Final Exam Botany 200 Bryophytes

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Final Exam Botany 200 Bryophytes - Quiz

Final exam study material bryophytes seedless vascular plants, algae,gymnosperm diversity, and ecosystem ecology.  


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Bryophytes have...

    • A.

      Xylem and phloem

    • B.

      Hydroids

    • C.

      True roots and leaves

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydroids
    Explanation
    Bryophytes are a group of non-vascular plants that lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Instead, they have specialized cells called hydroids that help in the conduction of water and nutrients throughout the plant. These hydroids are responsible for the transportation of water, similar to the xylem in vascular plants. Therefore, the presence of hydroids is a characteristic feature of bryophytes.

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  • 2. 

    All bryophytes are associated with mycorrhizal fungi 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bryophytes, which include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, are small, non-vascular plants that rely on external water for reproduction. These plants lack true roots, stems, and leaves. They have a symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizal fungi, where the fungi provide essential nutrients to the bryophytes, while the bryophytes provide the fungi with carbohydrates. This mutualistic association helps bryophytes to absorb nutrients from the soil more efficiently. Therefore, it is true that all bryophytes are associated with mycorrhizal fungi.

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  • 3. 

    Bryophytes lack all of the following except 

    • A.

      True roots

    • B.

      Leaves

    • C.

      Xylem and phloem

    • D.

      Hydroids

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydroids
    Explanation
    Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that lack true roots, leaves, xylem, and phloem. However, they do possess hydroids, which are specialized cells involved in water conduction. Therefore, the correct answer is "hydroids" because bryophytes do have them.

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  • 4. 

    Marchantia need what for fertilization

    • A.

      Air

    • B.

      Water

    • C.

      Animals/insects

    Correct Answer
    B. Water
    Explanation
    Marchantia, a type of liverwort, requires water for fertilization. This is because Marchantia is a non-vascular plant that lacks specialized tissues for the transport of water and nutrients. In order for fertilization to occur, Marchantia relies on the presence of water to allow the sperm to swim to the egg. This is known as external fertilization, where the sperm and egg meet in the presence of water. Therefore, water is essential for the fertilization process in Marchantia.

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  • 5. 

    Alteration of generation is not conspicuous 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    alteration of generations is very conspicuous

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  • 6. 

    Which stage in bryophytes is the dominant stage of life? 

    • A.

      Sporophyte

    • B.

      Gametophyte

    Correct Answer
    B. Gametophyte
    Explanation
    The dominant stage of life in bryophytes is the gametophyte stage. This is because the gametophyte is the stage where sexual reproduction occurs and where the gametes are produced. The sporophyte stage is dependent on the gametophyte stage for nutrition and is generally smaller and less prominent in bryophytes. Therefore, the gametophyte stage is considered to be the dominant stage in the life cycle of bryophytes.

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  • 7. 

    Phylum hepaticophyta is what family 

    • A.

      Liverworts

    • B.

      Mosses

    • C.

      Hornworts

    Correct Answer
    A. Liverworts
    Explanation
    The correct answer is liverworts. Phylum Hepaticophyta refers to the liverworts, which are a group of non-vascular plants. They are called liverworts because their flattened, lobed structure resembles the shape of a liver. Liverworts are found in moist environments and have a simple structure with a thallus or leafy structure. They reproduce through spores and are considered to be one of the earliest land plants. Mosses and hornworts are different groups of non-vascular plants and not synonymous with phylum Hepaticophyta.

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  • 8. 

    What is the name of the knoblike tissue that anchors the sporophyte to the gametophyte? 

    • A.

      Heel

    • B.

      Foot

    • C.

      Palm

    Correct Answer
    B. Foot
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "foot." In plants, the sporophyte is the diploid phase of the life cycle, while the gametophyte is the haploid phase. The foot is a knob-like tissue present in bryophytes and some ferns that anchors the sporophyte to the gametophyte. It absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte and helps in the transfer of nutrients to the developing sporophyte.

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  • 9. 

    Following fertilization the embryo is totally dependent on the sporophyte.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Following fertilization, the embryo is totally dependent on the sporophyte because the sporophyte provides the necessary nutrients and support for the embryo's growth and development. The sporophyte is the diploid stage of the plant life cycle that produces spores through meiosis, which then develop into haploid gametophytes. Fertilization occurs when the male gametophyte (pollen) fuses with the female gametophyte (ovule) to form a zygote, which then develops into an embryo. The sporophyte, which is the dominant stage of most plants, continues to provide resources and protection for the embryo until it can become an independent plant.

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  • 10. 

    Marchanita is found where? 

    • A.

      On dead animal carcasses

    • B.

      On the surface of water

    • C.

