds on its blood and can cause irritation or transmit diseases.

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  • 19. 

    Which type of population growth is exhibited by the Daphnia population shown in the graph?

    • A.

      Arithmetic growth

    • B.

      Exponential growth

    • C.

      Density-dependent grow

    • D.

      Limited growth

    Correct Answer
    B. Exponential growth
    Explanation
    The Daphnia population shown in the graph exhibits exponential growth. This is because the population size is increasing at an accelerating rate over time, resulting in a J-shaped curve. Exponential growth occurs when the population has abundant resources and favorable conditions, allowing individuals to reproduce rapidly and the population to grow exponentially.

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  • 20. 

    Why do energy pyramids and biomass pyramids usually have a similar shape?

    • A.

      An energy pyramid cannot contain more energy than organisms need

    • B.

      As energy is lost, more biomass can be supported

    • C.

      The amount of biomass on any level cannot be greater than the available energy can support

    • D.

      Both energy and biomass are lost to the environment at equal rates

    Correct Answer
    C. The amount of biomass on any level cannot be greater than the available energy can support
    Explanation
    Energy pyramids and biomass pyramids usually have a similar shape because the amount of biomass on any level cannot be greater than the available energy can support. This means that as energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next, there is a decrease in the amount of energy available to support biomass. Therefore, the higher up the pyramid, the less biomass there is, resulting in a pyramid shape.

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  • 21. 

    Why is so much energy lost from one trophic level to another?

    • A.

      Organisms must use energy to warm their bodies

    • B.

      Organisms stop growing as adults, so they don't need all the energy they take in.

    • C.

      Cellular respiration is an efficient process

    • D.

      The conversion of biomass from one organism to another is inefficient

    Correct Answer
    A. Organisms must use energy to warm their bodies
    Explanation
    Organisms must use energy to warm their bodies. This is because organisms are warm-blooded and need to maintain a constant body temperature. In order to do so, they use a significant amount of energy. This energy is lost as heat, resulting in a decrease in the overall energy available at each trophic level.

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  • 22. 

    If producers in a food chain take in 1000 kcal of energy, how much energy will likely be passed on to the second trophic level?

    • A.

      More than 900 kcal

    • B.

      About 100 kcal

    • C.

      1000 kcal

    • D.

      Less than 10 kcal

    Correct Answer
    B. About 100 kcal
    Explanation
    The energy transfer between trophic levels in a food chain is not efficient, as energy is lost through metabolic processes and heat production. On average, only about 10% of the energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next. Therefore, if producers take in 1000 kcal of energy, it is likely that only about 100 kcal will be passed on to the second trophic level.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is usually found in the smallest number in a pyramid of numbers?

    • A.

      Producers

    • B.

      Primary consumers

    • C.

      Secondary consumers

    • D.

      Tertiary consumers

    Correct Answer
    D. Tertiary consumers
    Explanation
    In a pyramid of numbers, the smallest number is usually found in the tertiary consumers. Tertiary consumers are at the top of the food chain and have the least number of individuals compared to other trophic levels. This is because energy is lost as it moves up the food chain, resulting in fewer organisms being able to be supported at higher trophic levels. Therefore, tertiary consumers typically have the smallest population size in a pyramid of numbers.

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  • 24. 

    Why don't most parasites kill their hosts immediately?

    • A.

      The parasites would no longer have a food supply if the host died.

    • B.

      The host is able to fight off the invading parasites.

    • C.

      The host benefits by keeping the parasites alive.

    • D.

      The parasites help the host before killing it.

    Correct Answer
    A. The parasites would no longer have a food supply if the host died.
    Explanation
    Most parasites do not kill their hosts immediately because if the host dies, the parasites would no longer have a source of food. By keeping the host alive, the parasites ensure a continuous supply of nutrients and resources necessary for their survival. This allows the parasites to reproduce and spread to other potential hosts, increasing their chances of survival and perpetuation.

