Theory: Evidence-based Dog Training

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 68

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Theory: Evidence-based Dog Training - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    OhMyDog stands for Evidence-based, Least Invasive Method Available, and Great client experience. What does 'Evidence-based' mean?
    • A. 

      We only advise methods that have been formally researched and published in the scientific peer-reviewed literature. 

    • B. 

      We believe that there are always two sides to a story, and evaluate every dog behaviour claim with an open mind.

    • C. 

      No bullshit: no argument to ideology, tradition, or authority We can defend our choice of exercise/advice with critical thinking, sound logic and reliable sources of information.

  • 2. 
    Complementary and Alternative Medicine does not pass scientific scrutiny. When examined systematically, research does not reveal much specific efficacy beyond the placebo effect. Which topics below are considered CAM? Choose as many as you want.
    • A. 

      Homeopathy

    • B. 

      Reiki

    • C. 

      Massage

    • D. 

      Chiropractics

    • E. 

      Physiotherapy

    • F. 

      Commercial Dog Appeasing Pheromones

    • G. 

      Most over the counter herbs (except for Valerian- and St John's Wart-based herbs, among others)

    • H. 

      Relaxation exercises

    • I. 

      Tellington Touch massages

    • J. 

      Anti-vaccination movement

    • K. 

      Osteopathy

  • 3. 
    Evidence-based dog training means
    • A. 

      We trust claims about dog behaviour with an open mind 

    • B. 

      We evaluatie the likelihood of a claim about dog behaviour critically. 

  • 4. 
    Evidence-based dog training means:
    • A. 

      We learn to sharpen our bullshit detectors, we learn bullshit red flags. 

    • B. 

      Even if a claim has lots of red flags, we put a lot of weight in the client's claimed positive results with the intervention. 

  • 5. 
    Evidence-based dog training means:
    • A. 

      We get our information from as broad a spectrum as possible: TV, internet, books, people's experience. 

    • B. 

      We learn what makes a source of information reliable, and get our information from the most reliable sources available. 

  • 6. 
    Evidence-based means:
    • A. 

      We speak with authority and confidence to the clients: after all, we've checked our facts. The clients don't need to know how we got to our conclusions/advice.

    • B. 

      We transparently share our reasoning behind advising for certain interventions. We do not play the "Trust me, I am a professional" card when the client asks questions. 

  • 7. 
    Why is Evidence-Based important at OhMyDog? Pick the one INCORRECT statement. 
    • A. 

      It protects us from accidentally advising for inefficient interventions, or making untrue claims to the client.

    • B. 

      It contributes to our reputation as the provider of serious, well-researched, reliable, information and efficient and intelligeng advice.

    • C. 

      It makes us sound like scientists, which is central to our marketing strategy. 

  • 8. 
    To act in an evidence-based way, in a situation where you have no answer, what do you do? 
    • A. 

      You give an answer, any answer, sounding authoritative and confident, and using scientific and technical jargon. You then check later and correct the next week if you were wrong. It is important that we appear knowledgeable.

    • B. 

      You tell the client that it's an interesting point/question, and that you'll research it and get back to them.

  • 9. 
    When asked about THE OhMyDog method, you explain
    • A. 

      We have no method. We have ethical (LIMA), commercial (happy client) and methodological (Evidence-based) guidelines. Having a fixed trademarked methods would be an incentive to resist new evidence. 

    • B. 

      The OhMyDog method is based on well-established best practices and research, and is therefore reliable and efficient. 

  • 10. 
    You have found an interesting research paper/summary of a research paper. You want to share the relevant findings with the clients. What do you say?
    • A. 

      Scientists say that... 

    • B. 

      Science/research says that...

    • C. 

      It is scientifically proven that...

    • D. 

      An interesting research paper seems to support the idea that...

  • 11. 
    What is the pyramid of evidence?
    • A. 

      A list of information sources (e.g. the internet, experienced dog owners, etc.), sorted in order of how reliable the information they provide is likely to be. 

    • B. 

      A list of specific research papers, books and websites, sorted in order of how reliable the information they provide is likely to be. 

    • C. 

      A list of authors, scientists and professionals, sorted in order of how reliable the information they provide is likely to be. (e.g. Cesar Milan, Jean Donaldson, etc.)