      On damp soil following a fire

    Correct Answer
    C. On damp soil following a fire
    Explanation
    Marchanita is found on damp soil following a fire. This suggests that Marchanita is a type of organism that thrives in post-fire environments. The damp soil provides the necessary moisture for Marchanita to grow, and the fire likely creates the conditions that are favorable for its growth. This could be due to the changes in nutrient availability or the removal of competing organisms.

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  • 11. 

    In liverworts, when are the pores open

    • A.

      Night

    • B.

      Day

    • C.

      24/7

    Correct Answer
    C. 24/7
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 24/7 because liverworts have open pores called stomata on their surfaces that allow for gas exchange and water loss. Unlike in other plants, the stomata in liverworts do not close during the night or under certain conditions. They remain open all the time, allowing for continuous gas exchange and transpiration.

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  • 12. 

    Liverwort pores open to what? 

    • A.

      Air chamber

    • B.

      Chlorehyma cells

    • C.

      Air chamber with chlorehyma cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Air chamber with chlorehyma cells
    Explanation
    Liverwort pores open to an air chamber with chlorehyma cells. Liverworts are non-vascular plants that lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Instead, they have simple structures called thalli, which contain pores that open to an air chamber. This air chamber is lined with chlorehyma cells, which are responsible for photosynthesis. The chlorehyma cells allow the liverwort to exchange gases with the environment, taking in carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is air chamber with chlorehyma cells.

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  • 13. 

    In Marchantia reproduction, male and female gametophytes are what

    • A.

      Separate

    • B.

      One

    • C.

      On the same plant

    Correct Answer
    A. Separate
    Explanation
    In Marchantia reproduction, the male and female gametophytes are separate. This means that they are found on different plants. In Marchantia, the male gametophytes produce sperm cells, while the female gametophytes produce egg cells. Since they are separate, the sperm cells need to be transported to the female gametophytes for fertilization to occur. This can happen through the use of water, as Marchantia is a non-vascular plant that relies on water for reproduction.

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  • 14. 

    In liverworts body spaces are filled with what? 

    • A.

      Mucilage

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Air
    Explanation
    In liverworts, the body spaces are filled with air. This is because liverworts have a thallus body structure, which is flat and lacks specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients. The air-filled spaces help in gas exchange, allowing the liverwort to obtain oxygen for respiration and release carbon dioxide. Additionally, the air-filled spaces also provide buoyancy, allowing the liverwort to float on water or moist surfaces.

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  • 15. 

    In hornworts body spaces are filled with what? 

    • A.

      Mucilage

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    A. Mucilage
    Explanation
    In hornworts, the body spaces are filled with mucilage. Mucilage is a slimy substance that is secreted by certain plants. It serves various functions such as providing protection against desiccation, aiding in nutrient absorption, and helping in seed dispersal. In hornworts, mucilage fills the body spaces, allowing the plant to retain moisture and nutrients, and providing support to the structure. This is why mucilage is the correct answer for the question.

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  • 16. 

    What anchors a hornwort to the ground? 

    • A.

      Roots

    • B.

      Rhizoids

    • C.

      Heels

    Correct Answer
    B. Rhizoids
    Explanation
    Rhizoids anchor a hornwort to the ground. Rhizoids are thread-like structures that grow from the base of the hornwort and penetrate the soil. They function similarly to roots in other plants, providing stability and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil. Unlike true roots, rhizoids do not have specialized tissues and are not capable of transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. However, they are sufficient for anchoring the hornwort and enabling it to grow in various terrestrial habitats.

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  • 17. 

    Hornworts can reproduce by fragmentation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hornworts are a type of non-vascular plant that can reproduce through fragmentation. Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a part of the plant breaks off and develops into a new individual. This process allows hornworts to multiply and spread without the need for seeds or spores. Therefore, the statement "hornworts can reproduce by fragmentation" is true.

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  • 18. 

    Hornworts have roots 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Hornworts do not have true roots like other plants. Instead, they have structures called rhizoids that anchor them to the ground and absorb water and nutrients. These rhizoids are simpler and less developed than true roots. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 19. 

    What grows in the mucilage of a hornworts 

    • A.

      Daughter cells

    • B.

      Sperm

    • C.

      N fixing cyanobacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. N fixing cyanobacteria
    Explanation
    N fixing cyanobacteria grow in the mucilage of a hornworts. Hornworts are a type of non-vascular plant that have a symbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria live within the mucilage, a gel-like substance, produced by the hornwort. These cyanobacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere, converting it into a form that the hornwort can use for growth and development. This symbiotic relationship allows the hornwort to obtain essential nutrients, while the cyanobacteria benefit from the shelter and nutrients provided by the plant.

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  • 20. 

    Where do hornworts live? 

    • A.

      On rocks and trees

    • B.

      In water

    • C.