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  • 25. 

    A pack of wolves is fighting with a grizzly bear over a kill.  What kind of competition is this?

    • A.

      Interspecific competition

    • B.

      Intraspecific competition

    • C.

      Predation

    • D.

      Symbiotic competition

    Correct Answer
    A. Interspecific competition
    Explanation
    This is an example of interspecific competition because it involves two different species, wolves and a grizzly bear, competing for the same resource, which is the kill. Interspecific competition refers to competition between different species for limited resources in the same ecological niche. In this case, both the wolves and the grizzly bear are vying for the food source, which leads to a competitive interaction between them.

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  • 26. 

    Lichens are a combination of algae and fungus that grow on rocks.   What kind of symbiosis is this?

    • A.

      Commensalism

    • B.

      Mutualism

    • C.

      Parasitism

    • D.

      Predation

    Correct Answer
    B. Mutualism
    Explanation
    Lichens are a combination of algae and fungus that grow on rocks. In this mutualistic relationship, the algae provide the fungus with nutrients through photosynthesis, while the fungus provides the algae with a protected environment and access to water and minerals. Both organisms benefit from this symbiotic relationship.

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  • 27. 

    Shown below is an intestinal worm and a tick. How are endoparasites and ectoparasites alike?

    • A.

      Both feed on the host's fluids.

    • B.

      Both feed on nutrients that are ingested by the host.

    • C.

      Both live in the tissues and organs of the host.

    • D.

      Both kill their host.

    Correct Answer
    A. Both feed on the host's fluids.
    Explanation
    Endoparasites and ectoparasites are alike in that they both feed on the host's fluids. Endoparasites are parasites that live inside the host's body, such as intestinal worms, while ectoparasites are parasites that live on the external surface of the host's body, such as ticks. In both cases, the parasites rely on the host's fluids for their nutrition and survival.

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  • 28. 

    Which factor causes a population to increase in size?

    • A.

      Deaths

    • B.

      Immigration

    • C.

      Emigration

    • D.

      Carrying capacity

    Correct Answer
    B. Immigration
    Explanation
    Immigration is the factor that causes a population to increase in size. Immigration refers to the movement of individuals into a population from another area or region. When individuals immigrate to a population, they increase the overall number of individuals, leading to population growth. This can occur due to various reasons such as better opportunities, resources, or living conditions in the new area.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is a density-dependent limiting factor?

    • A.

      Fire

    • B.

      Disease

    • C.

      Wetland destruction

    • D.

      Hurricanes

    Correct Answer
    B. Disease
    Explanation
    Disease is a density-dependent limiting factor because its impact on a population increases as the population density increases. In a dense population, diseases can spread more easily and quickly, leading to higher rates of infection and mortality. As the population density decreases, the transmission of diseases becomes less frequent, reducing their impact on the population. This makes disease a factor that is influenced by the density of the population, making it density-dependent.

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  • 30. 

    Why is population a density dependent limiting factor for disease?  

    • A.

      The less crowded an area is, the easier it is for disease to spread.

    • B.

      The more crowded an area is, the easier it is for disease to spread.

    • C.

      Both of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. The more crowded an area is, the easier it is for disease to spread.
    Explanation
    Population density refers to the number of individuals living in a given area. In a more crowded area, there is a higher chance of disease transmission due to increased contact between individuals. This allows diseases to spread more easily through close proximity and increased interaction. Therefore, the more crowded an area is, the easier it is for diseases to spread.

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  • 31. 

    What determines Earth's climate zones?

    • A.

      Average temperature

    • B.

      Average precipitation

    • C.

      The number of microclimates

    • D.