  • 12. 
    You have heard that something is well backed up by a scientific paper, but you haven't read it, nor could you find the name of its authors/the text to save your life. 
    • A. 

      You tell the client anyway, looking as though you know which research paper is concerned. No one is going to check and it is a good opportunity for OhMyDog to position themselves as an authoritative source of scientific information. 

    • B. 

      You tell the client that you are not 100% sure about what the exact paper is, but that you've heard about it. Later, you make a genuine effort to find the paper/a reliable summary of it, and you read it

  • 13. 
    A sharp bullshit detector uses the knowledge that, as humans, our judgment and assumptions are flawed by (select as many correct answers as possible). 
    • A. 

      Logical fallacies

    • B. 

      Cognitive biases

    • C. 

      Strong opinions

  • 14. 
    What is a cognitive bias?
    • A. 

      A way of thinking that relies a lot on mental discipline. 

    • B. 

      The assumption that we are more correct than we in fact are. 

    • C. 

      A misleading psychological assumption, an unconscious mental shortcut that leads us to the wrong conclusions

  • 15. 
    What is a logical fallacy?
    • A. 

      Rules of logic that we should be aware of to get to the right conclusion.

    • B. 

      An error in our logic that leads us to draw incorrect conclusions

    • C. 

      Reasoning that appears illogical, but that is in fact logically sound

  • 16. 
    Why is post hoc ergo procter hoc a logical fallacy? What is it misleading? Pick the INCORRECT answer. 
    • A. 

      Because, if you allow yourself to think like that, then saying this is also reasonable: “My dog saw my mom yesterday. Today he is sick. Therefore seeing my mom made him sick”. 

    • B. 

      Because many health problems have long incubation times. The dog could have come into contact with the cause weeks ago, and only now be showing the problem today. 

    • C. 

      Because there are always lots of different causes for a problem, so saying that only one (e.g. vaccination) caused the dog's health problem is not completely correct. 

  • 17. 
    Which jargon below is a bullshit red flag? Pick as many correct answers as you want.
    • A. 

      Correlation

    • B. 

      Natural

    • C. 

      Energy

    • D. 

      Transparent

    • E. 

      Evidence-based

    • F. 

      Chemical

  • 18. 
    Among the claims below, pick the ones that are pseudoscientific, or at least disputable (pick as many as you like)
    • A. 

      Raw food lends significant health benefits and carries no health risk to the consumer

    • B. 

      Genetically modified food carries significant health risks to the consumer.

    • C. 

      The preventive use of anti-biotics in meat carries demonstrable and significant health risks to the consumer.

    • D. 

      Gluten carries significant health risks to the average, healthy consumer.

    • E. 

      Pet food products coming from China carry more health risks because of less stringent control laws. 

    • F. 

      Cheap, supermarket brand pet food is equally nutritionally sound than the major brands

    • G. 

      Organic food lends demonstrable and significant health benefits to the consumer

  • 19. 
    Being very open-minded, or credulous, is a virtue. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Extraordinary claims require
    • A. 

      Extraordinary evidence

    • B. 

      Ordinary evidence

  • 21. 
    What is CAM?
    • A. 

      Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    • B. 

      Complementary and Acupuntural Medicine

    • C. 

      Chiropractical and Acupunctural Medicine

  • 22. 
    Why does do CAM interventions carry such an appeal if they are demonstrably ineffective? Pick the INCORRECT answer
    • A. 

      Effect of time: the patient would have gone better anyway. It was the disease course. This is why chronic relapsing/remitting disease patients are particularly drawn to CAM.

    • B. 

      Placebo (by proxy) effect: The owner believes to see signs of improvement which aren't there. By virtue of having administered the medication. 

    • C. 

      The quality time and physical contact aspects of CAM can carry therapeutic benefits (e.g. massage aspects of Tellington Touch), rather than their claimed therapeutic benefits of the CAM rituals. 

    • D. 

      Because they work. Science doesn't know everything. We must encourage clients to follow their desire to explore alternative solutions if modern veterinary medicine is letting them down. 

    • E. 

      Because people with a dog suffering from a treatment-resistant disease like some forms of cancer are desperate for a solution and feel that modern medicine let them down. But just because modern treatments can't help you doesn't mean that magic pills work.

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