      In most areas

    Correct Answer
    C. In most areas
    Explanation
    Hornworts are a type of non-vascular plant that can be found in a wide range of habitats. They are able to adapt and survive in various environments, including on rocks and trees, in water, and in most areas. This suggests that hornworts have the ability to live in diverse conditions and can be found in many different parts of the world.

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  • 21. 

    What type of bryophyte has only 1 chloroplast cell

    • A.

      Liverworts

    • B.

      Hornworts

    • C.

      Mosses

    Correct Answer
    B. Hornworts
    Explanation
    Hornworts are a type of bryophyte that have only one chloroplast cell. This means that the chloroplast, which is responsible for photosynthesis, is present in a single cell in hornworts. Liverworts and mosses, on the other hand, may have more than one chloroplast cell.

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  • 22. 

    Mature Sporophytes look like brown straight rods

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Mature Sporophytes look like green/black curving rods

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  • 23. 

    The gametophyte stage of a hornwort resembles that of a filmy moss

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    hornworts gametophyte stage looks like a filmy liverworts

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  • 24. 

    Which are ecological importances of mosses 

    • A.

      Reduces soil erosion

    • B.

      Captures water runoff and nutrients

    • C.

      Shelter for microfauna

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Mosses have ecological importance as they reduce soil erosion by holding the soil together with their dense mats. They also capture water runoff and nutrients, preventing them from being washed away. Additionally, mosses provide shelter for microfauna, creating a habitat for small organisms. Therefore, all of the given options are correct in describing the ecological importances of mosses.

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  • 25. 

    The species Sphagnum was used for what 

    • A.

      Potting soil

    • B.

      Bandages in WW1

    • C.

      Fuel source

    Correct Answer
    B. Bandages in WW1
    Explanation
    During World War 1, the species Sphagnum was used for bandages. Sphagnum moss has antiseptic properties and can absorb a large amount of liquid, making it an ideal material for dressing wounds. It was commonly used in medical field hospitals and on the battlefield to treat and prevent infections in soldiers' injuries. The moss would be applied directly to the wound, helping to stop bleeding and promote healing. Its availability and effectiveness made it a valuable resource during the war for medical purposes.

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  • 26. 

    Peat moss was used for what 

    • A.

      Potting soil

    • B.

      Bandages in WW1

    • C.

      Soil additive

    Correct Answer
    C. Soil additive
    Explanation
    Peat moss is commonly used as a soil additive. It helps improve soil structure, retain moisture, and provide nutrients for plants. It is often mixed with other materials to create potting soil or added to garden beds to enhance the soil's fertility. While it is true that peat moss has been used for bandages in WW1 due to its absorbent properties, the primary and most common use of peat moss is as a soil additive.

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  • 27. 

    In bryophytes the "leaves" lack what? 

    • A.

      Mesophyll and stomata

    • B.

      Stomata and veins

    • C.

      Vascular tissue mesophyll and stomata

    • D.

      Veins stomata and mesophyll

    Correct Answer
    D. Veins stomata and mesophyll
    Explanation
    Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that lack true leaves, stems, and roots. Instead, they have structures called phyllids that resemble leaves but lack veins, stomata, and mesophyll. Veins are responsible for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant, stomata are small openings that allow for gas exchange, and mesophyll is the tissue responsible for photosynthesis. Therefore, in bryophytes, these structures are absent, making the answer "veins, stomata, and mesophyll" correct.

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  • 28. 

    In mosses, large transparent cells store what 

    • A.

      Nutrients

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Water
    Explanation
    In mosses, large transparent cells store water. Mosses are non-vascular plants that rely on the absorption and retention of water for their survival. These large transparent cells, known as hyaline cells, have the ability to store water within their vacuoles. This stored water is essential for mosses to maintain their hydration levels and carry out various physiological processes. Additionally, the stored water helps mosses withstand dry conditions and prevents desiccation.

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  • 29. 

    Small PSN cells are sandwiched between what? 

    • A.

      Large cells

    • B.

      Stomata

    • C.

      Air vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    A. Large cells
    Explanation
    Small PSN cells are sandwiched between large cells because the small PSN cells are located in the middle layer of the leaf called the mesophyll. The mesophyll is composed of two layers: the upper palisade layer, which consists of tightly packed columnar cells, and the lower spongy layer, which contains loosely arranged irregularly shaped cells. The small PSN cells are found in the spongy layer, which is sandwiched between the upper and lower layers of large cells. This arrangement allows for efficient gas exchange and light absorption in the leaf.

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  • 30. 

    ___________ mosses are capable of "drying out" or having their "leaves" fold up around the stem. They are know to desiccate and rehydrate cycle with the environment conditions 

    Correct Answer
    Hibernating, hibernating

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  • Mar 22, 2023
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