      Both temperature and precipitation

    Correct Answer
    D. Both temperature and precipitation
    Explanation
    Earth's climate zones are determined by both temperature and precipitation. Temperature plays a crucial role in defining the boundaries of different climate zones, as it influences the overall heat and cold patterns in an area. Precipitation, on the other hand, determines the amount of rainfall or snowfall that a region receives, which directly impacts the availability of water and the types of vegetation that can thrive. By considering both temperature and precipitation, scientists can classify and map Earth's climate zones, such as tropical, temperate, and polar, based on the unique combinations of these two factors.

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  • 32. 

    This lemur tree frog lives entirely in one type of leaf.How is a microclimate different from climate?  

    • A.

      Microclimate is the climate of a small specific place.

    • B.

      Microclimate is the climate that affects microbes.

    • C.

      Microclimate is the short-term pattern of weather conditions.

    • D.

      Microclimate is the climate during a particular season

    Correct Answer
    A. Microclimate is the climate of a small specific place.
    Explanation
    Microclimate refers to the climate conditions that exist within a small, specific area or location, such as a particular spot in a forest or a garden. It can be different from the overall climate of a larger region or area.

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  • 33. 

    What does the term "ecological equivalents" describe?

    • A.

      Species that occupy the same niche in the same community

    • B.

      Species that occupy similar niches in different geographical regions

    • C.

      Species that occupy different niches in the same habitat

    • D.

      Species that occupy different niches in different geographical regions

    Correct Answer
    B. Species that occupy similar niches in different geographical regions
    Explanation
    The term "ecological equivalents" refers to species that occupy similar niches in different geographical regions. This means that these species have similar roles and functions within their respective ecosystems, even though they may be located in different parts of the world. These species may have similar adaptations, behaviors, and ecological interactions, allowing them to fulfill similar ecological roles despite their geographic separation.

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  • 34. 

    Burning coal in a power plant would be part of which cycle?

    • A.

      Nitrogen cycle

    • B.

      Water cycle

    • C.

      Carbon cycle

    • D.

      Phosphorous cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon cycle
    Explanation
    Burning coal in a power plant releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This carbon dioxide is then absorbed by plants during photosynthesis, which is a part of the carbon cycle. The plants use the carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and store carbon in their tissues. When the plants die or are burned, the stored carbon is released back into the atmosphere, completing the carbon cycle. Therefore, burning coal in a power plant is a part of the carbon cycle.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is a cause and effect relationship that seems to be supported by the graph?

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide levels have no effect on average global temperatures.

    • B.

      As carbon dioxide levels increase, average global temperatures decrease.

    • C.

      As carbon dioxide levels increase, average global temperatures increase.

    • D.

      As average global temperatures increase, carbon dioxide levels decrease.

    Correct Answer
    C. As carbon dioxide levels increase, average global temperatures increase.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "As carbon dioxide levels increase, average global temperatures increase." This relationship is supported by the graph because it shows a positive correlation between carbon dioxide levels and average global temperatures. As the carbon dioxide levels increase, the average global temperatures also increase. This suggests that there is a cause and effect relationship between the two variables, with carbon dioxide levels being the cause and average global temperatures being the effect.

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  • 36. 

    Lichens decay away rocks into usable soil. Which biogeochemical cycle is this a part of?

    • A.

      Carbon cycle

    • B.

      Nitrogen cycle

    • C.

      Phosphorous cycle

    • D.

      Water cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosphorous cycle
    Explanation
    Lichens are organisms that have the ability to break down rocks and release nutrients, including phosphorous, into the soil. This process is known as weathering and is a part of the phosphorous cycle. Phosphorous is an essential nutrient for plants and plays a crucial role in various biological processes. Therefore, the decay of rocks by lichens contributes to the cycling of phosphorous in the environment, making it available for other organisms.

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  • 37. 

    Barnicles live on the backs of many whales. What kind of symbiotic relationship is this?

    • A.

      Mutualism

    • B.

      Parasitism

    • C.

      Commensalism

    Correct Answer
    C. Commensalism
    Explanation
    This is an example of commensalism because barnacles benefit from living on the backs of whales, as they have a stable surface to attach to and can feed on the plankton that the whale stirs up. However, the relationship is neutral for the whale, as it neither benefits nor is harmed by the presence of the barnacles.

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  • 38. 

    Two male lions fight for the same female. What kind of competition is this?

    • A.

      Interspecific competition

    • B.

      Intraspecific competition

    • C.

      Predation

    • D.

      Symbiotic competition

    Correct Answer
    B. Intraspecific competition
    Explanation
    This is an example of intraspecific competition because it involves two male lions competing for the same female within their own species. Intraspecific competition refers to competition between individuals of the same species for limited resources such as mates, food, or territory. In this case, the male lions are competing for the opportunity to mate with the female lion, which is a common behavior among individuals of the same species.

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  • 39. 

    The process shown in the figure above is?

    • A.

      Symbiosis

    • B.

      Oligotrophy

    • C.

      Succession

    • D.

      Competitive exclusion

    Correct Answer
    C. Succession
    Explanation
    The process shown in the figure above is succession. Succession refers to the gradual and predictable sequence of changes in a community over time. It involves the colonization of a new habitat by a variety of species, which gradually replace each other until a stable community is established. This process can occur after a disturbance, such as a fire or a volcanic eruption, or in areas where there is no existing community.

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  • 40. 

    What kind of ecological succession occurs after a fire?

    • A.

      Primary succession

    • B.

      Secondary succession

    • C.

      Tertiary succession

    • D.

      Quaternary succession

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary succession
    Explanation
    After a fire, secondary succession occurs. This type of ecological succession happens when an existing community is disturbed or destroyed, but the soil remains intact. In the case of a fire, the soil is usually not completely destroyed, allowing for the regeneration of plant life. Secondary succession involves the colonization of new plant species, starting with pioneer species that are well-suited to colonize disturbed areas. Over time, these pioneer species are replaced by more diverse and complex plant communities. This process continues until a stable and mature ecosystem is established.

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  • 41. 

    According to the graph above, what was the worlds population in 1950?

    • A.

      1 billion

    • B.

      2 billion

    • C.

      2.5 billion

    • D.

      2.5 million

    Correct Answer
    C. 2.5 billion
    Explanation
    Based on the graph, the y-axis represents the world's population in billions, and the x-axis represents the years. The graph shows that in 1950, the population was at the point where the line intersects with the 2.5 billion mark on the y-axis. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.5 billion.

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  • 42. 

    According to the graph above, what will the worlds population be in 2050?

    • A.

      1 billion

    • B.

      2 billion

    • C.

      5 billion

    • D.

      10 billion

    Correct Answer
    D. 10 billion
    Explanation
    Based on the graph, the population is projected to continue increasing steadily. By 2050, the graph shows that the population will reach the 10 billion mark.

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  • 43. 

    Why is oil not considered a renewable resource?

    • A.

      It cannot be used up.

    • B.

      It is used faster than it forms.

    • C.

      It forms faster than it is used.

    • D.

      It cannot be recycled.

    Correct Answer
    B. It is used faster than it forms.
    Explanation
    Oil is not considered a renewable resource because it is used faster than it forms. Oil is formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals that were buried and subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years. The process of oil formation is extremely slow, while the rate at which oil is being consumed is much higher. This means that the rate of oil production cannot keep up with the rate of consumption, making it a non-renewable resource.

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  • 44. 

    The Deep Water Horizon on April 22nd, 2010 The BP oil spill in the gulf of Mexico was considered a disaster because it?

    • A.

      It killed many forms of wildlife and damaged the ecosystem

    • B.

      It caused damage to the economy of the region

    • C.

      It caused physical and mental health problems for many people

    • D.

      Eleven people died

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on April 22nd, 2010, was considered a disaster because it caused multiple negative impacts. It killed many forms of wildlife and damaged the ecosystem, leading to long-term ecological consequences. Additionally, it caused damage to the economy of the region, affecting industries such as tourism and fishing. The spill also resulted in physical and mental health problems for many people, including those involved in the cleanup efforts and local communities. Lastly, the incident tragically led to the loss of eleven lives. Therefore, all of the above reasons contribute to why the BP oil spill was considered a disaster.

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  • 45. 

    According to the chart above, Biological Magnification is?

    • A.

      The cause of acid rain

    • B.

      The cause of global warming

    • C.

      The accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of higher level consumers

    • D.

      The accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of lower level consumers

    Correct Answer
    C. The accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of higher level consumers
    Explanation
    Biological magnification refers to the process in which pollutants or toxins become more concentrated as they move up the food chain. This occurs because the pollutants are not easily broken down or eliminated from the body, so they accumulate in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels. As a result, the highest level consumers, such as top predators, tend to have the highest concentrations of pollutants in their tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is "The accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of higher level consumers."

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  • 46. 

    Why is preserving biodiversity important?

    • A.

      All species are important to a functioning ecosystem

    • B.

      Many species contain chemicals that can be used as medicine

    • C.

      Biodiversity is the foundation of our world

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Preserving biodiversity is important because all species are crucial for a functioning ecosystem. Each species plays a unique role in maintaining the balance of an ecosystem, and the loss of even a single species can have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem. Additionally, many species contain chemicals that can be used for medicinal purposes, which can contribute to advancements in healthcare. Biodiversity is also the foundation of our world, as it provides essential ecosystem services such as air and water purification, soil fertility, and climate regulation. Therefore, all of the above reasons highlight the importance of preserving biodiversity.

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  • 47. 

    Which term describes the practice of managing resources so that current needs are met without harming future generations?

    • A.

      Species introduction

    • B.

      Sustainable development

    • C.

      Habitat fragmentation

    • D.

      Biomagnification

    Correct Answer
    B. Sustainable development
    Explanation
    Sustainable development refers to the practice of managing resources in a way that meets the current needs of society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves finding a balance between economic growth, social development, and environmental protection. This term emphasizes the importance of using resources efficiently and responsibly to ensure long-term sustainability and avoid depleting or damaging natural resources for future generations.

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  • 48. 

    The exotic species "kudzu" plantHow might an introduced plant species kill native plant species

    • A.

      Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of sunlight.

    • B.

      Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of food.

    • C.

      It can cause soil loss from erosion.

    • D.

      Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    A. Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of sunlight.
    Explanation
    The rapid growth of the exotic species "kudzu" plant can lead to the formation of dense canopies, blocking sunlight from reaching native plants. Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. When native plants are deprived of sunlight, they are unable to produce enough energy to survive and eventually die. Therefore, the rapid growth of kudzu can indirectly kill native plant species by depriving them of sunlight.

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  • 49. 

    Why might an introduced animal species, such as the rabbit in Austrailia overrun native species in an ecosystem?

    • A.

      Its population size is smaller than those of native species

    • B.

      It is more energy efficient, so it eats less food.

    • C.

      It is a predator of the native species.

    • D.

      It often has no natural enemies.

    Correct Answer
    D. It often has no natural enemies.
    Explanation
    Introduced animal species, such as the rabbit in Australia, can overrun native species in an ecosystem because they often have no natural enemies. Without natural predators or competitors, these introduced species can reproduce rapidly and outcompete native species for resources such as food, habitat, and mates. This lack of natural enemies allows their populations to grow unchecked, leading to a decline in native species populations and potential ecosystem imbalances.

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  • 50. 

    Things that you can do as an individual to contribute to a cleaner environment include?

    • A.

      Recycling

    • B.

      Using alternative transportation

    • C.

      Helping to educate the public

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because recycling helps reduce waste and conserve resources, using alternative transportation reduces pollution from cars, and helping to educate the public spreads awareness and encourages others to take action for a cleaner environment. By doing all of these actions, individuals can make a significant contribution to creating a cleaner environment.

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